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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEYIEW 



January 1 



JUST PURLl'^HED 

THE ARMOR OF 
LIGHT 

SHORT SERMONS 

ON THE EPISTLES 

FOR 

EVERY SUNDAY IN THE YEAR 

BY 

THE REV. J. J. BURKE 

Cloth, 8vo., VIII and 228 pages, 
net $1.50 

' ' The Armor of Light' ' is a book that 
will be a valuable aid to the busy priest. 
It is a series of short sermons on tiie 
Sunday Epistles. While sermon books 
on the Gospels are numerous, books of 
sermons on the Epistles are rare. 

Although the fifty-eight sermons are 
based on the Epistles of the various Sun- 
day's and Holydays such interesting, prac- 
tical and instructive subjects are treated 
as "Our Faithful Friend," "The Law 
of Love, " " Spiritual Jov, " " Persecu- 
tors," "Paul, The Victor," "The Ac- 
ceptable Time, " " The Crown of Eternal 
Life,' ' ' ' Types and Prophecies, ' ' 
"Peace," "'Duties of a Christian," 
"Conscience," "Prudence," "The 
Christian Soldier," "Disloyalty," 
"Idols," "Vocations." "The'Pr-i^e 
and Glory of God," "The Christian War- 
fare," "The Triumph of Keligiou." 

The book contains a great variety of 
practical sermons on doctrinal and moral 
subjects. It is for the Epistles what 
' ' The Great Problem, " by the same 
author, is for the Gospels. 

Of "The Great Problem" the Ave 
Maria said : ' ' The reverend author aimed 
:it and attained brevity and clearness. 
This volume is likely to receive a welcome 
from that great army of priests who are 
.always looking for something new and 
good in the matter of sermon-books." 

These words and similar criticisms of 
♦ ' The Catholic World, " ' ' America ' ' and 
other papers are also applicable to 
' ' The Armor of Light. ' ' 



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The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, Xo. 1 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI January 1st, 1926 




CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



A New Internationalism 

We love to think of the IMiddle Ages 
as par excellence, the time when men 
went about from land to land to pursue 
their studies. Individual students to- 
day may not wander al)Out in as many 
different countries. The passing of 
Latin as a spoken tongue — the lingua 
franca of educated men — has made in- 
ternational study much harder. But 
since the World War America has been 
sharing in the ex?hange of students as 
never before. And it may be that we 
have begrn in a tiny way to revive the 
international journeyman. A Baltimore 
machinist, William Ross, is going to 
Raskin, the labor college at Oxford, 
this winter, and a Danzig wood turner, 
Horst Berenz, is coming to Brookwoocl, 
the labor college at Katonah, N. Y. The 
colleges will give these students free 
tuition and liviniz'. Their OAvn trade 
organizations will supjily tlie mone\' 
for their journeys. Every new scheme 
of the sort puts us a little farther along 
the road to a friendlier Avorld. 

Variety in Unity 

Tlie notion still lingers that Rome, 
the guardian of unity, is a stickler for 
uniformity. Yet the truth is that no- 
where else in Christendom can so much 
variety of ritual and devotional prac- 
tice be found as in the Eternal City. 
Even in St. Peter's, where the Vicar of 
Christ proclaims articles of faith whi2h 
the whole Church is bound to accept in 
their plain sense, without the snudlest 
shred of private interpretation, there 
is immense latitude in non-essentials. 
A liturgiologist in search of a full and 
precise norm for tlie collection of prac- 
tices which we conveniently call the 
Roman Rite would not find it in the 
Vatican Basilica. That great church 



has its own, very ancient version of the 
Psalter, and Avhen the Sovereign Pontiff 
sings ]\Iass over the tomb of St. Peter 
on a high feast day, many things are 
said and done whi^h are abnormal. 
While in ordinary Masses according to 
the Roman rite no Greek words have 
survived except Kyrie eleison and some 
archaic phrases on Go'^-d Fri'^lav. the 
Pope's Mass requires the solemn dec- 
lamation of the Epistle and Gospel in 
Greek as Avell as in Latin. And tti«^''e 
are many other special items in the St. 
Peter's use. 

Mithraism and Christianity 

The Rev. A. S. Gelden, D. D., an 
Anglican minister, has translated 
"Select Passages Illustrating Mithra- 
ism" (S. P. C. K.), ranging from ex- 
tracts from the Vedas to iVrmenian 
Avriters of the fifth century and his- 
torians of the later Byzantine Empire. 

Mithra seems to have started as an 
Elamite God of light. His worship 
spread by about 1,000 B. C. both into 
tl;e Hittite empire and to northern In- 
dia. Apart from the scattered notices 
in Herodotus and one or two other 
early Greek writers, the cvlt of Mi^h^-a 
does not seem to have been known by, 
and certainly had not penetrated to, the 
We>'tprn AVor d unt^'l after the es- 
tablishment of the Roman Empire, 
"then Mithra came in, and along with 
other Oriental deH^es. filled the '^^'-^ es 
left by the discredited Greek and Ro- 
man gods. In his passage from east 
to west Mithra underwent many 
changes and took on the character of a 
saviour god approached through secret 
mj^steries. His worship seems to have 
been affected by the cult of the Phry- 
gian Attis and Cybele. In the third 
centurv he became involved in the uni- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



versal sun-worship of dying paganism. 
His mysteries were spread by soldiers 
and merchants through the ancient 
world, and at one time Mithra seems 
to have competed with Christ for the 
Empire; but an exclusive cult (men 
onl}^ could be initiates) the origin of 
whose god was lost in legend and vague- 
ness, could not withstand the universal 
religion of the hi torical Christ. 

A large number of the notices col- 
lected by Dr. Gelclcn are drawn from 
enemies of Mithra, l)ut in spite of the 
charges brought against his cult, 
Mithraism does seem to have taught a 
highly ethical personal religion. It 
offered to men what they most crave 
for, salvation from sin, eternal life, and 
union with God. It need not surprise 
us, therefore to find certain paral-el- 
isms between the initiatory rites of 
Mithraism and the Christian Sacra- 
ments, and we need not go so far as 
some Christian writers do who assert 
that these rites were diabolic imitations. 
We can see in Mithraism a certain light 
before the dawn. AVhat men sought for 
dimly in Mithraism, thev have found 
completely in Catholic Christianity. 

The Present Task of Historical 
Scholarship 

We are indebted to the Catholic His- 
torical Association for a reprint, in 
pamphlet form, of the presidential ad- 
dress delivered by the late Henry Jones 
Ford at the fifth annual meeting of 
that organization in Philadelphia. 

Under the somewhat vague title, "A 
Change in Climate," Dr. Ford shows 
how the quest for historic truth has 
grown more and more eager and honest 
among historians since Gibbon and 
Robertson and Macaulav made a breach 
in the wall of post-Reformation prej- 
udice, and how the principles laid 
down by Leo XIII in his famous letter 
to Cardinal Hcrgenrother et aJ. are 
now almost universa ly anplied. Mean- 
while, however, the task confronting 
histori al scholarship has become truly 
formidable, and "for a long time to 
come the principal occupation of stu- 
dents will be what Mr. Belloc has aptlA' 
characterized as 'spade work.' There 



is a vast deposit of error to be remov- 
ed. There is a vast amount of new 
material to be dug up and brought to 
light. It is work of this kind, rather 
than the prepara'^ion of large-scale his- 
tory, which must for the present occupy 
the time and effort of schoars. I think 
the editors of the 'Cambridge Modern 
History' are right in saying that 'ul- 
timate history cannot be obtained in 
this generation.' The work of greatest 
importance is the collection and veri- 
fication of historical material." 

It is consoliug to knoAv that (yath- 
olics are beginning to do their share of 
this important Avork. 

The Rule of the Third Order 

The Xational Organization of the 
Third Order of St. Francis in the 
United States, which has its head- 
quarters at 1615 Vine Str., Cincinnati, 
0., informs us that "a project of great 
moment to Tertiaries, the production of 
a standai'd English ti-anslation of the 
Rule of the Third Order Secular, has 
been heartily endorsed by the provin- 
cial superiors of the country. They 
have appointed Fathers to select or 
prepare translations, from which a 
suedal committee wi'.l make a selec- 
tion." 

We fear this special committee will 
have a bigger job on its hands than its 
members anticipate. Father Fidentius 
A"an den Borne, 0. F. M., has but re- 
cently shoAvn, in his liook, "Die An- 
fange des franziskanischen Dritten Or- 
dens" (Franziskanische Studien, Bei- 
heft 8, Mlinster i. W., 1925) that the 
text of tlae rule of the Third Order is 
in a bad way. It cannot be traced 
beyond the year 1221, and the present 
versions are nothing but more or less 
successful attempts at reconstructing 
the original, which is lost. Wyngaert 
(Arclu m-anc. Hist., XIII, 192J, 3 ff. ) 
doubts whether chapters VI to XII of 
the reconstructed versions formed i\ 
part of the original rule at all. 

Before the genuine text has been 
restored, it seems somewhat premature 
to attempt a standard English version 
of this important document. 



1926 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 7 

EVOLUTION IN THE LIGHT OF GEOLOGY 

With Special Reference to Dr. Barry O'Toole's "The Case Against 

Evolution" 

By the Rev. Stephen Richarz, S. V. D., Professor of Geoiogy, 
St. Mary's Mission House, Techny, Illinois 



III (Conclusion) 

The record of fossils in the history of 
the earth strong-ly suggests the hypo- 
thesis of an evolution in the organic 
world. There seems to be no other way 
to account for the continuous appear- 
ance and disappearance of plants and 
animals. Therefore, "there is at i)resent 
hardly a single anthropologist or pale- 
ontologist of any standing, Catholic or 
non-Catholic, who is opposed to evolu- 
tion," says Fr. Wilh. Schmidt, S. V. 
D. ("Die Uroffenbarung als Anfang 
der Offenbarungen Gottes, '" p. 51, in 
"Religion und Christentum," Kemp- 
ten und Munich, 1912). Father 
Schmidt is recognized as one of our 
foremost authorities and is well ac- 
quainted with the entire literature on 
this question. He includes in his state- 
ment the application of evolution to the 
body of man, a problem with which we 
are, at present, not concerned and 
which can be separated from a dis- 
cussion of evolution in general. 

If* thus the acceptance of evolution 
in the organic world seems to be un- 
avoidable,— at least, until a l)etter and 
more convincing explanation of the 
facts can be given, — it does not follow 
that we are able to understand the pro- 
cess of evolution, its causes and con- 
ditions. On the contrary', we are very 
far from such an understanding, and 
the difficulties become insurmountable 
as soon as we enter into details. The 
field is open for speculation and lofty 
hypotheses. And thus it happens that 
many who are not acquainted with the 
foundation of the evolutionary theory, 
partly on account of these difficulties, 
partly on account of current exaggera- 
tions, and parti}' because of the ma- 
terialistic tendenc}^ of so many ad- 
herents of evolution, condemn and re- 
ject the theory altogether. Nothing 
could be more unscientific and illogical. 



If the foundation is solid, no difficulty 
can destroy the edifice. 

Dr. 'Toole deals with some of the 
"flaws" of the evolution theory. On 
page 7() of his book, for instance, he 
speaks of a "descendant" turning out 
to be older than his "ancestor." This 
only shows that the interpretation as to 
who was the ancestor and who the 
descendant, was wrong ; the theory' it- 
self is not affected. The occurrence of 
convergence (p. 77) is indeed em- 
barrassing to speculative evolutionists 
and has more than once caused wrong 
interpretations of phylogeny. It is a 
warning against far-reaching specula- 
tions, but, again, it does not discredit 
evolution as such. The discontinuity 
of the geological record (pp. 80 ff.) is 
another crux rendering many deduc- 
tions of paleontologists uncertain. But, 
on the other hand, gradational series 
are known in nearly all groups of the 
animal kingdom, and they show rela- 
tions which can hardly be exi)lained in 
any other way than by evolution. Even 
though it can not always be shown that 
the members of such a series are re- 
lated by immediate descendance, still 
the gradual changes in subsequent for- 
mations strongly point to a process of 
transmutation. The so-called pedigree 
of the horse, a famous instance of such 
a series, proved to be no genuine pedi- 
gree, but it contains parallel members, 
— cousins as it were, — and the develop- 
ment of the toes and teeth excludes any 
other explanation except that given by 
evolution. Also the strength of the 
arguments from mutation in the proper 
sense, that is from small variations 
from horizon to horizon of a period, can 
not be discredited by the exceptions 
wliich undeniai)ly occur. It would be 
dangerous to reconstruct the whole 
series of evolution from such variations. 
But in connection with stratigraphy, 



8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



such observations, if applied with dis- 
cretion, are very valnal)le. By the 
M^ay, Ceratites can not be opposed to 
Ammonites, because they form a dis- 
tinct genus of this large fami.y. There- 
fore, it is meaningless to assert that 
"the fossil Ceratites have no genetic 
connection with Ammonites" (0 'Toole, 
p. 86) ; they are themselves Ammonites. 

The imperfect state of preservation 
of fossils (p. 89) is another handicap 
for speculative evolutionists. But it 
does not call in (question evolution it- 
self. There are plenty of known fossil 
organisms, as evervone studving o'n- 
large museums Avill find, and their 
Ijreservation is, as a whole, sufficient to 
base on them the theory of evolution. 
On the other hand, the imperfect state 
of preservation as well as the sterility 
of extensive sedimentary deposits very 
often prohibits a going into details. 
That in such cases some s.i ntists have 
"reconstructed," with more fancy than 
knowledge, is a fact dejjlored bv their 
soberer colleagues. But that again can- 
not discredit evolution, although it is 
the source of much confusion and o^i- 
position to the theory. Once in a while 
even true savants reconstruct fossils, 
but they are very particular to point 
out what they have observed and what 
they have added. 

Dr. 'Toole deals at some length (p. 
112 If.) with the geographical distribu- 
tion of fossils, from which, in fact, very 
valuable arguments are drawn by pale- 
ontologists in favor of evolution. These 
arguments can not be minimized by 
pointing out the difficulties experienced 
in bringing together the continents in 
whijh similar fossils are found. The 
quotation from Coleman (0 'Toole, p. 
114) i^ certainlv not the last word on 
this intricate problem. There are many 
causes which could account for a for- 
mer connection of the continents in 
question. One explanation, e. g., as- 
s mes that America drifted away from 
Europe and Africa, India from Africa 
and Australia. Another view supposes 
a wandering of the earth's crust as a 
who e, so that the noles Avould be 
located in various continents at varii"s 
periods, and the ecpiator would describe 



a greater circle around the earth than 
it does to-day. This theorj^ was pro- 
posed and worked out with much 
acumen by Father Damian Kreich- 
gauer, S. V. D. Such a wandering of 
the earth's crust would seriously dis- 
turb the isostasy of that crust and, as 
a necessary consequence, continents 
Avould l)e submera'ed and large stretches 
of sea changed into dry land. 

As to the size of extinct animals, 
Carl Diener writes: "Gaudry and 
Deperet have shown b.y many examples, 
mostly mammals, that the development 
of a series starts with small forms, .... 
whereas at the end of the series we find 
the largest reoresentatives." "Paliion- 
tologie und Abstammuugslehre," 2nd. 
ed., 1920, p. 114). The same learnel 
scientist (he is professor of paleon- 
tology at the University of Vienna) 
says that the rule in question is not an 
unrestricted one, as a decrease of di- 
mensions has been observed, e. g., in 
elephants, the pleistocene mammoth 
being smaller than the late Tertiary 
Southern e ephant. But Diener finds 
in thi'5 fact no argument against evolu- 
tion, as Toole (p. 116) doss. There 
is certainly no intrinsic reason why the 
oldest forms should be smaller; if 
paleontologists state that it often so 
liappens, they merely acknowledge the 
fact, without basing the theory of 
evolution on it. 

The last "discrepancy between fossil 
fact and evolutionary assumption is the 
indubitable jiersistence of unchanged 
organii' types from the ear'iest geolog- 
ical epochs to the present time" 
(0 'Toole, p. 116) . That the occurrence 
of persistent types is indubitable 
jnerely illustrates how little we know 
about the process of evolution, but it 
])roves no discrepancy betwe n facts 
and theory. The evolution of organ- 
isms does not imply an equal transfor- 
mation of the whole organic life. Some 
spe;i"s may change ranidly, some very 
slowlv, some not at al. Evolution is 
certainly no mechanical process reg- 
ulated solely by surrounding condi- 
tions, but also, and perhaps much more. 
by the interior disposition of the or- 
ganism (the vital principle of the 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



S.hulastiL'sj, and as we can not under- 
stand the mysteries of this vital prin- 
ciple, we are far from fathoming the 
mysteries of evolution. In this regard a 
Catnoiic evoiULioniot is far removed 
from materialism, since he is strongly 
opposed to all parely mechanistic ex- 
planations and see-; teleology every- 
where, even though he can not under- 
stand in what it may consist in detail. 
It is a misunderstanding which leads 
Dr. O'l'ooie to assert that the geolo- 
gist "uses the absence of modern types 
as an express criterion of age" (p. 
116). Some such rule was followed by 
Lyeli for the I'erLiary pcj-ind, l)ut every 
geologist knows that it admits of many 
exceptions, and no one would tniuK of 
applying it indiscriminate!}'. 

Another mistake of Dr. 'Toole's is 
this, 'i'he first organisms we knOAv in 
some detail already shoAv a high state 
of development. "lor this reason," 
writes 'Toole (page 117), "geologists 
are beginning to relegate tlie evolu- 
tionary process to unknown depths, be- 
low the explored portion of the 'geolog- 
ical column.' " No, not for that rea- 
son alone ; there are many other reasons 
which point to life in "these unfath- 
omed profundities." A short time 
ago fossil algae were described from 
the Archean of the Lake Superior re- 
gion. These are separated by the Pro- 
terozic or better Algonkian systems 
from the first well preserved fossils 
which appear abruptly in the Cambrian 
period. The Algonkian formations are 
of an enormous thickness and prob- 
ably of a longer duration than all the 
Paieozoic formations put together. Heie 
again Dr. 'Toole is using unreliable 
data. Not "all the great invertebrate 
tjqjes" are found in rocks of the Pro- 
terozoic group. AVhat is known of 
invertebrates is restricted to trails of 
burrowing worms and to fragments of 
small (not large) crustaceans. No 
brachiopods, no protozoa, nor any other 
remains of invertebrates have ever been 
found. Therefore, we do not know any- 
thing of the development of life in 
these long periods, either positively or 
negatively. This is a handicap for evo- 



lution, but it would be illogical to con- 
strue it into an argument against the 
theor}'. Even though the beginnings 
of life and the earlier stages of its 
cleve-opment are unknown to us, yet 
the higher stages are there, and there 
is Clearly visioie a progress wnioh can 
not be explained away. 

The chapter on Fossil Pedigrees is 
the most important in Dr. 'Toole's 
book, because it deals with the very 
foundations of the evolution theory. 
From another chapter, which also 
touches geological questions, the Or- 
igin of the Human Body, only a few 
trifles may he mentioned. One who cites 
from Kanke and Bumiiller should in- 
dicate whether the first or second edi- 
tion is used, because both authors 
completely changed their opinion on 
Pleistocene man in consequence of im- 
portant new finds. Bumiiller 's second 
edition contains views which are in 
Diany important points diametrically 
opposed to those expressed in the first 
edition. For the same reason one should 
not cite savings by Virdiow which date 
back to the time previous to these dis- 
coveries. A quotation from Obermaier 
dating back to 1905 (0 'Toole, p. 342) 
certainly gives a false impression of 
that scholar's present position, which 
is strongly in favor of evolution. 

On pages 289 and 290, Dr. 'Toole 
speaks of the absolute age of man. Here 
we find several mistakes on one page. 
Gerard de Geer nowhere gives 20,000 
j'Cars for the commencement of recent 
oj' postglacial time ; he deals only with 
the time which has elapsed since the 
ice left Southern Sweden. According 
to de Geer, the postglacial time, prop- 
erly speaking, started 7,000 years ago. 
The cutting of the Niagara Gorge, 
according to later and more care- 
ful researches, required a longer 
time than seven thousand years, as 
calculated by C. F. Wright. It is not 
scientific to quote the lowest figures 
which are found in literature without 
mentioning their unreliability. Dr. 
'Toole does not tell us whence he has 
the information that Father Obermaier 
dates the first appearance of man on 



10 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BE VIEW 



January 1 



earth 30,000 years back. In his monn- 
mental work "Der Menseh der Vor- 
zeit" (Berlin, 1912) Dr. Oberraaier 
says: "The fossil from Mauer . . . . 
forces us to assume at least one hun- 
dred thousand years from the first ap- 
pearance of man in Europe. Personally 
1 am convinced that we have to reckon 
vrith even higher numbers'" (p. 337). 

From the foregoing exceptions it is 
to be seen that Dr. O 'Toole is not re- 
liable when he deals with geologic 
questions. The weakest feature of his 
book is that he reproduces the views 
of a man who misinterprets the geolog- 
ical and paleontological facts on 
which all evolutionary theories must 
needs be based, — the sequence of fos- 
sils in the geologic record and their 
value as time-markers, as agreed upon 
by all geologists the wor.d over. Dr. 
'Toole offers to support all citations 
from "The New Geology'' by collat- 
eral testimony from other authors of 
recognized standing. As a matter of 
fact, the authors cited do not endorse 
the views of Price. One single quota- 
tion seems to be favorable, but only 
because the decisive parts of the re- 
port of the geologist in question are 
left out. Dr. 'Toole's other objec- 
tions are partly based on a misinter- 
pretation of facts, partly he construes 
the difficulties encountered in the ex- 
planation of the evolutionary process 
into arguments against evolution itself. 

Nobody can expect that one should 
master three entirely different subjects, 
each requiring a special training : phil- 
osophy, biology, and geology. But why 
not separate the subject matter and 
have it treated by three separate spec- 
ialists, who could exchange views and 
co-operate in writing a really author- 
itative book on evolution? Such a book 
is urgently needed. Evolution is an im- 
portant question which can not be 
pushed aside by remarks like this: 
"Evolution, as the man in the street 
understands it, is materialistic, there- 
fore, it must be rejected." That is not 
logical. Evolution does not impl}* ma- 



terialism, although it is often taught 
with a materialistic tendency. The 
question is : Is the evolutionary theory 
wrong, or is it a probable hypothesis! 
And this question cannot be decided by 
pointing to difficulties which evomtion- 
ists experience in accounting for the 
whole process of evolution, nor by de- 
crying the mistakes and overhasty con- 
clusions of some scientists. Above all 
there is needed a clear insight into the 
arguments and an unbiased mind 
searching for the truth. This is all 
the more required in a country where 
even the fundamentals of geology are 
banished from the general education of 
clergy and laity. Evolution is above 
all a geologic question ; it is from geol- 
ogy that evolutionists draw their main 
arguments, and without the discovery 
of the fossil world no biologist would 
probably ever have thought of evolu- 
tion. 

In the mean time I received from the 
Geological Survc}^ of Canada geologic 
maps concerning the famous over- 
thrusts, mentioned in No. 23, F. R., 
p. 488. These maps bring out with great 
clearness the ineonf ormity of the form- 
ations below and above the thrust 
plane. The fault lines — there are two, 
at some places three, running parallel 
to one another — are visible for a dis- 
tance of about 60 miles, cutting through 
various formations, bringing practical- 
ly all these formations somewhere along 
this line in contact. The cross sections 
added to the maps and taken at A'ari- 
ous places reveal the ineonformity, if 
possible, with even greater evidence. 
The overthrust took place along planes 
inclined 70" and more. The bedding 
of the older layers above and of the 
younger ones below these planes is 
very far from being parallel, nor is 
this bedding parallel to the overthrust 
planes. In the five sections given they 
deviate considerably from parallelity, 
although one of them was taken three 
1c four miles north of the Bow River 
Gap mentioned by Mr. McCready Price 
and Dr. 'Toole. In the light of these 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



11 



facts it is shear folly to speak of 
a conformity and, ignoring the facts, 
discredit the entire chronology of the 
organic world of the past. 



Notes and Gleanings 



Certain Roman newspapers are 
waging a lively campaign for the adop- 
tion of Latin as an auxiliary world 
language. The Messagero lately even 
published a patent medicine advertise- 
ment in Latin. Part of it reads: "Me- 
dicamentum nostris paratum officinis. 
Longa scientiae pervestigatione acqui- 
situm. Cert a suavique sua efficacia 
contra acutas loyigasque intestiiuiles oh- 
structiones j^otissimum. Nihil detri- 
menti aliis corporis monhris affert, 
etc. . . ." 



Since \^Titing our recent note on 
Negro Catholics and higher education 
(F. R., Vol. XXXII, No. 19), we have 
learned, what we did not know at the 
time, that two Colored boys are study- 
ing at St. Ignatius College (John Car- 
roll University) and one Colored boy 
at St. Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, 0., 
which was thrown open to Negroes not 
long ago b^^ Bishop Schrembs. We have 
furthermore learned, to our genuine 
gratification, that the preparatory 
seminary of the Archdiocese of New 
York last year accepted its first Colored 
student for the priesthood. So that, 
in spite of everything, we are making 
some progress towards the solution of 
the Negro problem in its relation to the 
Catholic Church. 



The Bishop of Poitiers, France, ap- 
parently^ shares some of the misgivings 
of our esteemed collaborator, Fr. Bede 
Maler, 0. S. B. (F. R., XXXII, 21, pp. 
450 sq.). In a recent pastoral letter he 
calls attention to the fact that "the 
veneration which we give to the saints 
implies a certain hierarchical order in- 
dicated by reason and confirmed by the 
spirit of the Church. There are general 
devotions, which hold first place, such 
as the devotion to the Sacred Heart, to 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, to St. Joseph. 
Next come national, diocesan, and local 



devotions . . . These rank before all 
others in the parishes, and we ask the 
pastors to awaken, encourage, and in- 
crease these devotions among the faith- 
ful."' To avoid the return of certain 
abuses, the Bishop announces that he 
Avill henceforth not authorize the erec- 
tion in churches and chapels of any 
statues of saints in response to private 
devotion, no matter how popular and 
legitimate they may be, until the 
general devotions mentioned in his 
pastoral letter are properly taken care 



Miss Josephine Brownson, a grand- 
daughter of the late Dr. Orestes A. 
Brownson, says in a letter to America 
that five of the twenty volumes of her 
grandfather's writings are now out of 
print and the remaining copies, to- 
gether with the plates, are at 1440 
Seyburn Ave., Detroit, Mich., awaiting 
intending purchasers. It is a pity that 
a good selection from Dr. Brownson 's 
writings cannot be published in, say, 
five or six volumes, at a reasonable 
price. That eminent convert's best 
works do not deserve the oblivion into 
which thev have fallen. 



The Month (No. 787), in a review of 
Mrs. Monteith Erskine's book, "Sex 
at Choice" (cfr. F. R., XXXII, 21, p. 
447), praises the author for her out- 
spoken condemnation of artificial birth 
control, but thinks her method of deter- 
mining the sex of offspring is an exam- 
ple of "the fallacy of the even chance." 
Mrs. Erskine, the critic says, "does 
not realize that even if in twenty con- 
secutive cases, eighteen boys and two 
girls are born, the chance of a boy or 
girl under identical circumstances may 
not be nine to one in favor of a boy, but 
an even chance of either. To establish 
the existence of a bias of nine to one in 
favor of a boy, it Avould be necessary 
to tabulate 10,000 series of twenty 
cases, and to show that the number 
occurring most frequently, in the series 
of 10,000, was eighteen boys and two 
girls. That in itself is a mystery, 
recognized by students of the Binomial 
Theorem. ' ' 



12 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



THE NEW YEAR 



By F. E. Arcmherg 



A uew-born year 

Again is here ; 
With happy hearts we hail it. 

What will it bear — 

Content or care? 
Could we but now unveil it! 

Sweet peace we trace 

On its fair face, 
And hours ot mirth and gladness; 

And days of glee — 

Fond reverie — 
Nor one grim line of sadness. 

But come more near: 

A vision drear — 
Its smiles give way to weeping; 

Yes, tears must flow 

When loved ones go — 
Death ceases not his reaping. 

Thus smiles and tears 

And hopes and fears, 
The year to all shall tender. 

if grief — we'll bless, 

If joy — confess 
The Wisdom of the Sender. 



Correspondence 



Religion in the Schools 

To the Editor: — 

In the F. R. for Dee. 1st there was an 
article on "Religious Schools the Only Solu- 
tion. ' ' The author blames the Tennessee laiv 
against evolution. Is that law wrong? The 
public schools of to-day claim to be neutral 
in religious matters. But they are not and 
never have been neutral. Religious instruc- 
tion is and was forbidden. Instruction must 
he religious or it will be anti-religious. The 
representatives of the people of Tennessee 
made a law forbidding the teaching of mater- 
ialistic evolution. If the State has the right 
to conduct schools, it has a right to say what 
shall be taught therein. 

As a matter of fact the State has no right 
to conduct schools. That right has been 
given by the highest authority, Our Divine 
Saviour, to the Church, to whom He promised 
His assistance to the end of time. If the 
State conducts religious schools, the courts 
must decide Bible questions. It had to come 
to that to show people that there must be an 
suthiritA' competent to render decisions in 
matters of religion, and that that authority 
must be infalliljle. 

The State has exceeded its functions by 
establishing a system of schools. And now it 



is no longer able to protect the life and prop- 
erty of its citizens. Some papers are calling 
for religious instruction in the public schools 
to stem the tide of crime and corruption. 
Teaching without a religious background is 
impossible. The background of the public. 
State school is atheism. We have had several 
generations educated in these schools and are 
now beginning to reap the fruits. The public 
State schools are manifestly all wrong; re- 
ligious schools must take their place. But how 
is this momentous and all important reform 
to be effected? C. Meurer 

Little Rock, Ark. 



Daily Communion and Frequent Confession 

To the Editor: — 

The recent statement of one of your con- 
tributors (F. R., XXXII, 22, p. 473) that 
"the shortest and most practical way [to 
obtain as many communions as possible from 
the people] would be to do away with devo- 
tional confession, must be accepted with a 
large grain of salt. It is true that devo- 
tional confession was practically unknown 
at a time when daily and frequent Communion 
held sway in the Church; but we must not on 
that account try to get rid of it too easily.. 
The modern Catholic mind no doubt has 
a clearer perception of the various kinds 
of venial sin and their impeding effect on 
C.Jose union with God, and it is for removing 
this obstacle that devotional confession is 
expressly fostered by the Church. The Coun- 
cil of Trent (Sess. XIV, ch. 5) declares that 
' ' venial sins mav be confessed with profit 
to the soul." Therefore, festina ente. I 
think we shall do best to follow the Canon 
Law in this matter. The Code directs those 
who communicate frequently, but not daily, to 
go to confession every two weeks if tftey 
wish to gain the various indulgences. Daily 
communicants, on the otlier hand, do not 
need to confess at any stated intervals be- 
cause the Holy Eucharist itself remits sin 
and because the general run of daily com- 
municants is supposed to have arrived at a 
higher degree of spiritual perfection. If 
they have not, they generally will not remain 
daily communicants for any length of time. 
It would be disastrous to deprive our people 
of:' that reverent awe which now makes them 
seek the confessional after they have incur- 
red a more deliberate breach of God 's law, 
however venial, before presenting themselves 
at the Holy Table. 

In my opinion the main obstacle to daily 
Communion, especially in country parishes, is 
the Eucharistic fast. W^henever that is miti- 
gated — it will probably never be abolished 
entirely — we shall see a more decided return 
to the early practice of receiving the Euchar- 
istic Victim at every sacrifice of the Mass 
that the faithful attend. 

Fr. R., 0. S. B. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



13 



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Catholic Literary Criticism 

To the Editor:— 

May I raise a weary voice against such 
lamentations as the recent one of the Eev. 
Dr. A. E. Breen in your No. 23? The gentle- 
man bemoans that England, with a Catholic 
population only one-fifteenth as large as ours, 
has produced more Catholic writers of note. 
As though statistics had anything to do with 
the inspiration and talent that sire litera- 
ture! Especially incensed is he that "no 
Catholic book, no matter how incorrect or 
worthless it may be, fails of a fulsome re- 
ception " : — seemingly unconscious that no 
book, insofar as it is truly Catholic, can 
be quite incorrect and worthless. 

Strange as it may seem to an intelligent 
man who finds time to lament the fewness of 
Catholic writers. Catholic publications are 
praiseworthy in encouraging the few there 
are; the courageous few, whose remuneration, 
in most cases, is nothing at all, beyond a 
little harmless praise that never costs any- 
thing, and the consciousness of trying to do 
some good. Dr. Breen evidently believes in 
stepping on the flowers that bloom in spring, 
because, in his strange opinion, they have 
nothing to do with the case. He wants full- 
blown Catholic masterp'eees. So do we all; 
but since when has patience ceased to be a 



virtue, and the parable of the wheat and the 
cockle become third-rate? 

A critic that admits he could "never write 
as (sic) temperately" as a certain hysterical 
fellow-slasher who accuses Fathers Lord and 
Egan of reaching in their booklet on the 
Little Flower "the lowest depths of artistic 
depravity yet achieved in the Catholic 
Church" is to be regarded with one's tongue 
in one's cheek. Such intemperance is, if not 
sad, at any rate amusing. Piously platitudin- 
izing that criticism should never be unmerci- 
ful but true, Dr. Breen succeeds in condemn- 
ing himself: he is merciless on the Lord 
pamphlet, and naturally therefore unjust. 
Father Lord was not writing a scientific 
treatise. He sought to bring a beautiful sub- 
ject to the people, and he chose a popular 
approach. He is to be congratulated for re- 
vealing the Little Flower in such a human 
light, and not keeping her a stone statue in 
a niche to chill our hearts. With such a 
theme, who would not be 'ome lyr.ca ? 1-e 
was out of the question. Eoses were in keep- 
ing. And we wonder what Dr. Breen thinks 
of Euskin? 

May one suggest that Dr. Breen write a 
ritual or a text-book on algebra? As a critic, 
he should prove an excellent authority on 
rubrics, or on the value of " X, " the missing 
term. James Murphy 

Salem, Mass. 



14 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BE V I EM' 



•January 1 



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Dr. O'Toole and His Critics 

To the Editor: — 

As I was one who protested against the 
anonymous critieism of Dr. 'Toole's book 
in your issue of Oct. 1, you will perhaps 
allow me space for a few remarks anent the 
article of Father Eicharz in your current 
number. Your statement that the criticism 
objected to was not written for publication 
relieves the critic of the odium attaching to 
an anonymous attack in print. 

Your readers must l:)e grateful to you for 
having elicited and published the interesting- 
article of Father Eicharz, and it is to be 
hoped that the present contribution will be 
followed up, as you intimate, by others from 
the same competent authority. 

As to the criticism of Dr. O 'Toole's book, 
not presuming to follow Father Richarz on 
his geological ground, 1 beg to call attention 
to a few considerations which may show that 
the criticism is not so damaging as might at 
first appear. 

The scope of Dr. O'Toole 's Avork is not 
to disprove evolution, which he acknowledges 
would be "a feat beyond our power to ac- 
complish" (p. 124). He does not hesitate 
to put the arguments of evolutionists in 
a strong light, as in the passages quoted in 
Father Eicharz' article. If he has been , 
misinformed on any jioint, he would, I dareJB 



say, welcome correction from a competent 
specialist. 

The point especially criticized by Father 
Eicharz is only a secondary consideration in 
the chapter on the bearing of paleontolog- 
ical evidence in favor of or against evo- 
lution. Before introducing the point criti- 
cized, he discusses the paleontological 
question through some thirty pages, up 
to the paragraph beginning (p. f 5) : "In set- 
ting forth the foregoing difficulties, we have 
purposely refrained from challenging the 
cardinal dogma of orthodo.K paleontology con- 
cerning the unimpeachable time-value of in- 
dex fossils as age-markers." He then pro- 
ceeds to devote considerable space to Price 's 
line of argumentation, in Avhich there are 
brought against the theory of evolution not 
a few difficulties which are independent of 
the particular question of " overthrusts. " 

If Father Eicharz states that all the ' ' over- 
thrusts" are bona fide discoveries, that is, 
that they were recognized as cases of un- 
conformity and thrusts independently of the 
fossils; and that orthodox geologists are sure 
of their paleontological chronology, that is, 
that the successive order of fossils in time 
is satisfactorily established independently of 
the exigencies of the evolutionary theory, such 
information will be welcome and the statement 
noted as that of an accomplished geologist 
at this date. Opponents of trausformism 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



15 



might then refrain from using that particular 
argument, or perhaps would introduce it as a 
secondary consideration, as does Dr. O 'Toole. 

William L. Hornsby, S. J. 
Mundelein, 111., Dec. 5. 



The Peace Policy of the Holy See 

To the Editor:— 

In Vol. XXXII, No. 21 of the F. E., you 
revert to the papal peace offer of 1917 in con- 
nection with my book, " Papst und Kurie'' 
(Martinusbuchhandlung : Illertissen, Bavaria) 
and mention the recent attempt made by the 
former German Chancellor, Dr. G. Michaelis, 
to justify his conduct in the matter before 
the Brandenburg Provincial Synod. As all 
attacks are directed against my book, you 
will perhaps give me a chance to make a few 
remarks. 

Dr. Michaelis in his speech before the Bran- 
denburg Synod merely repeated the stale ar- 
gument that the willingness of the Allies to 
make peace with the Central Powers was de- 
stroyed- by Erzberger 's publication of the 
famous Czernin memorandum. This memo- 
randum was revealed confidentially to the 
national committee of the Centre Party after 
each member of the committee had pledged 
his word of honor to keep it secret. This, 
according to Erzberger himself ("Erlebnisse 
des Weltkrieges") occurred "towards the 
end of July, 1917." The British government 
asked the Vatican to sound the German gov- 
ernment on the 20th of August. Consequently, 
England 's will to make peace was not de- 
stroyed by the alleged "publication" of the 
Czernin memorandum. 

Dr. Michaelis was driven to such straights 
by my book and its inexorable logic that 



he had recourse to a new lie. He asserted 
at the Brandenburg Synod that the basis of 
the ' ' alleged ' ' British Government 's peace 
proposal was merely a "personal letter from 
a well-meaning private gentleman in Lon- 
don. ' ' A press communication which bears 
the earmarks of the Berlin nunciature has 
since called attention to the fact that the 
letter in question has been printed in an 
English Blue Book in 1922 (No. 261, dated 
Aug. 12, 1919), and bears the signature of 
Lord Balfour, at that time foreign secre- 
tary of His Imperial Britannic Majesty! 

It might possibly be objected that Bal- 
four's letter, or rather despatch, was not pub- 
lished before 1922. For this reason I have 
reminded Dr. Michaelis of his own answer 
so Msgr. Pacelli, the papal nuncio, dated 
Sept. 24, 1917, in which he (Michaelis) re- 
fused to reply to the preliminary questions 
put by France and England, upon ths answer 
to which the reception of the peace proposal 
depended. He wrote: "Your Excellency will 
please permit me to observe regarding the 
copy, kindly communicated to me, of a tele- 
gram from the Koyal Britannic Government 
to its minister to the Holy See. ..." 

It is worthy of note that the Evangelischer 
Bund, instead of refuting my book, mobilized 
neainst it the entire Provincial Synod of 
Brandenburg and now asks the Catholic press 
of Germany to close its columns to me, its 
author, whom it denounces as " a dangerous 
disturber of the religious peace." I have 
disproved at least a dozen of the lifs which 
that organization has circulated with regard 
lo the policy of the Holy See in Germany. 
Wlien the tenth and final installment of my 
book is published, the Bund will grow even 
more vioIen+, since I make no unproved as- 



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16 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



sortions, but adduce documentary evidence 
for everything I say. 

To avoid misunderstanding permit me to 
observe that my book deals wiih tlie policy 
r,f the Apostolic See not only in Germany, 
but throuj^hout the world. Heft 5, whiJi is 
nearly ready, will shaw that the cnarity dis- 
pensed by the Holy See has nothing to do 
witli politics, and treats mainly of Poland. 
The sixth installment will deal with Cze.-ho- 
Siovakia, Rumania, and Jugo Slavia, the sev- 
enth with Soviet Eussia, Lithuania, Latvia 
and Esthonia. America and Eastern Asia 
will be dealt with later. 



Fiissen, Bavaria 



Friederich Ritter von Lama 



A Problem in Connection with Holy 
Orders 

To the Editor: — 

It is an article of faith that all bishops, 
and they alone, have the ordinary power to 
ordain priests. The actual use of this power 
is. of course, dependent upon various cir- 
cumstances, but the power is unquestioned. 
It is de iure divino, not merely ecclemas- 
tico. Ihe Council of Trent has settled 
this question for all time. Now, this 
fact would seem to settle also the second 
question, whether a sanple priest could, under 
certain conditions, confer the Sacrament of 
Holy Orders. For if bishops alone have this 
power, how can a priest validly use the power 
that is not his? Yet the cjuestion is not so 
easily settled. There is a very important 
fact to be considered, namely, the supreme 
power of Christ's Vicar on earth, which no 
one but the Pope himself can commuui.;ate. 

The cjuestion, then, reduces itself to these 
terms: Can a simple priest validly ordain a 
priest by delegation of the Sovereign Pon- 
tiff? There was a school of Catholic theolo- 
gians and canonists that held that "priests 
can ordain priests bv delegation of the Su- 
preme Pontiff." What were their reasons? 
That great Father of the Church, St. Jerome, 
had written : * ' Idem est presbyter, qui est 
episcopus, et antequam diaholi instinctu studia 
iv, religione fierent, .... communi preshy 
terorum const io ecclesiae gubernabantur, 
Postquam vero unusquisque eos, quos bapti- 
saverat, suos putabat esse, non Christi, in toto 
orbe decretum est, ut unus de presbyteris 
electus superponeretur caeteris, ad quern omnis 
h((hsi"e ciira percineret." Whilst this pro- 
nouncement of a writer Avho must certainly 
be regarded as a witness to tradition cannot 
be interpreted as denying a difference between 
liishop and priest, it was inter})reted by Du- 
randus, Soto, and Vascjuez as declaring that 
tlie difference was introduced by ecclesiastical 
law. This interpretation, however, is no 
longer tenable after tlie plain language of the 
Tridentine Council (Sess. XXVII, c. 7). Yet 
it plainly exerted an influence on theological 



opinion. The "priesthood" and the "fulness 
of the priesthood" were not always subjected 
to sj L.etircut a distinction as they are to- 
day. As Natalis Alexander says, "it did not 
appear improbable to certain learned n.en 
that SxUiple priests might, by delegation of the 
Supreme Pontiff, ordain others." 

St. Thomas, as usual, favors the "general 
tradition, saying: "JNo priest can confer the 
luajor orders, which have an immediate rela- 
tion to the Body of Christ, over which the 
Pope has no greater power than the simple 
priest." (Comment, m Sent., IV, dist. z5, 
qu. 1, art. I, resp. ad 3). 

Besides this clinching argument theologians 
adduce two others: (J.) Ihere is no practice 
to the contrary, that is, no permission was 
ever given by the Holy See to a simple priest 
to ordain another; {2) Ihe inferior Orders 
n.ust be given by one who is in higher Orders. 
This second argument would prove too much, 
nameiy, that a bishop cannot consecrate a 
bishop, as his Order is not higher than that 
he intends to confer. The first argument, 
too, appears rather doubtful in the light of 
several documents which prove' that the Holy 
See has, in matter of fact, delegated simple 
priests to ordain others. There are, e. g., as 
Ihe F. E. has but lately reminded us ( v^ol. 
XXXil, No. 22, p. 460), the two bulls of 
Boniface IX recently discovered by D. Fred- 
erico Fofi. The first of these, issued in 1400, 
gave to the abbot of St. Osith in ChiJi, 
Essex, who was not a bishop, the privilege of 
conferring on his own subjects not merely 
the diaconate, but also the priesthood. The 
second, dated Feb. 6, 1403, revoked this priv- 
ilege at the instance of the bishop of London, 
who claimed that his predecessors had foundetl 
the monastery of St. Osith and enjoyed the 
right of patronage. Both bulls seem indis- 
putably authentic, and neither shows any trace 
of dogmatic difficulty in regard to the con- 
cession. 

In addition to this we would refer to In- 
nocent IV quoting with approval the words 
of the canonist Sylvester : ' ' quod ex dclega- 
tione Domini Papae et adminiculo sacramenti 
Itabiti, quilibet c ericus potest, quidquid habet 
ipse, conferre." (Cfr. Perrone, II, p. 485; ed. 
jMigne; also Frassen, Scotus Academicus, XII, 
112). 

Of course, all this does not prove that 
priests have the ordinary power to ordain 
priests ; the question can only be in regard 
to delegated power from the Holy See. In 
view of the constant practice of the Church 
such a delegation would seem to be impos- 
sible, yet, as the power of the Pope is circum- 
scribed only by his divine commission, it 
would not behoove us either to deny or to 
affirm its possibility. We could not, however, 
imagine a case so urgent as to move the 
Sovereign Pontiff actually to grant such dele- 
gation. (Rev.) Jolm E. Rothensteiner 
St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BETJE^V 



17 



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A Textbook Published at the Behest of 
the Ho!y See 

The Poutifieal Biblical Institute has begun 
the publication of a neAv Introduction to 
Holy Scripture, to be used especially in ec- 
clesiastical seminaries. The work is to con- 
sist of four volumes, to correspond with the 
four-year curriculum in the seminaries subject 
to the S. Congregation of Seminaries and 
Iniversities. The first volume is to contain 
the General Introduction, the second will con- 
tain the Special Introduction to the Avorks of 
the Old Testament, the third volume the 
Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, and the 
fourth the Epistles and the Apocalypse. Ihe 
Special Introduction is to be very full. Be- 
sides the introductory matter it is to contain 
;in exegesis of the more important and famous 
passages. Many historical, areheological, and 
geographical subjects will be treated which 
are omitted in other Introductions. The chap- 
ter on inspiration, however, is left out as be- 
longing to fundamental theology. The differ- 
ent parts are to be written by different 
authors, all si^ecialists in their line. The 
editor is Fr. Albert Vaccari, S. J. 

The first book of the first volume is out; 
it is entitled "De Canone" and is written by 
Fr. .John Ruwet, S. J. The arrangement and 
treatment are very clear; the bibliography is 
copious, references are given to Catholic and 
non-Catholic works in various languages. On 
page 62 begins the Appendix on Apocrynhal 
Books by John B. Frey, Congr. 8. Spir. Each 
jiprocrvphnl book is treated speciaiiy, an ac- 
i-ount is given of its contents, time of writing, 
;iuthorship and bibliography. It may be of 
interest to note here that the words "Requiem 
aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua 
liu-eat eis" are taken from the apocryphal 
book of Esdras (4 Esdr. 1-2). 

On p. Ill, under the title "Documenta," 
there is the Muratorian Fragment; on p. 112, 
the ' ' Canon Claromontanus ' ' giving the num- 
ber of verses in the Old Testament books 
from Genesis to Proverbs. 

Two or three other fascicles of the first vol- 
ume are promised for the near future. The 
work is published by the Pontificio Instituto 
Biblico, Eoma (l),"Piazza della Pilotta, 35. 

This official Biblical work ought to be in the 
library of every priest. T. "V . 

Literary Briefs 

— "The Home Virtues; More Friendly 
Counsels on Home Happiness," by Francis 
X. Doyle, S. J. (Benziger Bros.) is a collec- 
tion of familiar and informal talks, in which 
Father Doyie meets the everv-day father and 
mother on their own ground. But while he is 
Avriting for the average Catholic, he credits 
him with intelligence, and this intelligence he 



1! 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



stimulates and interests in an individual man- 
ner. No reader can fail to find enjoyment 
as well as profit in this book. 

—"The Hill People," by Helen Moriarty 
(B. Herder Book Co.), is a collection of ex- 
ceedingly well told stories about a group of 
people whom the author has known how to 
make very interesting. Ecal human beings, 
not puppets, move through these pages. Ihe 
author Knows her Hill people and depicts 
tliem with a sure hand. We watch the play 
of their motives, the effect of their acts, 
admire their sturdy virtues, and have a fellow 
feeling for their little failings; for are they 
not our own? More power to this gifted 
writer! 

— "Mirage" is the latest novel by Inez 
Specking (Benziger Bros.). Many trials, ob- 
stacles, and bitter disappointments are en- 
countered by the heroine before she is fairly 
launched on the voyage of life; but when 
we leave her, we are sure that she has learned 
to make even adverse currents help her to her 
bourne. 

— The ever active Father Bruno Hagspiel, 
S. V. D., so favorablv known to all our Amer- 
ican missionaries, both those on the firing line 
and those who are heralds of the Gospel only 
' ' in spe ", is writing an interesting and well 
illustrated four-volume work on his recent 
Oriental travels. It is done in chatty style 
and will furnish pleasant reading to all inter- 
ested in Catholic missionary progress. (Along 
the Mission Trail, Vol. I. In the Philippines. 
Vol. II: In the Netherlands East Indies. Mis- 
sion Press, S. V. D. Techny, 111.) 

— "Mary Eose Keeps House," by Mary 
Mabel Wirries (Benziger Bros.), depicts the 
adventures of a houseful of children during 
mother's absence. It is well within the capac- 
ity of children of seven to twelve years old. 

— "Eueharistic Whisperings, adapted by 
Winfred Herbst, S. D. S." (Society of the Di- 
vine Saviour, St. Nazianz, Wis.) It is pub- 
lications such as this, issued by the truly pious 
and well intentioned, which are the chief ob- 
stacles in the way of the liturgical revival 
now struggling toward the light in this 
country. Instead of allowing the strong bread 
of the Church to produce its full effect in 
noursh'n'T souls, the e good, kindly, indul- 
gent writers would sop it in the sugar-water 
of sentimental subiectivism. Somelli ng more 
than a good intention is needed when we \u\- 
dertake to teach others to pray. Unless the 
intellect is really aroused, the act of the will 
is faint and futile. The Spiritual Exercises 
are hard sayings to some of us. 

— Those who like to take their spiritual 
nourishment on the installment plan, i. e., in 
small doses, will find comfort and enlighten- 
ment in ' ' Thy Kingdom Come, ' ' by the Rev. 
.]. E. Moffatt, S. J. Th? attractive booklet 
forms Series III of "Chancel Chats." We 



think the lines entitled ' ' Comfort, ' ' which 
introduce the chapters, might just as well 
have been omitted. There is a tendency to 
"over-sentimentality in recent spiritual litera- 
ture which ought to be combated. (Benziger 
Bros.) 

— Two booklets that will be welcome to 
many are: "The Contemplative Life" by the 
Kev. Joseph McSorley, C. S. P., and the 
' ' Book of Litanies, ' ' both coming from the 
Paulist Press, 415 West 59th Str., New York 
City. The former is a reprint from the Ec- 
clesiastical Eevieiv, and will help to explain 
the reason why we have in our Church so many 
communities devoted to prayer and the "hid- 
den life. " The latter gives ten litanies, com- 
]>ik'd from approved sources, and will be use- 
ful for private devotion as well as in follow- 
ing church services. 

— Father Hy. S. Spalding, S. J., has already 
achieved quite a reputation as a writer of 
adventure books for boys, and his latest ejfort, 
"Stranded on Long Bar" (Benziger Bros.), 
lias enough local color and action to in- 
terest the bfiy who likes to see "things 
doina. ' ' 



New Books Received 

St. Vincent de Paul and Mental Prayer. A 
Selection of Letters and Addresses Trans- 
lated Vjy Joseph Leonard, C. M. vii & 286 
pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. $3.50 net. 

Paaiorj Letter of the Et. Jnev. Fran'-is C. 
Kelley, S. T. D., LL. D., to the Ecclesias- 
tical Students for the Diocese of Oklahoma. 
15 pp. 16nio. (W^rapper). 

Commentarium in Codicem luris Canonici ad 
Usum Scholarum. Auetore Sac. G. Cocchi, 
C. M. Liber V. De Delietis et Poenis. viii 
& 424 pp. 12mo. Turin, Italy: Libraria 
Marietti. 

Tlieologiae Asceticae et Mysticae Cursus ad 
Usum Seminariorum, Institutorum Eeligio- 
sorum Clericorum necnon Moderatorum Ani- 
marum a E. P. Francisco Naval Concin- 
natus. Versio Latina iuxta Tertiam 
Hispanicam a E. P. losepho M. Fernandez. 
Altera Editio. J 53 pp. 12mo. Turin, 
Italy: Libraria Marietti. 

A Memorial of the Golden Jubilee of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus Eom in Catholic 
(German) Church, Detroit, Mich. 96 pp. 
large 8vo. Illustrated. 

Tlie Key to the Study of St. Thomas. From 
the Ital'an of Msgr. Francesco Olgiati. 
With a Letter of Approbation from His 
Holiness Pins XL Translated by John S. 
Zybura. viii & 176 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. $1 '25 net. 

The Ideals of St. Francis of Assisi. By 
Hilarin Felder, O. M. Cap. Translated by 
Bcrchmans Bittle, O. M. Cap. Preface by 
James J. Walsh. Eevised by the author for 
the English Edition, xvi & 518 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Bros. $4 net. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



21 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

(Terms: Cash with Order; Postage Pre- 
paid to any Part of the U. S.) 



Meyer, Hans. Geschichte der alten Philo- 
sophie. (Band X der Philosophischen 
Handbibliothek). Munich, 1925. $2. 

Alexander, Fr. (0. F. M.) Honour Thy 
Mother. [Considerations on the B. Virgin 
Mary]. London, 1925. 80 cts. 

Fassbinder, H. Vor dem Sommer. Ein 
Bueh vom inneren Eeifen fiir unsere 
kiinftigen Frauen. Freiburg i. B., 1925. 
80 cts. 

Stenson, M. D. A Pilgrim's Miscellanea. 
London, 1925. $1.25. 

Bro^^Tie, Hy. (S. J.) Darkness or Light. 
An Essay in the Theory of Divine Con- 
templation. St. Louis, 1925. $1.50. 

Saresehe, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
zation in Parishes. N. Y. 1921. $1.50. 

Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
Empire. Denver, 1925. $1.25. 

Clarke, J. P. A Eose Wreath for the Crown- 
ing of St. Therese of the Child Jesus. 
N. Y. 1925. 80 cts. 

^lacDonald, Alex. The Apostles' Creed. A 
Vindication of the Apostolic Authorship 
of the Creed, etc. London, 1925. $2.5 > 

Pohle-Preuss, Christology. A Dogmatic Trea 
tise on the Incarnation. 4th ed. St. Louis, 
1922. $1. 

Weiss, Albert M., 0. P. Lebensweg und 
Lebenswerk. Ein modernes Propheten- 
leben. Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2,25. 

Grandgent, C. H. Dante. (Master Spirits of 
Literature Series). N. Y. 1916. $2. 

Krull, V. H. (C. PP. S._) Christian Denom- 
inations. 11th ed. Chicago, 1921. 85 cts, 

Le Buffe, F. P. (S. J.). Communion De- 
votions for Eeligious. For the Daily Use 
of Members of all Eeligious Communities. 
N. Y. 1924. $2. 

Gladder, H. J. (S. J.). Als die Zeit er- 
fiillt Avar. Das Evangelium des hi, 
Matthaus dargelegt, Freiburg i. B., 1915. 
$1.25, 

Burke, J. J. The Armor of Light. Short 
Sermons on the Epistles of Every Sunday 
of the Year. St. Louis, 1925. $1.25. 

Poulain, Aug. (S. J.). Handbuch der 
Mystik. 2te u. 3te gekiirzte Auflage, 
Freiburg i. B,, 1925. $2. 

S. M. C, Parables for Grown-up Children. 
With a Foreword by Fr. Edwin Essex, 
O. P. London, 1925. 70 cts. 

Elliott, Walter, C. S, P. A Eetreat for 
Nuns. Washington, D, C, 1925, $1.50. 

Marchand, Dr. A. The Facts of Lourdes. 
Tr. by Francis Izard, O, S. B. London, 
1924. $1.50, 

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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



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ST. ANTHONY'S FAMOUS SHRINE AT GRAYMOOR 



"Among the followers of St. Francis of Assisi, there are few who 
from their lives and miracles have received such world-wide ad- 
miration as St. Anthony of Padua. It would be utterly impossible to 
relate one-half of the miracles which are recorded as the fruit of his 
intercession. 

"He has become famous, even amongst the most renowned of 
the Saints, for mercies of this kind. He has never been known to 
refuse the prayers of any one offered in the true spirit of Faith and 
Love. Even in these days of greed and vanities, he continues to 
work miracles for the benefit of his faithful clients." 

A few of the many favors he has secured for patrons of his 
Famoius Graymoor Shrine are given below: 



(Authentic likeness) 

G. K., New Jersey: "Enclosed find offering 
promised St. Anthony if he would help in 
the sale of a bungalow. This he did satis- 
factorily. The other petition was for my 
health. Since the novena finished. I have 
stopped losing weight, my strength and 
energy are returning, and I feel quite an 
improvement over my previous condition." 

Mrs. A. B., Mt. Vernon, N. T. : "My petition 
has been answered, and I am very thank- 
ful. My brother-in-law was out of work 
one year. I asked him to promise an of- 
fering to St. Anthony, which he did only 
last week, and this week he is working." 

E. H. J., Kansas: "I thank you for your 
prayers and Novena, and wish to tell you 
that I obtained a long-sought favor the 
day before the novena ended. Many 
thanks to St. Anthony!" 



H. A.. Cleveland, O.: "Some time ago I 
entered my petition for a position, and am 
glad to say that it has been fulfilled. I 
am a non-Catholic, but St. Anthony has 
been most gracious to me." 

Mrs. H. McL., Iowa: "I am enclosing a 
thank offering to Saint Anthony for the 
recovery of our auto, which had been 
stolen." 

L. :M.. Texas: "Enclosed find five dollars 
in thanksgiving to Saint Anthony. My 
Ijusiness has grown wonderfully since I 
have started novenas to the good Saint 
of Padua." 

A. C. O., Rochester: "I am enclosing five 
dollars, which is the raise I got per week. 
I promised that I would send my first 
week's raise to Graymoor." 



The Friars of the Atonement will be pleased to enter your petitions in the Perpetual 
Novena, which begins each Tuesday a;nd ends the following Wednesday. They will also 
send you the special prayers and directions how to observe the Novena upon request. 

ST. ANTHONY'S SHRINE, FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT, GRAYMOOR, 

GARRISON. N. Y. 



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Bell, Main 1242 



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ST. LOUIS, MO. 



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Superintendent 

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Syndicate Trust Building 
Tenth and Olive Streets 
Saint Louis, Missouri 

Illinois Licensed Enoineer 



The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, No. 2 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI January 15th, 1926 

CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



Accelerating the Reunion Movement 

The Catholic Union is the only inter- 
national organization approved by the 
Holy See for the collection of funds for 
supporting other organizations which 
are working for the reunion of the 
Orthodox churches with the Holy See. 
It is an organization founded to raise 
nioney for the support of other organ- 
izations. It had been found that man}^ 
organizations, societies, institutes, etc., 
working with the approval of the 
Church for the reunion of East with 
West, were handicapped by having to 
devote much of their time to securing 
funds for their work. The Catholic 
Union has come forward to raise money 
for these organizations, and thus to 
enable them to devote their entire time 
to their own proper work. By assist- 
ing these organizations financially the 
Catholic Union is accelerating the re- 
union movement, because it is supply- 
jjig the ammunition necessary for the 
great, battle against heresy and will not 
merely aid the Holy Father, as he has 
requested it to do, in founding and 
supporting his Russian seminaries in 
Rome, but will also assist to the best 
of its ability all those other organiza- 
tions working for the great cause of 
reunion, such as the work of Mon- 
signor Chaptal among the Russian ref- 
ugees in Paris, the work of the Dom- 
inican Fathers at their Russian Semin- 
ary at Lille, France, the Passionist 
missionaries working among the schis- 
matics in Bulgaria, etc., as well as as- 
sisting in the publication of prayer 
books and liturgical books which are 
sadly lacking at the present moment in 
Russian and other languages. 

A representative of the Catholic 
Union is now in St. Louis, in the person 



cf Rev. Father Joseph Kreuter, 0. S. 
B., who is willing to furnish all neces- 
sary information and to organize 
branches. He may be addressed at 2653 
Ohio Ave., in care of Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
F. G. Ilolweek. D.D. 

Congressman Hawes and the Klan 
Issue 

We arc indebted to the Hon. Harry 
B. Hawes, Member of Congress for 
the Eleventh District of Missouri, for 
copies of speeches delivered by him in 
and outside ol Congress on the Ku 
Ivlux Klan. These speeches are all in 
defense of religious libert.y and the best 
American tradition against the nefari- 
ous aims of the Klan. Mr. Hawes as- 
sures us in an accompanying letter 
that political considerations have had 
iiothing to do with his attitude towards 
t]ie Klan, but that he grew up under 
the influence of a family tradition that 
goes back to the days of Thomas Jeffer- 
son. 

"One of the first Congressmen elected as a 
Democrat in the State of Kentucky, ' ' he 
says, "was a grandfather of mine, who after- 
wards was the Confederate governor of that 
State. It was at this period that the 
Democratic party declared itself in opposition 
to the Knownothings. . . . The stories told me 
by my mother, when I was a mere boy, filled 
me with both indignation and a strong deter- 
mination to combat this intolerant spirit. As 
far back as 1893, in the City of St. Louis, I 
introduced in our old Democratic organiza- 
tion a denunciation of the A. P. A. . . . In 
1917, as a member of the Missouri legislature, 
I introduced and caused the passage of a 
bill prohibiting the circulation of anonymous 
communications, intended to destroy such 
oiganizations as the old A. P. A. and the 
newer organization called the I. V. L. . . . On 
my return from service in the war, I found 
the modern Ku Klux Klan was developing 
and immediately attacked it prior to any of 
my candidacies for Congress. At the State 
convention of 1920, again in 1921, and again 



24 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



in 1924, I caused resolutions to bo adopted 
denouncing the organization, and I did so 
again before the national convention in New 
York. Under an inspiration given to me a 
good many years ago by the late Monsignor 
Connolly, I prepared a lecture to be delivered 
at his church on the subject of 'Eeligious 
Liberty' which I later delivered in the House. 
On a subsequent occasion I put into the record 
a speech on the subject by a distinguished 
Kentuckian, President of the Kentucky Bar 
Aasociation. I mention these few facts so 
that you will know that considerations of an 
election to public office had no influence upon 
me, but that I was carrying out the con- 
viction which came to me in my earliest 
childhood and had been handed down from 
father to son since the days of Jefferson." 

We willingly inform our readers of 
these facts, though, so far as we are 
aware, the F. R. has never denied or 
questioned Mr. Hawes' motives. He 
certainly deserves credit for holding 
such sound convictions on the subject 
cf religious liberty and secret societies, 
and for having the courage of stand- 
irg up for these convictions publicly, 
in Congress and in the press, at a time 
when many other politicians prefer to 
keep silent on the dangerous Klan issue. 

Evolution and Catholicity 

Tlie Faulist Press, 401 \V. 5yth Str., 
New York City, is a whole Catholic 
Truth Society in itself and is supplying 
a real want by putting out cheap pam- 
phlets on a number of important apolo- 
getic and kindred topics. Some of these 
pamphlets, like "Christian Science" 
by Fr. Herbert Thurston, S. J., are C. 
T. S. reprints; others, as, for instance, 
' ' Evolution and Christianity, ' ' a se- 
ries of hitherto unpublished radio talks 
b}^ Sir Bertram A. C. Windle, are orig- 
inal. 

There are really, as Dr. Windle 
points out in his introduction, "no 
grounds for such a conjunction of 
words [Evolution and the Catholic 
Church], since we have no definite cor- 
porate utterance on this subject." 
Evolution is a scientific hypothesis on 
\vhich the Church has made no official 
pronouncement, and in consequence 
Catholics are divided in their opinions. 
It all simmers down to the question : 
How can the evolutionary theory be 
squared with the Bible? Dr. Windle 



shows that "evolution as a scientific 
hypothesis and theory, as far as it can 
be proved, is perfectly compatible with 
the Christian theory of the origin of 
things. According to this view, the 
evolution of the organic world is but 
a little line in the Book of the Evolu- 
tion of the whole universe, on the title- 
page of which still stands written in 
indelible letters : ' In the beginning God 
created Heaven and earth.' " Anyone 
Avith a philosophic mind, observes the 
author, must see clearly that "a com- 
plicated system such as evolution, 
Avhether under Darwinian or Mendelian 
ideas, could not possibly have come into 
existence, still less work, without an 
Intelligence and a Will behind it al- 
together different from anything that 
man can comprehend." 

Towards the end of his pamphlet 
Dr. Windle points out that the mate- 
rialistic view which holds that sin is 
nothing but the tendencies which man 
has inherited from his ancestors, is 
based not on the theory of the physical 
evolution of man, but on that of his 
psychical evolution, which can be 
proved to be false by the absurdities to 
which it leads. In the words of the non- 
Catholic scientist Driesch, "there is a 
difference between man and even the 
highest species of apes which is simply 
enormous; man, after all, remains the 
only 'reasoning' organism' in spite of 
the theory of descent." 

Recollections of a Famous Convert 

A few of us remember the late Her- 
man Baumstark, a professor in the Lu- 
theran Seminary at St. Louis, who came 
over into the Catholic Church shortly 
before Dr. Edward Preuss, in 1869. 
His brother Reinhold took the same 
step independently in Germany, and 
a year later the two conjointly de- 
scribed their experiences in "Unsere 
Wege zur katholischen Kirche" (Her- 
der, 1870). Herman after a while be- 
came editor of the Wahrheitsfreund 
and died in Cincinnati in 1876. Rein- 
hold lived till 1900 and had a rather 
troubled career. He was a jurist by pro- 
fession and in his leisure hours wrote 
two scholarly books on Spanish litera- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



25 



ture. popular biograpliies of Daniel 
O'Connell, Sir Thomas More, Cer- 
vantes, Las Casas, etc. Unfortunately 
for himself, he went into politics and 
as a member of the Landtag of the 
Grand Duchy of Baden drifted into a 
hostile attitude towards the Centre 
Party. His pamphlet, "Plus Ultra" 
(1883), is full of bitterness. Through 
his political quarrels and the fact that 
he acted for many years as correspond- 
ent of the Anzeiger des Westens, of St. 
Louis, a daily paper habitually unfair 
to Catholics, he fell into disrepute with 
many German Catholics, in the Father- 
land as well as in this country, and it 
\vas more than once rumored that he 
had apostatized from the faith. AVe 
are glad to learn from a brochure just 
published by the biographer of Alban 
Stolz, Dr. Julius Mayer ("Reinhold 
Baumstark und Alban Stolz;" Herder) 
tiiat these rumors were groundless. 
Reinhold Baumstark never fell away 
from the Catholic religion, but, on the 
contrary, faithfully stuck to it through 
thick and thin, prayed often and de- 



voutly, went to the Sacraments fre- 
quently, and conscientiously raised his 
children in the faith. His only 
daughter, Ida, is a nun. His son Anton, 
founder of the Oriens Christianus, is a 
famous Semitist, church historian, and 
liturgiologist. The letters from Alban 
Stolz here reprinted show that that 
doughty champion of the Catholic cause 
in Baden never lost confidence in Baum- 
stark 's integrity and good faith and 
that the latter was grateful to him for 
his sympathj^ and unfaltering devotion. 
As he is described in this brochure, 
Reinhold Baumstark Avas a liighly 
gifted and noble character, most of 
whose troubles arose from his inveterate 
habit of expressing his convictions free- 
ly and bluntly.' ' All through life, ' ' says 
Dr. Mayer, "he constituted a party of 
his own." "I know from experience 
what it means to battle for ideals," 
Baumstark himself wrote on one oc- 
casion ; " I know what it means to be at 
war with oneself and the world amid 
the most insignificant surroundings for 
the highest aims of humanity." 



The Catholic Foundation Plan at the State University of Illinois 

By the Rev. John McGuire, S. J., Chicago, 111. 



Last year, in another part of ciie 
country, I gave a mission in a parish 
containing within its limits the State 
University. The pastor asked me to 
give the Catholic students a few prac- 
tical talks in the parish hall ; the New - 
man Club, he said, was to meet the fol- 
lowing evening, and measures would be 
taken to advertise the lectures among 
the students. I gladly consented, for 
the double purpose of doing a little 
good, and learning what interest young 
men and women thus situated would 
take in efforts made for their spiritual 
betterment. But alas and alack! the}' 
shoAved such indifference that the meet- 
ing and the lectures Avere dropped. 
Asking AA^hy so few of them attended 
the mission, especially the night serv- 
ices, I Avas told that they Avere busy 
^^ith examinations and the regular 
rounds of Fraternity meetings, etc. 
Anxious to knoAV Avhat effect the sur- 



roundings had on their spiritual life, 
the pastor said that, as a rule, the fer- 
A'ent students kept their faith pretty 
Avell, but the lukewarm lost it. The 
eight or nine hundred Catholics there, 
and the fcAv Avho manifested any inter- 
est in religion, Avould give the student 
body a rather Ioav average. 

This institution is sometimes called 
the "stockyards of America." I Avas 
little surprised to learn from one of 
the students that professors there Avere 
attacking the Bible and teaching that 
it is in contradiction with demonstrated 
science. When the very basis of faith 
and morality is rejected by men of 
reputed learning, slight wonder that 
calloAv youths, imbibing daily such doc- 
trine, go the Avay of the flesh. About 
forty thousand Catholic students in 
this country are spending the most crit- 
ical period of their life in such institu- 
tions, and Ave are surprised at the great 



26 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



leakage of the Church. This large 
number of her children in spiritual 
danger, deeply concerns the Church 
and causes no little uneasiness to pas- 
tors. To induce as many of these stu- 
dents as possible to leave such places, 
and urge them to pursue their studies 
in safer surroundings, would seem the 
most practical solution of the difficulty, 
and this is what a chaplain at one of 
our State universities has been doing 
for some years past. So successful 
have been his efforts in this regard, 
that he has reduced the number of 
Catholic young women there from 
about 500 to 130. This priest reads 
to the students periodically the canon 
law of the Church bearing on educa- 
tion; he tells them that the Church 
insists on all Catholics attending their 
own schools for the protection of their 
faith and morals ; that those who, for 
some good reason, are obliged to attend 
secular schools should make the proxi- 
mate danger in which they are remote, 
by means of prayer, the regular and 
even frequent use of the sacraments, 
etc. We might think that the author- 
ities of the University, aware of what 
this chaplain is doing, would oppose 
him for drawing so many students 
awa}^ from them. On the contrary, they 
admire him the more, for they see that 
he is moved by loyalty to his Church. 
In accord with the vicAvs of this chap- 
lain are others in like positions, who 
have expressed their sentiments, some 
in words, others in the public prints. 
Father John 'Brien, Ph. D., chaplain 
at the State University of Illinois, dif- 
fers toto caelo from these spiritual 
guides and urges Catholic students to 
attend the seat of learning where he 
is, assuring them that their faith and 
morals, instead of suffering loss, wilt 
increase with their stay in those aca- 
demic halls. 

There is much to be admired in sec- 
ular education, but as such training is 
inseparably connected with evils, con- 
science obliges Catholics, except in cer- 
tain necessary circumstances, to reject 
it. Father O'Brien's Catholic Founda- 
tion plan, Ave are informed, Avill give 



us all 1hat is good in State education 
and neutralize whatever is deleterious. 
If this is true, the Gordian knot, which 
Ave have vainly tried for generations 
to untie, is cut by a modern Alexander, 
and, as a result, the conquests of re- 
ligion may Ijc expected to ach-ance Avith 
Avinged feet on every side. Far-reach- 
ing, indeed for good or for evil, is the 
scheme proposed, and prurience dictates 
that it be carefully examined before we 
give it welcome, lest it prove a Trojan 
Horse, containing Avithin itself an 
armed force hostile to our best inter- 
ests. 

In the terse Avords of Talleyrand we 
might ask whether the good things 
promised by this venture are new, and 
the ncAv things good? As far as Ave 
understand it, the merits of the scheme 
rest on the labors of the chaplain and 
the social and material advantages of- 
fered, such as lecture and dining halls, 
lounging parlors, suites of rooms, etc. 
The success of chaplains that Ave knoAv 
of, including Father O'Brien, in the 
j)ast has been very slight, and Ave ques- 
tion Avhetlier it Avould mend matters 
to increase their number, for the most 
discouraging reports come from a State 
UniA^ersity that has two priests giving 
their Avhole time and labor to the aa'cI- 
fare of Catholic students there. Per- 
haps the success of the plan is more in 
a large plant of buildings and the ad- 
vantages to be derived from them. 
These things, on a smaller scale, it is 
true, have been tried out for some 
years at the State University of Mis- 
souri Avith very unsatisfactory results. 
If the chaplain at a State school can 
exert but little spiritual influence on 
liis charges, and these charges fail to 
appreciate or use material adA^antages 
supplied them by Catholic charit.y for 
their spiritual good, Avhat ground is 
there for hope that youths in such sur- 
roundings Avill keep, not to say increase, 
their faith and good morals? Is it not, 
on the contrary, highly probable that 
the best among them Avill have their 
spirituality sorel.A" tried, and that the 
lukewarm Avill leave Avith a dead or 
moribund faitli and morals to match! 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



27 



Where a large number of the pro- 
fessors are atheists, agnostics, infidels, 
or indifferent to revealed religion, few 
subjects are treated without making 
them vehicles for false ideas. The con- 
stant dripping of error wears away 
the rock of truth, and a worldly, un- 
moral, unchristian atmosphere pervad- 
ing everything around is not congenial 
to the flowers of human or divine vir- 
tues. No amount of Catholic instruc- 
tion, of social advantages, of bodily 
comf orts can remove the moral danger ; 
to lessen or make it remote is the most 
that can be hoped for. The greater 
number of Catholics at State Univer- 
sities show indifference to the best 
means offered them against the mental 
and moral contagion always present, 
ever exerting its baneful influence. To 
will an end is to will the means to 
that end. The present attitude of these 
students to their spiritual welfare tells 
us whether they are likely to leave their 
Alma Mater "thoroughly grounded in 
religion, ornaments of the Church, 
great social and civic leaders." This 
apathy, so discouraging to chaplains, 
rjay vanish with the inception of the 
Catholic Foundation Plan, but — we 
will not play prophet of woes. 

In relation to his new plan of edue-a- 
lion, Father O'Brien says: "It has al- 
ways been the Church's endeavor to 
instruct her children wherever they 
may be." This is a truism, but she ex- 
pects her children to be in the schools 
she has built for them, and which she 
commands them to attend. Some of her 
children disobey her ; they are still ner 
children, and her charity and solicitude 
follow^ them on their erring ways ; this 
is making the best of a bad cause, and 
not sanctioning disobedience. Again 
from Father O'Brien: "It is especiaJly 
profitable to provide for the adequate 
instruction of her children at the State 
Universitj^, for it will bear fruit a 
hundredfold." AVliy go to a State 
university when there are Catholic col- 
leges and universities of good standing 
in Illinois and in adjoining States? 
The Church to-day, as in the past, is 
doing her best to instruct Catholics 



in State schools, thougii they are there 
y gainst her will, and their supine indif- 
ference to her ministering care shows 
little sign of the "hundredfold.'' 

Some Catholics say, or imply, that 
the State school is the best, yes the 
only place for Catholics who want a 
proper education and they are disagree- 
c bly surprised at any opposition to the 
contrary. These children of the Church 
.sliould know that there can be no 
in'oper education without religion, and 
this brings the matter of youthful 
training under ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion. Catholics thus imbued may get 
some enlightenment from the following 
condemned proposition : ' ' Catholics 
may not approve a system of education 
Avhich is separated from the Catholic 
faith and the power of the Church, and 
which concerns itself with the knowl- 
edge of merely natural things, and 
only, or at least primarily, with the 
ends of social life." (Syllabus, Prop. 
-i.8.) Her mind on secular State uni- 
versities is thus expressed in the Code 
of Canon Law: "It is desirable that a 
Catholic university be founded w'here- 
ever the public universities are not im- 
bued with Catholic teaching and feel- 
ing." (Canon 1379, No. 2.) There is 
nothing in this citation from her newly 
revised code of rulings to indicate tnat 
tlie Church is satisfled with the teach- 
ing of secular State universities, or 
tliat she regards Catholic foundations 
or other such makeshifts as a substitute 
for sound Catholic education. 

State schools, with all the resources 
at their command, are still imperfect, 
and improvement is growdng apace; 
small wonder that our own Catholic 
schools, hampered as they are in many 
Avays, are not all that might be desired. 
Despite their handicap, our higher seats 
cii learning, each and all, give an in- 
tellectual training equal to that at- 
tainable in secular institutions, and, 
A\hat is above all earthly considerations, 
and what State schools utterly ignore, 
the}^ ground the student in the change- 
less principles of faith and morals. To 
these Catholic centers of knowledge and 
virtue, and to these alone, the Church 



28 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Janiiarv 15 



looks, as she has ever looked, for her 
ripe scholars, her great social and civic 
leaders, her ornaments of every virtue. 
Our view of Father John O'Brien's 
Catholic Foundation Plan at the State 
University of Illinois, might be summed 
up thus: It is futile, deceptive, dan- 
gerous to Catholic students, and out 
of harmony with the spirit, the custom, 
and the expressed wishes of the Church. 
A bit of friendly discussion on a sub- 
ject big with interest, and at the same 
time obscure and far-reaching in its 
consequences, may serve a useful pur- 
pose. Steel and flint must clash before 
the desired spark comes to give light 
and w-armth. Others, now indifferent, 
may take up this question, and the fric- 
tion of views pro and con will light us 
all to a better understanding of its 
merits or demerits. Life is a warfare, 
we are serving a militant Church, and 
our long fight ends only with our death. 
Fifteen centuries ago an old Dalmatian 
monk took the field of controversy 
against the great "Light of Doctors," 
the young and towering genius of Hip- 
po, — and the monk, it would seem, had 
the weaker side of the case. History 
is ever repeating itself. Father 'Brien 
is a scholar and an educator; I am 
neither. He is young, abreast of the 
times, overflowing wdth vitality; I am 
old, out of touch with the modern trend, 
trying to husband life's fire fast sink- 
ing to the gray ashes. According to 
philosophers, contrary propositions 
hold true in their respective conse- 
quences. Contrary characters will, we 
may suppose, sometimes arrive at wide- 
ly different conclusions, the truth lying 
somewhere between. Moralizing aside, 
we express the hope that when all 
shall have been said on the subject in 
question, no stinging words will return 
to hive in troubled breasts. 



The only way to combat Bolshevism 
is to remove the grievances on which 
it thrives.— r/te Month, No. 736. 

He who is false to present duty 
breaks a thread in the loom, and will 
find the flaw when he may have for- 
gotten its cause. 



1925 

By P. H. Callahan of Louisville 

Last year at this time the writer, 
after making some study, gave a list 
of what, in his opinion, were the most 
advantageous activities for Catholicity 
and Catholic AVelfare during 1924. 

While there was a great deal of in- 
terest manifested, it is not my purpose 
to continue this practice and, like the 
late "Walter Camp, becom.e famous by 
making an annual selection of the ' ' All 
American Eleven." 

However, it is my opinion that 
Father John A. Ryan of the Catholic 
University should be awarded the prize, 
for speaking in Detroit, in November, 
to the AVorld Alliance for International 
Friendship Through the Churches, on 
the subject "Christianity and Peace,'" 
where he had an opportunity to set 
forth the Catholic philosophy on this 
very interesting subject before the fore- 
most churchmen of the country, repre- 
senting all denominations. A few weeks 
before Father Ryan spoke at the Na- 
tional Conference of Congregational 
Churches, again giving the Catholic 
philosophy on the equally interesting 
and timely economic and industrial 
question. 

There has been many a good pro- 
gramme during the year and there have 
l)eeii addresses of perhaps greater mer- 
it, notably, in my opinion, the sermon 
of Archbishop Dowling at Cincinnati 
last summer, but the AATiter has writ- 
ten a great deal urging that more effort 
be made to have our thoughts and prin- 
ciples reach the non-Catholic people, 
of which Dr. Ryan's efforts outlined 
above are very fine examples. 

A "palindrome" is a word, phrase 
or sentence which reads the same either 
forward or backward. Here is a re- 
markable one in Latin: SATOK 
AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS. 
The initial letters unite to form the 
first word, the second letters form the 
second word, and so on to the end. 
The same is true when the words are 
read backward. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



29 



Notes and Gleanings 



Discussion of the theory of evolution 
is still going on among Catholics, and 
while it is good, on the one hand, to 
have such excellent articles as the Rev. 
Thomas Livingstone contributed to the 
Ecclesiastical Review (Sept., Oct., and 
Nov., 1925), it is well, on the other, 
to have papers like that of the Rev. 
John M. Cooper, **If Evolution Were 
a Fact?" {Catholic World, Sept., 
1925). The latter article prepares tht" 
way for the acceptance of the more 
general scientific results that would 
have to be admitted in case the theory 
were ever scientifically proved. A read- 
able pamphlet by the Rev. Ulrich A. 
Hauber, Ph. D., presents some of the 
scientific evidence for the theory. The 
author wisely says: "This general 
theory of evolution should not be 
called Darwinism." The pamphlet 
will do good, as it shows that there 
can never be opposition between Cath- 
olic doctrine and any well ascertained 
fact of science. ("A Catholic Opinion 
on the Evolution Controversy," St. 
Ambrose College, Davenport, la.) 



The Amerikanisches FamilienUatt 
v.nd Missionslote of the Fathers of the 
Divine Word, published at Techny, 111., 
has just entered upon its twenty-fifth 
year. This excellent German monthly, 
which was founded by Fr. Herman 
Richarz and edited successively by him 
and Fr. Frederick Lynk, until 1912, 
when the present editor, Fr. F. Markert 
took charge, has in course of time de- 
veloped into a popular magazine of 
general appeal and exceptional liter- 
tiry excellence, without ever losing sight 
of its original aim, to interest its read- 
ers in the cause of the foreign mis- 
sions. As a consequence, it occupies 
to-day a unique position among the 
periodical publications of the German- 
speaking Catholics of this country, and 
despite the difficulties with which the 
foreign language press has to contend 
in America, its genial editor looks for- 
ward into the future with considerable 
optimism. Ad multos annos! 



Professor Singenberger's Caecilia. 
which is now published under the spe- 
cial patronage of Cardinal Mundeleiii 
at the latter 's seminary in Mundelein, 
111., enters upon the new year with high 
hopes. The prospectus for 1926 prom- 
ises many valuable contributions. The 
organ section is to be considerably en- 
larged, and the school music depart- 
ment will offer practical instructions 
on the training of school orchestras 
and bands by Mr. Harry D. O'Neil. 
Father Joseph J. Pierron's comment- 
ary on the motu proprio of Pius X, run- 
ning serially in this magazine, is per- 
haps the best thing of its kind ever 
printed in the U. S. The musical sup- 
plement to the January number con- 
sists of a Lamentation for Maundy 
Thursday, another for Good Friday, 
and a setting of the "Oratio Jeremiae 
Prophetae," all by Father H. Gruen- 
der, S. J., of St. Louis University, who 
is as great a musician as he is a phil- 
osopher. We invite all lovers of the 
sacred cause of church music to sub- 
scribe for the Caecilia. 



The annual report of the Vicar Apos- 
tolic of the Little Sunda Islands shows 
that splendid progress is being made 
in converting the people of that far- 
distant portion of the Dutch East 
Indies. Bishop Verstraelen is inclined 
to believe that he and his faithful col- 
laborators have made a record in mod- 
ern convert-making. At any rate, 
14,241 pagans have been received into 
the Church during the past year, and 
33,592 are being instructed in the faith. 
These figures are high, but when one re- 
members that there are more than half 
a million of still unconverted pagans 
on these islands, one can see that much 
remains to be done. The best way in 
which American friends of the good 
cause can help these zealous missionar- 
ies of the Divine Word is by providing 
funds, either individually or through 
clubs, to pay the salaries of catechists 
and to prepare additional missionaries 
for the Little Sunda mission field. A 
catechist can be supported for a whole 
year for sixty dollars. Thirty-six boys 
are preparing for work in these mis- 



30 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



sions, four of whom are nearly ready to 
j-einforce the little band of forty-four 
already in the field. Father De Lange, 
vdio has himself worked in these mis- 
sions for something like a decade, is 
now at St. Mary's Mission House, 
Teehny, 111. 

Dr. Joseph Eberle announces in No. 
10 of his new Aveekly, Schonere Zu- 
k'wnft, published in Vienna, that it has 
already attained a circulation of 7,500 
and is increasing daily. AVe are glad 
to hear this, for the S. Z. is deserving 
of support and encouragement because 
it "strives to enlighten its readers in 
a manner that is far above nationalistic 
prejudices and aims at the Credo of 
universal Catholicism,"' as the editor 
himself says. For this very reason it 
is particularly welcome to foreign read- 
ers, who will soon learn to appreciate 
the editor's extraordinary acumen and 
rare independence. Any reader of the 
J'. R. who wishes to keep a German 
Catholic review of high quality, which 
is at the same time, like the London 
Tablet, something of a ncAvspaper, _ is 
advised to send for specimen copies 
of the Schonere Zukimft, Nusswald- 
gasse No. 14, Vienna (XIX), Austria. 
The subscription price for the U. S. 
is $5 per annum 

A worthy English pendanf to 
Schott's famous "Messl)uch der kath. 
Kirche" is the "Daily Missal with Ves- 
pers for Sundays and Feasts, ' ' by Dom 
Gaspar Lefebvre, 0. S. B., of the Ab- 
bey of Saint-Andre, and hence known 
as "St. Andrew Daily Missal," pub- 
lished in this country by the M. Loh- 
iiiann Company, of St. Paul, Minn. The 
Avell printed 82mo volume contains all 
the Masses of the year in both Latin 
and English and the complete Latin 
and English text of all the Masses in 
the calendar, and of the votive and re- 
quiem Masses. To these are added 
Vespers and Compline for Sundays and 
feasts, with musical notations of 
hymns and sequences. For further con- 
venience there have been added various 
other prayers, for morning and night, 
for confession, for the Wav of the 



Cross, Benediction, and so forth. This 
Missal has a cordial recommendation 
from Cardinal Bourne, and Archbishop 
Dowling, who is one of the leaders of 
the "nascent liturgical movement" in 
America, hails it as "a very hopeful 
effort to bring back the liturgy into the 
spiritual life of Catholics," for many 
of whom, unfortunatel}^, "our great 
Mass book is still undiscovered and un- 
known. ' ' The St. Andrew 's Daily Mis- 
sal can be had in six different bindings. 



The Franciscan Fathers at Jordan, 
Minn., have issued a brochure to com- 
memorate the diamond jubilee of St. 
John's Parish, of that city, as well as 
the golden jubilee of the coming of the 
Fathers of the Sacred Heart Province 
to Minnesota. The Jordan parish had 
its beginning in 1854 and was at first 
ill charge of secular priests, latei- of 
Benedictines, and since 1875, of Fran- 
ciscan Fathers from St. Louis. Undei- 
the pastorate of Fr. Bernard Wewer, 
0. F. M., a curious thing happened. 
One Sunday he announced that the 
church needed a new monstrance, to 
cost about $600. A fcAv days later, 
when the Fathers came to the sanctuary 
to say their prayers, a neat box contain- 
ing $600 in cash was standing on the 
altar Avith the legend : ' ' Here are the 
$600 for a new monstrance." The 
souvenir contains much interesting 
historical matter and is neatly illus- 
trated. The present pastor of St. 
John's parish is our former fellow- 
student, Fr. Raymond Holte, 0. F. M., 
wlio has our best wishes for continued 
success. 



Under the general title, "Reprints 
from the Homiletic and Pastoral Re- 
Aiew," the firm of Joseph F. Wagner, 
Inc., has issued six brochures, in stout 
wrappers, containing papers which re- 
cently appeared in that excellent maga- 
zine : (1) on the "The Unwedded Moth- 
er,'' by the Rev. Chas. Bruehl, D.D. ; 
(2) four articles on Spiritism by J. G. 
Raupert, Fr. Stanislaus Woywod, 0. F. 
M., the Rev. J. Simon, 0. S.M., and the 
Rev. Gerald Murphy, C. SS. R. ; (3) 
on "The Pro and Contra of the Ques- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



SI 



The Voice of Another 
Olr^at pilj^n ®i*0an 

WILL BE HEARD IN THE CHURCH OF 

OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP 

BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. 

The church is now in course of construction and w^ill be one 
of the largest and most imposing Catholic churches in the world. 

luilbfi-s 

JJipe O^tgans gr. Louis, Mo. 



MAIN OFFICE & PLANT 



tion : Does the Volstead Law Bind in 
Ccnscienee?" by Dr. J. Elliot Ross, C. 
S. P., Fr. J. M.'Prendergast. S. J., and 

-the Rev. C. 0. T.; (4) on ''The Ideal 
Snperior and the Ideal Subject," by 
the Rev. Anthony Linneweber, 0. F. 
M. ; (5) on "Priests as Business Men" 
and "The Business Management of a 
Parish," by the late Fr. Arthur Barry 
O'Neill, C. S. C and the Rev. Albert 
Rung; and (6) on "Petty Jealousy in 
the Rectory" and "Esprit de Corps 
Among Priests" by the Revs. M. C. 
Clasby and Albert Rung. These papers 
all appeal in a special manner to the 
reverend clergy and deserve the more 
permanent form in which they now ap- 
pear. No doubt other "Reprints" of a 

: similar kind will follow these six, which, 
we trust, will find a large sale. 



Msgr. Francesco Olgiati's book, 
"L'Anima di San Tommaso," translat- 
ed into English by the Rev. John S. 
Zybura under the title "The Key to the 
Study of St. Thomas" (Herder), is an 



important contribution to the Thomis- 
tic revival. More clearly than an}- other 
book that has ever come to our notice 
it shows that the focal centre in which 
all the rays of the Thomistic system 
meet, and from which thej' radiate, is 
the notion of heing, in the light of 
which all questions from metaphysics 
to theodicy, from the objectivity of 
knowledge to the relations between rea- 
son and faith become clarified. "In 
the ontological order nothing exists or 
can exist that is not being. In the field 
of knoAvledge nothing is conceivable 
except through the mediation of being. 
Being is the idea capable of explaining 
that innermost harmony which, accord- 
ing to Rudolf Eucken, permeates the 
v.'ork of St. Thomas." (Introd.) Father 
Zybura 's translation is not only faith- 
ful to the original, but elegant in dic- 
tion, and we recommend the neatly 
printed booklet to all who wish to be- 
come acquainted with the central 
thought of Thomism. 



32 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



WiDMER Engineering Company 



LOUIS PREUSS 

ASSOCIATED 

ARCHITECTS 



LACLEDE GAS BUILDING 
ST. LOUIS - MO. 



Correspondence 



Re-£valuatlng Our Seminary Courses 

To the Editor:— 

In the "Eeport of the Proceedings and 
Addresses of the Twenty-Second Annnal 
Meeting of the Catholic Educational As- 
sociation" we read on page 595 as follows: 
' ' Too long have our text-books monopolized 
the seminary forum and dictated just w-hat 
we shall teach and the historical setting that 
we must give to our teaching. It is high 
time that we make our own theological knowl- 
edge and our own fund of priestly experience 
determine these matters for us. Xo otlier 
bodj' of men would let outsiders, foreigners, 
and even incompetents do for them w-hat has 
been done to us. The time has come for us 
to strike out for ourselves and re-evaluate 
our seminary courses under the spirit of the 
genius of our Catholic faith and coordinate 
them to priestly practice under American 
conditions.' ' 

The words "outsiders, foreigners," etc., 
sound rather strange in the mouth of a pro- 
fessor of the sacred sciences, especially when 
speaking of colleagues in his calling. But we 
will let tliat go. On page 5i7 of the Acta 
Apost. Sedis (1925) the S. Congregation of 
Seminaries and Studies publishes a decree de- 
manding that Ordinaries inform the S. Con- 



gregation every third year concerning the 
status of their seminaries. Answering ques- 
tion 31, the Ordinaries must inform the Con- 
gregation what test-books are used in the 
teaching of philosophy. Question 32 reads 
partly as follows : ' ' Quo idiomate, quibus 
praclectionum textibus Theologia Dogmatica, 
M oralis, Sacra Scriptura, lus Canonicum et 
ceterae disciplinae tradantur." The S. Con- 
gregation of Studies evidently insists upon 
certain text-books, nay more, the S. Congre- 
gation obliges the Ordinaries to inform it 
immediately if a seminary text-book is 
changed during the triennium; for on page 
548 we read: "Si, durante triennio quod re- 
lationem sequetur, textus quidam praelectio- 
num cursus PhilosopMae, Theologiae, S. Scrip- 
turae, luris Canonici mutetur, id statim ad 
Sacram liana Congregationem referatur." 

Eome evidently insists upon certain text- 
books, even though they be compiled by 
foreigners. We may add that many of the 
speeches delivered in behalf of our seminaries 
and printed in the above report afford in- 
teresting, but by no means encouraging read- 
ing. The S. Congregation of Studies some 
years ago issued a " Eegolamento, " which, 
though it does not bind us, might be of great 
service to many, the "priestly practice under 
American conditions" notwithstanding. 
Dr. A. Muller 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



33 



Boy Scouts and Militarism 

To the Editor: — 

I note in F. R., December 15th, Mr. L. 
Blankemeier takes exception to my position 
that the present Boy Scout Movement of 
America is not a militaristic affair. In the 
interest of truth, I am constrained to con- 
fess that in my mind, his article neither dis- 
proves my position, nor does it even raise a 
plausible objection thereto. 

Mr. Blankemeier alleges as proof that the 
Boy Scouts of America is military in charac- 
ter, because he witnessed on a street car 
members of a troop carrying knapsacks, 
blankets, canteens, etc., identical with those 
used in the II. S. Army; and forthwith ap- 
parently concludes that these military 
articles were furnished the boys by Uncle 
Sam, with the vieAV of fostering within their 
minds the military spirit. 

I am safe in affirming that the boys that 
came under Mr. Blankemeier 's observation, 
obtained their military "trappings" from 
some second hand store, or ' * army sale ' ' 
concern, just the same as the boys of Louis- 
ville or of any other city have bought sucli 
goods; and incidentally the same as have 
hundreds of individuals purchased the same 
and similar articles from the same sources. 
But it would be childish to conclude that be- 
cause one buys and uses left-over army goods, 
that thereby one Avould be endeavoring to 
foster a military spirit. Thousands of dollars 
worth of army goods have been promiscuously 
sold in Louisville since the late war, and yet 
I do not recall of having heard that anyone 
was accused of militarism because of having 
done so. Be this as it may, the gentleman 
from Missouri can rest assured that Uncle 
Sam is not furnishing Bov Scouts the offen- 



sive army goods with the view of instilling 
into their minds a love for its use. 

Like all things human, the Boy Scout move- 
ment has its imperfections, and doubtless is 
open to criticism, but I do not see that militar- 
ism is one of them. If those of Mr. Blanke- 
meier 's ilk have any argument at all, it is this 
that scouting, by reason of several features 
borrowed from military parlance, unwittingly 
instills into the minds of youth the spirit of 
things military. If so, such is not the pur- 
pose of the movement, nor is such intended by 
its official leaders. For the intention of 
using these military features, if they be so 
termed, is merely to give scout activities a 
certain charm or fascination which these "ob- 
jectionable" features intrinsically possess. 

None of these so-called military characteris- 
tics is essential to scouting. Many success- 
ful Scout Masters never make use of any of 
them. 

If the gentleman from Missouri has the 
courage of his apparent conviction that the 
Boy Scout Movement is connected with the 
Army, I herewith issue to him the following 
challenge: I will place a hundred dollars in 
any bank of this city or elsewhere, and in- 
vite Mr. Blankemeier to put up another hun- 
dred, dollars with mine. If he can prove, by 
a specified time, that the present Boy Scout 
Movement of America has any official con- 
nection with the Army, Navy, or the Marines, 
the two hundred dollars will be his. If not, 
after the same specified date, I shall donate 
the entire sum to the Catholic Orphanage of 
the Louisville Diocese. I am not "from 
Missouri ", but fortunately from Old Kentuck, 
but have ' ' to be shown ' ' before I am con- 
vinced. 



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34 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



By the time tliis c-li:illen^e will luive been 
forfeited, it will be seeu who has the courage 
of his convictions to run true to form of 
fighting steel; and incidentally also that 
will be time enough to decide who is who and 
who is'nt, when it conies to the considera- 
tion of who is ' ' misinformed, mistaken, or 
willfully blind to facts", as asserted of me 
by Mr. Blankemeier. 
Louisville. Ky. (Rev.) .'los. A. Xewnian 

Excerpts from Letters 

Gladly I renew my subscription to the F. E. 
for 1926. I admire your sound and objec- 
tive judgment on all important current ques- 
tions and congratulate you upon your courage 
and Catholic convictions. — (R'-V.) H. Stahl, 
Butte, Neb. 

A misunderstanding may arise from a note 
in No. 1 of the F. E., p. 6, on the translation 
of the rule of the Third Order. The origi- 
nal rule of the Third Order of St. Francis 
is not at all in question; it is of interest only 
to students. The original rule Avas modified 
by Nicholas lY, in 1289, and in that form 
it was known and observed in the Third Order 
down to 1S83, when Leo XIII again modified 
it, adai)ting it to modern conditions. It is 
this rule of Leo XIII that is to be translated 
into correct and idiomatic English, to serve 
as a standard for the fraternities of the 
country, replacing certain ill-advised transla- 
tions and offering a common ground for uni- 
form interpretations of the rule. The enter- 
prise offers no greater difficulties than are 
naturally bound up with any effort to trans- 
late Leo XIII 's classic Latin. — {Bev.) Fr. 
James Meyer, 0. F. M.. Editor Franciscan 
Eerald, Chicago, III. 

Apropos of the suggestion (F. E., Xo. 1, 
p. 11) that a good selection from the Avritings 
of the late Dr. O. A. Brownson be published 
in, say five or six volumes, at a reasonable 
price, let me say it is a good one, and I liope 
that it will be heeded. What a boon a col- 
lection of the jewels to be found in the works 
of Dr. Brownson would be for our theological 
students! What publishing house Avill have 
the courage to undertake this great task? — 
(Bev.) Bayinond Vernimont, Benton, Tex. 

I am glad that the raising of the subscrip- 
tion price was so willingly received by prac- 
tically all your subscribers. I like to com- 
jiare the F. K. with John the Baptist, Avho 
was not afraid to tell King Herod, "You are 
not allowed to do that!" — A. I. Hofmaier, 
Fordyce, Nei. 

Enclosed find $3 for renewal. I have given 
up nearly all my papers and magazines, since 
my eyes give me so much trouble that I 
can hardly read anything. The F. E., how- 
ever, I did not give up and do not intend 
to give up, as long as I am able to follow its 
pages. For many years, especially during and 
after the Y''orld Y'ar, 1 have ])raised and 



thanked God for the gift of such a true luid 
reliable guide as the F. E., when nearlj- all 
other papers and nuigazines were keeping at 
a safe distance from risking the whole truth. 
May God bless and protect the heroic editor! 
— M. F. Schumacher. San Antonio, Tex. 

The F. E. is the one magazine that I look 
forward to with keen delight, because I know 
its policy is "the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth." It is frank, honest, 
scholarly, and, what appeals to me alaove all, 
it does not "play politics" like so many 
other, even Catholic reviews. As to being 
comprehensive, one needs but to glance over 
the annual index to find that the F. E. has 
touched on practically everything worth while 
during the year. I mean what I say when 
I claim that yours is the best Catholic maga- 
zine we have in this country. Wherefore I 
hope and pray that G6d will fully restore 
your health and keep you many more years 
in our midst to put into practice your high 
ideals of true scholarship and sound Cath- 
olic journalism. — A Franciscan Father. 

It does me good to read the many com- 
mendatory letters from your subscribers. 
Your friends may not be a multitude, but 
they are staunch and true. Best wishes from 
(Bev.) I). A. Diederich, Chicago, III 

Allow me to comment as follows on Father 
Lenhart's note (F. E., Dec. 15th, 1925, pp. 
519-520): The development of the three 
First Orders of St. Francis can be traced 
either judicially, in the light of judicial 
pronouncements, or historically, in the light 
of historical facts. Father Lenhart chooses 
the former. Habeat sibi. There are only 
throe branches of First Orders of St. Francis; 
viz., the O. F. M., the O. M. C, and the 0. 
M. Cap., popularly known as Franciscans, 
Conventuals, and Capuchins. We must dis- 
tinguish between a branch and a reform move- 
m,ent within a branch. Such reform move- 
ments once existed, but Avere never autono- 
mous, Avithin the O. F. M. and the O. M. C. 
branches. Also the scientific bibliographer 
must observe the rule of clearness and, if a 
historian, create only historically correct im- 
pressions. Fr. Lenhart quotes his critic as 
saying: "I do believe that 'the title 0. F. M. 
first began in 1897.' " Evidently, at this 
point, his critic Avas speaking not of the 
title, but of the party represented by the 
title. When Fr. Lenhart refers to the pro- 
ceedings of 1909, he approaches territory 
Avhere the historian must pause and remember 
the Wise Man's warning: " Tern pus tacendi 
et tempus loquendi." Posterity alone AA'ill be 
in a position to put that affair in its true 
historical light. For the present, it is best 
for the historian to be, as Pope says, "master 
not only of his art, but of his discretion. ' ' — 
(Bev.) Francis Borgia Steel-, 0. F. M., 
IVa.'^hington. D. C. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



35 



MASSES 




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Mass in hon. of St. Cecilia 


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The High Mass, liturgically 


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Fifty Years in the Cause of Catholic 
Education 

The history of the pioneer work and the 
gradual expansion of the various religious 
communities of Sisters, especially of those 
devoted to education, ought to be carefully 
recorded for more than one reason. In the 
first place, the beginnings of most of these 
religious communities of teachers were rich 
in privations and hardships, and many an 
undertaking which, humanly speaking, should 
have failed from want of support and en- 
couragement, nevertheless survived and even 
prospered. Evidently the blessing of God 
accompanied the efforts of the brave pioneers. 
Xow for a pleasure-loving generation like ours 
nothing is more wholesome than the example 
of these worthy workers for Christ in the 
humble little school-rooms of half a century 
or more ago. In the second place, these local 
liistories will provide part of the source 
material for the future history of the Church 
in the United States. They, therefore, have 
a value Avhich is frequently not recognized 
by those Avho have a great deal of this 
material and look upon it as rubbish which 
ought to be consumed by the dust and moths 
of the attic. 

To the rapidly accumulating histories of 
the religious teaching communities is now 
added that of the Sisters of the Precious 
Blood, whose Mother House is at O 'Fallon, 
Missouri. They are recognized as practical 
educators of girls and young women, and 
wherever they have taken charge of schools, 
whether of elementary, grade or academy, 
their educational work is highly esteemed. 

The present sketch is aptly entitled, "The 
Story of Fifty Years in the Service of Cath- 
olic Education." It is written by a member 
of the community, Avho from a motive of 
humility did not place her name on the title 
page. However, she has written a very in- 
teresting and edifying story, which will be 
read with gratitude by the younger members 
of the conmiunity as well as by the friends 
and former pupils of the Sisters. 

A sentence from the highly appreciative 
introduction of the Archbishop of St. Louis 
tells why many of the faithful of the Arch- 
diocese owe thanks to these pioneers of Chris- 
tian education: "For the past fifty years the 
Congregation of the Sisters of the Adoration 
of the Most Precious Blood has applied it- 
self to saving our youth from the deadly 
atmosphere of a godless education — that 
popular device of Satan so well calculated to 
destroy the souls of those 'little ones' whom 
Christ desires brought to Him. ' ' 

Father Albert Muntsch, S. J., who has 
Avritten the ' ' Foreword, ' ' gives a reason why 
this particular story should have been pub- 



36 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



lished: "Many of the Sisters ^vho iindertodk 
the pioneer work of establishing new com- 
munities of the Sisters of the Most Precious 
Blood have been called to their reward. They 
deserve to live in the grateful remembrance 
of others, who now carry on the same holy 
work under more prosperous conditions, and 
in a happier environment. Perhaps some 
souls, becoming acquainted with this beautiful 
story of sacrifice and heroic devotion to high 
duty, Avill be inclined to listen to the still 
small voice inviting to higher things, and 
enter the army of willing workers in the 
sacred cause of Catholic education. ' ' 

It remains only to call attention to the 
artistic make-up of the volume and the ap- 
propriate illustrations of churchmen, of 
distinguished members of the community and 
views of the Mother House, both here and in 
Baden, Germany, from where the first little 
colony of . Precious Blood Sisters of the 
Adoration came to America in 1870. 

Literary Briefs 

— It is pleasant to note the appearance of 
a new and revised edition of the Rev. Michael 
Seisenberger's "Practical Handbook for the 
Study of the Bible, ' ' which had been out of 
print for some time. Nothing has yet ap- 
peared that could take the place of this use- 
ful handbook, which provides a bird's-eye 
view of the entire Biblical question from the 
Catholic standpoint and, in spite of a few 
minor defects, is entirely suitable for the 
exigencies of the present day. The new 
edition has the ' ' Bibliography ' ' brought up 
to date and is enriched by an appendix con- 
taining the decisions of the Biblical Com- 
mission from 1905 to date. (Joseph F. 
Wagner, Inc.) 

— The fifth volume of Fr. Guido Coechi's 
' ' Commentarium in Codicem luris Canonici 
ad Usum Scholarum" deals (1) De Delictis, 
(2) De Poenis, and (3) De Poenis in Singula 
Delicta. The volume has all the advantages 
of its predecessors and is adapted not only 
to school use, but also for purposes of private 
study and reference, though it is to be re- 
gretted that each volume has not an alpha- 
betical index of its own. (Turin: Libraria 
Marietti). 

— Fr. J. M. Fernandez 's Latin version of 
Naval 's ' ' Theologiae Asceticae et Mysticae 
Cursus ' ' has appeared in a second, corrected 
and enlarged edition. The work is a con- 
densed ' ' Summa' ' of ascetic and mystical 
theology, designed primarily for the use of 
seminarists, to whom it can be recommended. 
(Turin: Libraria Marietti). 

— ' ' Tlioughts of Blessed Ramon Lull for 
Every Day," compiled by E. Allison Peers, 
is an anthology culled from the works of 
this famous Spanish mystic of the 13tli cen- 
tury, Avhose writings, in spite of his crown 
of martvrdom, have not found favor in the 



Church, but, on the contrary, were condemned 
by Gregory IX and again by Paul IV on ac- 
count of what we would now call rationalistic 
tendencies. So far as we can see, there is 
nothing objectionable in the thoughts here 
presented, which, on the other hand, are not 
of much depth and of little practical use to 
anybody. (Benziger Brothers). 

— Volume II, "De Ecclesia, " completes 
Father Herman Dieckmann's, S. J. " Theo- 
logia Fundamentalis, ' ' the first volume of 
which we noticed favorably some months ago. 
This second volume is divided into two parts, 
of which the former deals with the existence, 
character, subject, object, and sources of the 
ecclesiastical teaching office, while the latter 
gives a ' ' Conspectus Dogmaticus ' ' of the 
relation of the Church to the three Persons of 
the Most Holy Trinity and briefly surveys the 
nature and properties of the Church and the 
unity which her Divine Founder bestowed 
upon her. The whole Avork is intended as a 
text-book and is very thorough and up to 
date. (Herder & Co.) 

— Isabel C. Clarke's imost recent novel 
bears the title "It Happened in Rome" and 
centers around the ceremonies of the Holy 
Year. The subject is a charming woman 
Mliose intentions are always good, but who 
lacks prudence and consequently gets herself 
and others into serious trouble. (Benziger 
Bros.) 

—An "Extra Series" of "The Orchard 
Books ' ' is inaugurated by ' ' Certain Godly 
and Devout Prayers Made in Latin by the 
Reverend Father in God Cuthbert Tunstall, 
Bishop of Durham, and Translated into Eng- 
lish by Thomas Paynell, Clerk," edited, with 
an introduction, by Dom Roger Hudleston. 
Cuthbert Tunstall is a pathetic figure in the 
annals of the English Reformation. This 
booklet is a reprint of the only edition of 
his prayers ever before published (1558). 
The prayers are far better suited to the 
Anglo-Saxon mentality than the translations 
from the French which still have such vogue 
in England and America. It is a charming- 
little book, especially the final "Prayer unto 
God for the Dead Which Have no Man That 
Prayeth for Them." (Benziger Bros.) 

■ — Many beautiful things — beautiful in the 
sense of poetic and idealistic — have been said 
about St. Francis of Assisi by those not of 
our Church. It is quite proper that Cath- 
olics, and more especially a son of the 
Povcrello, should try to sing the praises of 
one of our most lovable saints. Francis de 
Sales Gliebe, O. F. M., has tried to do this, 
and we believe, not without success. For his 
booklet has already reached a fifth edition. 
It is entitled, ' ' My Lady Povert}'^, or the 
Courtship of a Saint.' ' In beautiful pen- 
tameters — a measure which Tennyson has 
used so successfully in ' ' Idyls of the King, ' ' 
— the poem tells the story of Francis' giving 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



37 



up the world and all his worldly goods, in 
order to devote himself to ' ' Lady Poverty. ' ' 
(Chicago, 111.: Franciscan Herald Press). 

— Confession is still a much misunderstood 
part of the sacramental life of the Church, 
and ' ' those without ' ' frequently have hard 
things to say about it. Even Catholics, nay, 
even religious, sometimes find it difficult al- 
ways to approach the sacred tribunal with 
hope, courage, and confidence. These souls 
may be helped by a booklet written by an 
eJi:perienced guide in spiritual matters. His 
work is not so much a dogmatic treatise as 
a heart-to-heart talk Avith the reader on the 
requirements of a good and salutary con- 
fession. Some of his chapter headings are : 
The Sense of Sin, Examination of Conscience, 
Contrition and Confession, Common Faults 
in Confession, Confessions of Devotion, etc. 
It is, therefore, a practical booklet. ("The 
Ministry of Eeconciliation : Chapters on Con- 
fession, by Eobert Eaton, Priest of the 
Birmingham Oratory." B. Herder Book Co.; 

— "Martha Jane, a Western Boarding 
School Story," by Miss Inez Specking (Ben- 
ziger Bros.), is intended for girls. .It is 
colorless as to character drawing and pre- 
tends to no plot, but is quite orthodox and 
harmless. 

— We have received the second editions of 
two works previously reviewed in the F. E. : 
F. M. Cappello, S. J., "De Censuris, " and 
P. L. Fanfani, O. P., "De lure Eeligio- 
sorum. ' ' These books bear out the prediction 
made at the appearance of the new Code, 
that it would start an ever increasing litera- 
ture on Canon Law because it would show 
canonical "jurisprudence" to be of much 
more vital necessity for the life of the Church. 
Decisions of the Eoman authorities and the 
Mork of individual scholars — who are learning 
one from the other — are causing a real prog- 
ress. Hence it is not surprising that both 
these works, deservedly received with favor 
at their first appearance, now come to us 
thoroughly revised, rearranged, and increased 
in size. On the other hand, the change in 
the title of Cappello, w^ho adds the words 
"tractatus canonico-moralis, " may be some- 
what disconcerting to those who had hoped 
that with the new (V)de a clear-cut division 
between the respective territories of moralists 
and canonists would be brought about. This 
division is possible in the classroom and, per- 
haps, in a strictly legal procedure. But books 
like these are consulted just as frequently in 
daily life where practical cases mostly involve 
both the internal and external forum, and the 
busy "practitioner" likes to have his ques- 
tions answered by one authority rather than 
to consult two or more of them. (Marietti, 
Turin.)— A. D. 

—' ' Tell Us Another, ' ' by Winf red Herbst, 
S. D. S. (Society of the Divine Saviour, St. 
Nanzianz, Wis.), is a collection of very short 



stories, gathered from many different sources, 
suitable to be read to young children, and 
by older ones. They show the truths of faith 
translated into action and should prove help- 
ful to parents and teachers. 

— "Eeunion, " judging from the multi- 
tudinous clashiugs between Fundamentalists 
and Liberalists, and from the attempts of 
many sects to bolster up their claims versus 
the Catholic Church, seems to be reserved as 
a happy consummation for a future day. But 
any attempt to make clear our attitude to our 
separated brethren is a move in the right 
direction. In ' ' Conversations on Christian 
Reunion by a Parish Priest" (John Murphy 
Co., Baltimore), we have a convenient manual 
which defends our position in the matter. 
The ' ' Conversations ' ' explain the most im- 
portant Catholic teachings and are also in- 
tended to assist the clergy and those engaged 
in the work of instructing converts. We 
miss an index. 



New Books Received 

Teaelier Tells a Story. Story-Lessons in 
Conduct and Eeligion for Every Day in the 
School Yea,r . By Eev. Jerome D. Hannan, 
D. D. Book One. 275 pp. 12mo. Benziger 
Bros. $2. 

A Little Saint of the Modern Some. Bv 
Bernard Fuller, S. J. 45 pp. 32mo. P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons. 10 cts., postpaid. (Wrap- 
per). 

A Short Life of Pope Pius the Tenth. By 
F. A. Forbes. 100 pp. 12mo. Benziger 
Bros. 35 cts. net. (Wrapper). 

Katholischer Central-Verein von Amerilca 
(National Federation of German American 
Catholics). Offizieller Bericht fiber die 69. 
Generalversammlung, abgehalten zu Cleve- 
land, O., vom 23. bis 26. Aug. 1925. 124 
pp. 12mo. St. Paul, Minn.: Wanderer 
Printing Co. 

Pnulist Press Pamphlets: Christian Science, 
by Herbert Thurston, S. J. 29 pp. The 
Immaculate Conception, by J. B. Jaggar, 
S. J. 15 pp. The Eeal Presence, by Eev. 
F. Mangan, S. J., 16 pp. Evolution and 
Catholicity, by Sir Bertram C. A. Windle, 
40 pp. AH published by the Paulist Press, 
401 W. 59th Str., New York City. 5 cts. 
per copy; $3.50 per 100. 

Little Canticles of Love. By Augusta Thomp- 
son. 32 pp. 32mo. Paulist Press. 10 cts. 
j)er copy; $6 per 100. (Wrapper). 

T empeJreinigung . Pilgerbuch fur Zeit und 
EAvigkeit von Franz Michel Willam. iv & 
119 pp. 12mo. Herder & Co. $1 net. 

Seelenpflege. Aufmunterung und Anleitung 
zu einem gesunden, glficklichen Seelenleben 
von Joseph Fischer, Pfarrer. xi & 227 pp. 
12mo. Herder & Co. $1.35 net. 

Meine Vortriige. Von Kaplan Fahsel. 35 pp. 
16mo. Herder & Co. 25 cts. net. (Wrap- 
per). 



38 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



Jaiiiiarv 15 



Nf'ue.s Lehen. Ethisch-religiose Darlegimgcii 
von Hermann Muckerniann, Drittes Buch : 
Ehe und Familie im Gottesreich. Mit 
einem Titelbild. 84 pp. 12mo. Herder & 
Co. 75 cts. net. 

Feurige Wolke. Kanzelvortrage auf die 
Sonu- und Festtage des Weihnachts- und 
Osterkreises. Von Dr. tlieol. Robert Lin- 
hardt. x & 178 pp. Svo. Plerder & Co. 
$1.30 net. 

Der 111. Franz Xdvrr, der Apostel von Indicn 
und Japan. Von Georg Sehurhamnier S. J. 
Mit 9 Bildern und einem Kartelien. xi & 
288 pp. 12mo. Herder & Co. $1.75 net. 

Die Ueherivindung des Pessimismus. Eine 
Auseinandersetzung mit Arthur Schopen- 
hauer. Von Helmut Fahsel, Kaplan. 6. 
bis in. Tausend. x & 86 pp. 8vo. Herder 
«fe Co. 60 cts. net. (Wrapper). 

Mein Tagewerlc. Von Johannes Eeinke. Mit 
einem Bildnis. viii & 495 pp. 8vo. Herder 
& Co. $2.75 net. 

Adolf PicMer {1819—1900). Lehen und 
Werke. Von Joseph Eduard Wackernell. 
Nacli dem Tode Wackernells abgeschlossen 
und im Auftrage des Tiroler Zweigvereins 
der Oesterreiehischen Leo-Gesellschaft her- 
ausgegeben von Anton Dorrer. Mit einem 
Bild. xii & 357 pp. 8vo. Herder & Co. 
$3.75 net. 

Eeliand. Die altsachsisehe Evangeliendich- 
tung nebst den Bruchstiicken der altsaoli- 
sischen Genesis. Im Versmass des ITrtextes 
neu iibertr-agen, mit Einleitung und An- 
merkungen versehen von Otto Kunze. vi & 
141 pp. Herder & Co. $1.60 net. 

Das Missale im Lichte romischer Stadtge- 
schichte. Stationen, Perikopen, Gebrauelie. 
Von Hartmann Grisar S. J. vi & 120 pp. 
large 8vo. Herder & Co. $2.20 net. 
(Wrapper). 

Der Maimer Domdekan Dr. Jolt,. Bapt. Hein- 
rich. 1816 — 1891. Ein Lebensbild nach 
originalen Quellen und personliehen Erin- 
nerungen von Ludwig Freiherrn von Pastor. 
Mit einem Bilde Heinrichs. 69 pp. 12mo. 
Herder & Co. 60 cts. (Wrapper). 

BeinJioId Baumstark und Alhan Stols. Von 
Dr. Julius Mayer. 30 pp. 8vo. Herder iS; 
Co. 30 cts. net. (Wrapper). 

The Seraphic Eighivay. Talks to Tertiaries 
and Non-Tertiaries on the Third Order of 
St. Francis. By Rev. Fulgence Meyer, O. 
F. M., Commissary of the Third Order, 
Province of St. John the Baptist, viii & 
245 pp. 16mo. Cincinnati, O. : St. Anthony 
Messenger. $1, postpaid. 

Compendium Sacrae Liturgiae iuxta Eitani 
Romanum. Scripsit P. Innocentius Wapel- 
horst, O. F. M. Ad Novissima Documenta 
Recognovit et Additionibus Passim Locu- 
pletavit P. Aurelius Bruegge, O. F. ]\I. 
Editio Decima. xi & 641 pp. 12mo. Beii- 
ziger Bros. $3 net. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

THE ARMOR OF 
LIGHT 

SHORT SERMONS 

ON THE EPISTLES 

FOR 

EVERY SUNDAY IN THE YEAR 

BY 

THE REV. J. J. BURKE 

Cloth, 8vo., VIII and 228 pages, 
net $1.50 

' ' The Armor of Light' ' is a book that 
will be a valuable aid to the busy priest. 
It is a series of short sermons on the 
Sunday Epistles. While sermon books 
on the Gospels are numerous, books of 
sermons on the Epistles are rare. 

Although the fifty-eight sermons are 
based on the Epistles of the various Sun- 
days and Holydays such interesting, prac- 
tical and instructive subjects are treated 
as "Our Faithful Friend," "The Law 
of Love, " " Spiritual Joy, " " Persecu- 
tors," "Paul, The Victor," "The Ac- 
ceptable Time, " " The Crown of Eternal 
Life,' ' ' ' Types and Proi^heeies, ' ' 
"Peace." "Duties of a Christian," 
"Conscience," "Prudence," "The 
Christian Soldier, " " Disloyalty, ' ' 
' ' Idols,' ' ' ' Vocations, " " The ~ Praise 
and Glory of God, " " The Christian War- 
fare," "The Triumph of Religion." 

The book contains a great variety of 
practical sermons on doctrinal and moral 
subjects. It is for the Epistles what 
' ' The Great Problem, " by the same 
author, is for the Gospels. 

Of "The Great Problem" the Ave 
Maria said : ' ' The reverend author aimed 
at and attained brevity and clearness. 
This volume is likely to receive a welcome 
from that great army of priests who are 
always looking for something new and 
good in the matter of sermon-books. ' ' 

These words and siiuilar criticisms of 
"The Catholic World," "America" and 
other papers are also applicable to 
"The Armor of Light." 

B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



39 



il 



E ECHO 



A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for • 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
who used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fuifiilea. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, irEV™AND"*o. 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



In the WorJcshop of St. Joseph. By Eev. 
Herman J. Heuser, D. D. 21-4 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Bros. $2.75 net. 

^4 Practical Commentary on the Code of 
Canon Latv. Bv Eev. Stanislaus AVoywod, 
0. F. M. With a Preface by Rt.' Eev. 
Msgr. Philip Bernardini, Prof, of Canon 
Law at the Catholic University, Washington^ 
D. C. 2 vols, xiii & 736 and xi & 733 pp. 
8vo. Jos. F. Wagner, Inc. $l-t net. 

That Fool Moffett. [A Novel] by E. C. 
Scott. 3.59 pp. 12nio. B. Herder Book Co. 
$2 net. 

Jiooks for the Freemason. A Catalogue 
Prepared under the Supervision of the 
Editor-in-Chief of the National Masonic 
Eesearch Society and of its Official Journal, 
The Builder. 72 pp. St. Louis, Mo.: 
National Masonic Research Society, 1950 
Eaihvay Exchange Bldg. 

I)er Kleine Herder. Nachschlagebueh iiber 
alles tiir a He. Mit vielen Bildern und Kar- 
ten. Zweiter Halbband L — Z. pp. 753 to 
1531. • Herder & Co. $4.25 net. 

Scripture Headings for Times of Retreat. 
Selected, Arranged for Eetreats of Thirty 
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George 'Neill, S. J. xiii & 227 pp. 12mo. 
Frederick Pustet Co., Inc. $1.50. 

Opuscida Ascetica Auctore B. Roberto Bellar- 
mino S. J., S. R. F. Cardinali. Tomus I: 
De Ascensione Mentis in Deum per Scalas 
Eerum Creatarum et De Aeterna Felicitate 
Sanctorum, xix & 642 pp. Tomus II: De 
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Tomus III: De Septem Verbis a Christo in 
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The Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
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et Emendavit A. Schmitt S. J. 716 pp. 
12mo. Fr. Pustet Co., Inc. $3.50. 



40 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEYIEW 



Januar}" 15 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



A Protestant clergyman whose salary had 
not been paid for several months told the 
trustees that he must have his money, as his 
family were suffering for want of the neces- 
saries of life. "Money!" exclaimed one of 
the trustees, noted for his stinginess. ' ' Do 
you preach for money? I thought you 
preached for the good of souls. ' ' The clergy- 
man replied: "So I do; but I cannot eat 
souls. And if I could, it would take a 
thousand such souls as yours to make a 
meal." 

At Haines City, Florida, there is a church 
which is familiarly called the "Rocking Chair 
Church,' ' for the reason that pews have l)ecn 
abolished and rocking chairs have taken their 
place. W. T. Brooks and Eugene C. Bryan, 
mayor of Haines City, jointly built the church 
in memory of W. T. Brooks, Jr. The out- 
sider sees a real challenge in that array of 
rocking chair worshippers. The minister must 
say something vital, interesting or compelling 
if he is to obtain and retain the attention of 
his hearers. By implication the possession 
of a rocking chair in church means that you 
are justified in rocking yourself to sleep if 
the sermon is dull. — Cliristian Worlc. 



The Dearborn Independent says that in the 
present world crisis there are two types of 
men who cannot help very much. One is the 
Optimist, who believes that you can take a 
sow's ear and make it into a silk purse by 
deep breathing. The other type is the Pessi- 
mist, who, confronted with a choice of two 
evils, takes them both. Of the two, however, 
the Pessimist is not without advantage. He 
walks cautiously at least, and with his eyes 
open. He at least asks questions. He may 
be a Pessimist, but he is an inquiring Pessi- 
mist. An incjuiring mind is a safer mind to 
follow than a mind that accepts everything 
with a gulp and a smile. The surprises and 
disappointments in store for the Optimist are 
usually very sad. But the surprises and dis- 
appointments of the Pessimist are always 
good and glad. 



The Society for Pure English offers this 
dialogue, as a warning against the careless 
use of prepositions : 

Child— "I want to be read to." 

Nurse — "What book do you want to be 
read to out of?" 

Child — ' ' Robinson Crusoe. ' ' 

Nurse goes out and returns with ' ' The 
Swiss Family Robinson. ' ' 

Child — ' ' What did you bring me that book 
to be read to out from for?" — Boston Herald. 



Motorists Avill be glad to know that there 
is one place at least in the country where the 
driver may get as much speed as he can out 
of his car without incurring the penalty of the 



law. A sign in the State of Idaho reads: 
" Sunnyside city limits. Speed limit 100 
miles. Fords do your best." 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



41 



JUST PUBLISHED 

THE ARMOR OF 
LIGHT 

SHORT SERMONS 

ON THE EPISTLES 

FOR 

EVERY SUNDAY IN THE YEAR 

BY 

THE REV. J. J. BURKE 

Cloth, 8vo., VIII and 228 pages, 
net $1.50 

' ' The Armor of Light' ' is a book that 
will be a valuable aid to the busy priest. 
It is a series of short sermons on the 
Sunday Epistles. While sermon books 
on the Gospels are numerous, books of 
sermons on the Epistles are rare. 

Although the fifty-eight sermons are 
based on the Epistles of the various Sun- 
days and Holydays such interesting, prac- 
tical and instructive subjects are treated 
as "Our Faithful Friend," "The Law 
of Love," "Spiritual Joy," "Persecu- 
tors," "Paul, The Victor," "The Ac- 
ceptable Time, " " The Crown of Eternal 
Life,' ' ' ' Types and Prophecies, ' ' 
' ' Peace. " " Duties of a Christian, ' ' 
"Conscience," "Prudence," "The 
Christian Soldier," "Disloyalty," 
"Idols," "Vocations," "The Praise 
and Glory of God," "The Christian War- 
fare," "The Triumph of Keligion." 

The book contains a great variety of 
practical sermons on doctrinal and moral 
subjects. It is for the Epistles what 
"The Great Problem," by the same 
author, is for the Gospels. 

Of "The Great Problem" the Ave 
Maria said : ' ' The reverend author aimed 
at and attained brevity and clearness. 
This volume is likely to receive a welcome 
from that great army of priests who are 
always looking for something new and 
good in the matter of sermon-books. ' ' 

These words and similar criticisms of 
' ' The Catholic World, " ' ' America ' ' and 
other papers are also applicable to 
"The Armor of Light." 



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42 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BE VIEW 



February 1 



WHAT FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS WILL DO 

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L,. \f. HEMP, PRESIDENT S. L. ST. JEAN, SECRBTAR'S'-TREAiSVRER J. \f . >VESTON, ViCE-PRES. 



A NUN'S TRIBUTE TO THE POWERFUL INTERCESSION OF 

ST. ANTHONY 




mostly growing boys in latter class 
is helping me. 



"Very Eev. Father: About a year ago I in 
utter despair and desperation wrote to the Friars 
of the Atonement at Graymoor to intercede with 
dear St. Anthony in my behalf as I was on the 
verge of a nervous breakdown. I must say the 
only thing that kept me in the convent was my 
holy vows and faith that in God 's good time I 
would be able to control my nerves. Thank God 
and all praise to St. Anthony I am outwardly to 
all who see me very calm and at last seem to be 
able to control my nerves. Father, believe me 
when I tell you I had almost begun to think that 
I was a hopeless case. I now am able to teach 
and have a class of most eighty children in day 
school and over fifty in Bible class on Sunday, 
All this is a drag on the nerves, but St. Anthony 



If you .wish you may publish this which I call a real miracle worked through the 
good St. Anthony. Praised be God through His Servant, St. Anthony. This letter may 
seem strange, but it is a true thanksgiving, and I ask you to believe this miracle and 
also kindly continue your prayers on my behalf. Thanking you once again for placing 
my note on dear St. Anthony 's Shrine, with a promise for future prayers for you through 
the same dear Saint, I remain as before 

A Grateful Consecrated Spouse of Jesus. ' ' 

A new Novena to St. Anthony at his Shrine in St. Francis Church on the Mount 
of the Atonement, Gra^mioor, N. Y., begins every Tuesday. Clients of the Wonder- 
Worker of Padua should mail their -oetitions to 



ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, GRAYMOOR. GARRISON, NEW YORK. 



The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, No. 3 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI February 1st, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



The Kensington Rune Stone 

Our readers are familiar with both 
the text and history of the famous 
Kensington Rune Stone, for we have 
repeatedly printed accounts of it, the 
last time in our edition of June 15, 
1915, in connection with a lecture by 
the V. Rev. Dr. Francis Schaefer. The 
stone was discovered in 1898 by a 
Swedish farmer, Olaf Ohman, under a 
tree on a tract of land which he was 
clearing in Douglas Co., Minn., about 
three miles north of Kensington. The 
inscription, in runic characters, tells of 
eight Goths (Swedes) and twenty-two 
Norwegians who were on an exploring 
tour in that part of America, in the 
year 1362. One day, when they re- 
turned from a fishing trip, they found 
ten of their companions "red ^^ath 
blood and dead," presumably scalped 
by Indians. The inscription contains 
the line: "A V M (Ave Virgo Maria) 
Save us from evil." This inscription, 
if authentic, is undoubtedly the earliest 
record of Catholic life in what after- 
wards became Minnesota. Is it authen- 
tic? Dr. Schaefer gave it as his opin- 
ion (1. c.) that both intrinsically and 
extrinsically everything speaks for the 
authenticity of the stone and its legend. 
Since he delivered his lecture, the State 
Historical Society of Minnesota has 
had the stone and its inscription care- 
fully examined by five of its most cap- 
able scholars, who agree with such 
authorities as Prof. Kerm and Prof. 
Holand, that "this is a genuine docu- 
ment of the year 1362." (Pelican 
Rapids Press, quoted in the St. Louis 
Star of Dec. 30, 1925.) It is believed 
that the stone was left by some Norse- 
men who had wandered into this region 
in the year 1362. There have been 
many similar inscriptions found in 



England, Scotland, Norway, and the 
Scandinavian countries. This one 
probably owes its existence to an ex- 
ploring party sent out by the Catholic 
King of Norway and Sweden to do mis- 
sionary Avork among the Norse settle- 
ments in Greenland, some of the in- 
habitants of which had been reported 
as relapsing into paganism. 

"Kaplan Fahsel" 

A young Berlin curate, the Rev. 
Helmut Fahsel, widely known through- 
out Germany as "Kaplan Fahsel," 
created quite a stir in that metropolis 
last winter b^^ delivering a course of 
lectures on philosophical subjects. 
Reading over the programme or survey 
of these lectures as presented b}^ him- 
self in a pamphlet just published by 
Herder & Co., of Freiburg, under the 
title, "Kaplan Fahsel: Meine Vor- 
triige," ore wonders what it was that 
so deeply impressed his hearers, for 
these lectures, as "Die Ueberw^indung 
des Pessimismus, " also published by 
Herder, shows, are merely a popular 
presentation of the old truths of 
Scholastic philosophy, with due regard 
to present-day conditions. Perhaps 
the motto of "Meine Vortrage" con- 
tains the explanation. It is as follows : 
"The living spirit best reveals itself 
through the spoken word, which pro- 
ceeds immediately from the thought." 
Kaplan Fahsel must be a very eloquent 
speaker. "Die Ueberwindung des Pes- 
simismus," which is subtitled "Eine 
Auseinandersetzung mit Arthur Scho- 
penhauer," derives considerable force 
from the fact that the author was him- 
self at one time a Pessimist of the 
Schopenhauerian school. He refutes 
its chief tenets very cogently and in 
his concluding chapter shows that 



44 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



every man must go through a pessi- 
mistic period, and the important thing 
is not to drown in this stagnant pool, 
but to arise out of it and, by the aid of 
divine grace, to. see things in their 
true light, and to direct the purified 
will through pain and sufilering into 
the realm of a wholesome Christian 
Optimism, 

Barbarism in Military Training 

Christian Work (N. Y., Vol. 119, No. 
23) quotes from the 1923 edition of 
"The Manual of Military Training," 
by Col. James A. Moss, U. S. A., which 
is used as a text book in the College 
of the City of New York, and presum- 
ably in many other American schools 
and colleges, some passages which show 
how barbaric is the military training 
given under government auspices in 
these schools. 

"Bayonet fighting is possible only 
because red-blooded men naturally 
possess the fighting instinct. This 
inherent desire to fight and kill must 
be carefully Avatched for and encour- 
aged by the instructor." (Ch. XXVII). 

On page 24, Appendix I, are con- 
tained explicit instructions Jiuiv to 
break the opponent's neck. We read: 
■'Fcrce him [j^our opponent] to tlie 
ground and break his neck by suddenly 
throwing the feet we.l to the rear and 
falling forward, tightening the arms 
and pressing the shoulder tightty 
against the back of the head. This 
hold when properly executed wall break 
the opponent's neck," etc., etc. 

The next instruction sIiom's how to 
gouge your brother's eyes out with 
your thumbs. "When the opponent 
secures a hold from the front, clig the 
thumbs into his eyes, forcing his head 
back, and follow up b.y driving the 
knee to his crotch. . . . Also attempt 
to grasp one of his fingers and either 
tAvist it or break it." 

Nothing seems to be taught in the 
book about how to bite your brother's 
ear off, but this was a favorite pastime 
in the Balkan wars of 1912 and was 
also practiced occasionallj^ in the war 
of 1914. It is a serious omission, 
for we can imagine no pleasanter past- 
time for bovs in whom lust for fight- 



ing and killing has been highly de- 
veloped by the instructor, than iDiting 
off the enemy's ears. 

Seriously, how much longer are 
Christian people going to stand for 
this sort of thing? How long are we 
going to beat about the bush and secret- 
ly be barbarians and pagans in prac- 
tice while we call ourselves Christians? 

The Liturgical Apostolate 

We hear a good deal about the litur- 
gical apostolate. In what does this 
apostolate consist? Dom Gaspar, 0. 
S. B., in his "Catholic Liturgy," trans- 
lated into English by a Benedictine 
of Stanbrook (Sands & B. Herder 
Book Co.), outlines the programme as 
follows : 

Those who work at the liturgical 
apostolate should endeavor :(1) To keep 
before them as a final and constant ob- 
ject of their worship the three Aug-ust 
Persons of the Holy Trinity. ... (2) 
To adore God the Father through the 
mediation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the great High Priest (present in the 
Holy Eucharist), and under the im- 
pulse of the grace of the Holy Spirit. 
(3) To make use in their prayers of' 
the sacerdotal mediation of the Cath- 
olic hierarchy. They should take pleas- 
ure in praying in union with their 
priests, and should show public marks 
of respect to the clergy wherever they 
meet them. (4) To attend, if they 
can conveniently do so, their cathedral 
or parish church, in order to receive 
there the bread of doctrine and the 
Bread of the Eucharist. On Sun- 
days, as a general rule, they should be 
present at the High Mass. (5) To 
make the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass 
the centre of their spiritual life, by 
assisting at it every daj^ if possible. 
(6) To communicate often and especial- 
ly on Sundays and festivals; they 
should, if possible, make the same 
preparation as the priest. (7) To have 
an ever-growing appreciation of the 
Sacraments. (8) To make frequent 
use of the sacramentals, holy water, 
blessed candles, ashes, palms; the 
Pater, the Confiteor, etc. (9) To be 
present at some part of the Canonical 
Offices, especially on Sunday at Ves- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



45 



pers and Compline. (10) To direct 
their prayers, even their private de- 
votions, according to the anniversaries 
of the Life of Christ celebrated b}^ the 
Church in her calendar. (11) To ob- 
serve in their devotion to the Saints 
the order established by Pius X in his 
reform of the Breviary. (12) As far 
as possible to take an active part in 



the public prayers of the Church by 
reciting the liturgical formulas, and 
especially by the chant. This they 
should study in schools of Gregorian 
Chant. (13) To use by preference 
the formulas of the Church's prayer 
contained in the Breviary and especial- 
ly in the Missal, which should be their 
chief prayer book. 



Concerning the So-Called "Miracle" 

By the Rev. John Rothensteiner 



The earliest Aversion of the legend 
that forms the substance of the mag- 
nificent spectacle, "The Miracle," is 
found in that wonderful store-house 
of medieval legends, the "Dialogus 
Miraculorum" of Caesarius of Heister- 
bach, written in the earh^ years of 
the thirteenth century. The author 
was prior of the celebrated Cistercian 
Abbey of Heisterbach ; a man of wide 
learning, an eloquent preacher, and, 
according to the Menology of the Cis- 
tercian Order, "a servant of God re- 
nowned for heroic virtue and the power 
of miracles." The "Dialogus Mira- 
culorum" is the best known and most 
valuable work of Caesarius. It was 
widely circulated in numerous manu- 
scripts, of which there are only four 
known to exist to-da.y. The first printed 
edition is dated 1475. The only mod- 
ern edition is that of Josephus Strange, 
published in Cologne, Bonn, and 
Bruxelles in 1851. 

The book is intended to be strictly 
historical; the author calls upon God 
to witness that he had not invented 
a single chapter of his Dialogue. All 
the innumerable stories of miracles 
and wonders thus treasured up, have 
a bearing on the subject of conversions. 
Accordingly, many of them passed in- 
to the "Books of Examples," widely 
used by the preachers of the Gospel, in 
one of Avhich, the "Speculum Exem- 
plorum Omnibus Salubriter Inspicien- 
dum, ut Exemplis Discant Disciplin- 
am, " published in 1519 by Henrj^ Brau 
and John Rynman in the imperial city 
of Hagenau, we found an entire chapter 
of legends derived from our Caesarius, 



among them the legend of the run- 
away nun and her heavenly protec- 
tress. 

AVhence the author of the Dialogues 
derived this particular storj^ and in 
what convent it was supposed to have 
happened, is not mentioned : in fact, 
the author writes: "In monasterio, 
cuius iwmen igmoro," but adds that 
it happened recently, "ante non multos 
annos." The nun's name is given as 
Beatrix. Later writers, among 
them St. Alphonsus de' Liguori in his 
"Glories of Mary," mention the Con- 
vent of Fontevrault. St. Alphonsus 's 
version is essentially the same as that 
of the "Dialogus Miraculorum," and 
ver}^ probably derived from it. Only 
the seducer in the earlier version is 
a cleric, which does not necessarily 
mean a person in orders, but may mean 
a university student, whilst St. Al- 
phonsus simply calls him a young man. 

The earlier versions, of course, have 
nothing of the pomp and pageantry of 
knighthood, and tournaments, and im- 
perial courts; they relate in a few 
words the sad story of temptation, sin, 
and consequent degradation and sor- 
row : and the Mother of God 's tender 
pity and care for the sinning soul of 
one that had been her servant once 
and could not be left forsaken and for- 
lorn. It is an illustration, and a most 
beautiful one, of the Prayer of St. 
Bernard called the Memorare : "Re- 
member, most gracious Virgin, that 
never was it known that anyone who 
fled to thy protection, implored thy 
help, and sought thy intercession, was 
left unaided." 



46 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Febi'uarv 1 



Long before the Freudian Vollmoel- 
ler's spectacular production the great 
poetic possibilities of the legend were 
recognized and developed in poetry 
and prose. Of the many we will men- 
tion but a few that have come under 
our notice. 
Ade' ai de Anno Procter 's' ' Legends and 
Lyrics," 1858, emphasizes the Catholic 
view of the matter in "A Legend of 
Provence." The convent is dedicated 
to "Our Lady of the Hawthorns," and 
the nun is descril)ed as an orphan child 
that had never seen anything of the 
outside world, until a number of 
wounded soldiers were left in care of 
the consecrated virgins. One of the 
soldiers, a young knight, whom Sister 
Angela Avas destined to nurse back to 
health, described to her in glowing 
colors the feasts and tournaments and 
pageants he had witnessed, and so 
filled the innocent child with a secret 
longing to visit 

"The glorious ^vol•ld of joy, all joy above, 
Trausfigured in the goldeu mist of love. ' ' 

More sinned against than sinning, 
Angela tied from the calm and quiet 
of her childhood home into the 
"heaven" she anticipated, but found 
instead a place of anguish, and terror, 
and utter degradation. Filled with 
disgust, and longing for peace, the 
grace of God touched her soul. She 
returns to "Our Lady of the Haw- 
thorns" in beggar's garb, is kindly re- 
ceived b}' the portress, Avho runs to get 
the key to let her in. But a figure 
appears before the wanderer : so like 
and yet so unlike herself ; a figure that 
might be her own self if she had never 
strayed away — it is the Virgin Mother 
of God, who had taken the figure and 
the work of the run-away Sister during 
all these years of her pitiful wander- 
ing. 

Next to this, in time, and far above 
it in poetic merit, is the grand "Ballad 
of a Nun" by John Davidson, so full 
of human pathos and splendor of dic- 
tion, showing the rush of passion 
through the varied scenes of life, until 
the sudden awakening comes with the 
crv "I have had mv will — " 



"A trowel for my passing loell, 
A little bed Avithin the wall, 
A coverlet of stone; how well 
I then shall keep my Carnival." 

But no. 

"The wardress raised her tenderly, 
She touched her wet and half shut eyes; 
Look, Sister; Sister look at me; 
Look; can you see through my disguise?" 

It was the Virgin Mary that received 
her back into the convent's peace and 
holy calm. 

Of German Avriters who have made 
use of the legend we would mention 
but one, the great Swiss novelist Gott- 
fried Keller, Avho in his "Seven Leg- 
ends" gave the immediate inspiration 
to Vollmoeller. The legend of Beat- 
rix, as the heroine is rightl}^ named, 
briefly but powerfully describes some 
wild scenes of the darker side of med- 
ieval life and sends her back to the 
convent, really unrepentant, but for- 
given through the influence of her 
heavenly protectress. This version, 
the most unsatisfactory of all, has 
many points of resemblance Avith "The 
Miracle" of to-day. 

In regard to the legend itself, there 
can be no objection on the part of 
Catholics. For even the mightiest 
oaks may fall, even the purest lilies 
may be trodden in the mire. The rep- 
resentation also, of such a fall and 
desecration, may prove an incentive 
to virtue. Yet in our day of shallow 
wit and low morality such theatrical 
performances will, in many eases, but 
serve to confirm men's Ioav estimate 
of all womanhood, and especially of 
that of God's consecrated virgins, the 
very lilies among the thorns of human 
existence. ''Verba docent, exempla 
frahunt." AVould that the beautiful 
pathetic legend of the erring and con- 
verted nun had remained untrammeled 
by the meretricious artifices of the 
stage I 



WINTER SUNSET 



By Charles J. Quirlc, S. J. 

So like some splendid Vision, 
Pure rose beyond dark trees; 
A glimpse of Fields Elysian — 
I watched it on my knees. 



192(5 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
The Georgia Plan of Defending the Faith 

By P. H. Callcihan of Louisville 



47 



Regular readers of the F. R. may 
remember the article entitled, "Geor- 
gia of Today," written by me some 
two years ago. Again, some twelve 
months back, having attended the 1924 
annual convention of the Georgia Lay- 
men's Association and addressed the 
meeting, it was my pleasure to summar- 
ize their activities in another article 
for this magazine. 

Frequentl}^, in my travels over the 
country, Catholic friends who are ac- 
quainted with m}' connection with the 
Georgia activities, ask me why it is 
not possible to extend that unique work 
into other dioceses, and perhaps erect 
it into a national association. In fact, 
there have been several imitations of 
the Georgia Association started in 
different parts of the country, but with 
indifferent success. Their leaders, it 
seems, had not sufficiently studied the 
methods pursued in the Georgia work. 
Some of them appeared to have the 
notion that all that was necessary was 
to form an organization, print or buy 
a few pamphlets and distribute them, 
and the thing was done; but prejudice 
has too many aspects, too many phases, 
too many sides, and is too common a 
failing among us all, for any touch 
and go method of dissipation to be 
effective. The Georgia plan requires 
study. 

'ihat work is in its tenth year now, 
and it is going right along, continu- 
ing to meet the issues that arise and 
always with success, until it can be 
fairly said that there is hardly any 
kind of problem that enters into the 
relations of men which the Georgia 
Laymen are not able to approach in 
the proper way, and handle with sat- 
isfaction. 

Appended hereto is an editorial re- 
cently clipped from a Georgia news- 
paper, the Cufhbert Leader, which 
serves a community in which there are 
scarcely any Catholics at all (there 
are less than 1 % in the w^hole State 
of Georgia), yet one ventures to think 
that even Boston, or Philadelphia, or 



any other of our northern cities, with 
their large Catholic population, could 
hardly boast a newspaper so candid 
and so complimentary as this Georgia 
editor shows himself to a Catholic or- 
ganization which took him to task. 

Mr. Reid's letter is submitted as 
an example of proper approach to the 
issue in order to turn an apparent 
disadvantage into a real advantage, 
^\hich in nine cases out of ten can 
be successfully accomplished if we but 
try to observe the second of the two 
commandments of love and show 
toward our neighbor the good will 
which the teachings of our faith en- 
join upon us in all our relations with 
our fellowmen. 

* # * 

Mr. Reid's letter to the editor of 
the Leader w^as as follows : 
Mr. D. A. MePherson, Cuthbert, Ga. 

Dear Sir : In your unique aud interesting 
advertisement in the Cuthhert Leader we 
note the following in reference to the recent 
"evolution trial" in Tennessee: 

' ' But I really did not know that there Avas 
any concert of action on the part of the 
infidels, the agnostics, the atheists, the Jews, 
the Catholics, the evolutionists, the modernists 
and the scientists to utilize our educational 
system for the spread of their disrespect for 
our God and His Bible. ' ' 

Catholics are out of place in any line-up of 
those who saek to spread disrespect for God 
and His Bible. The enclosed pamphlet on 
* ' Catholics and the Bible ' ' shows that Cath- 
olics not only believe the Bible to be the 
Word of God, but it was the Catholic Church 
which compiled the Bible and preserved it 
centuries before any other of the existing 
Christian denominations came into existence. 

Some time ago William Jennings Bryan re- 
ferred to the colleges and universities in the 
United States where the theory of evolution 
is taught as a fact. He said that no Cath- 
olic college or university, or Catholic insti- 
tution of any kind, was guilty of the error. 

Enclosed is a clipping from the Chattanooga 
^eivs telling of the assistance rendered by 
Catholic leaders to Mr. Bryan. We are also 
sending you under separate cover a copy 
of Tlte Bulletin, the Catholic newspaper of 
this section, which refers to the theory of 
evolution and to the Dayton trial ; it reveals 
that the attitude of Catholics on this ques- 
tion is just the opposite to what your adver- 
tisement indicates you thought it was. 



48 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Februarv 1 



Our association was organized to bring 
about friendlier relations between Georgians, 
irrespective of creed. We find out that most of 
the opposition to Catholics is due to a mis- 
understanding of what they believe, rather 
than to their actual beliefs and practices. 
If, as you thought, Catholics were lined up 
with the forces seeking to spread disrespect 
for God and the Bible, we would not blame 
you for being suspicious of us, but we trust 
that the explanation above, together with the 
matter referred to as being forwarded to you, 
will convince j'ou otherwise. 

If you care to write to us, we shall be 
pleased to have you give us your views on 
this letter and on the matter we are sending 



you. 



Very sincerely yours, 

Richard Reid, 
Publicitv Director. 



This letter was printed Avith the fol- 
lowing editorial comment : 

In a recent advertisement I did an injustice 
to the Catholic Church, for which I am sorry. 
The nature of my offense against them is 
explained in the letter from their publicity 
director, Mr. Richard Reid, and which I am 
pleased to publish herewith. I have repro- 
duced the letter in full, for two reasons : 
The first one is, that it may lose none of its 
completeness; the second, to show you what 
a good taste a letter like this can leave in 
your mouth after you have been taken to 
task for your too much speaking. Certainly 
Mr. Reid is a valuable publicity director, 
and judging from this experience that I 
have had, is making real friends for his 
church. With the knowledge thus gained, I 
am wondering why my own denomination does 
not have a publicity director. 



Perils of the Santa Fe Trail in its Early Days ( 1 822-1 851) 

By Benjamin M. Read, Santa Fe, New Mexico 



In the year 1852, when William Carr 
Lane was governor of New Mexico, 
there lived in Santa Fe one James L. 
Collins, one of the first American mer- 
chants that came to New Mexico, he 
having come in 1827. 

Mr. Collins moved his business to 
El Paso, Tex., in 1843 or 1844, remain- 
ing at El Paso until about 1850. when 
he returned to Santa Fe, where he re- 
established his business, remaining in 
that occupation until 1857, at which 
time he was appointed U. S. Indian 
Agent, a position that had up to that 
time been filled by the governor of 
the Territory. 

Because of his experience as a 
pioneer, Mr. Collins must have been 
considered an authority on matters 
connected with the early history of 
the Santa Fe Trail. That, undoubt- 
edh^ was the reason that prompted 
Governor Lane to ask him to give, for 
the benefit of the public, his opinion 
on the advisability of risking the cross- 
ing of the plains from Missouri to 
Santa Fe during the winter months. 
The governor, it seems, wanted that 
information in order to communicate 
it to the legislature, then in session at 
Santa Fe, as Collins' letter appears as 
an appendix to Governor Lane's mes- 
sage, which he read to the Legislature 



in r)ecpm])er, 1852. Collins' letter reads 
tlius: 

"Santa Fe, N. M. 
December 10, 1852. 
Dear Sir : 

In answer to your inquiry on the 
subject of the practicability of a winter 
trip across the plains, from the fron- 
tier of Missouri, to New Mexico, I have 
to say, that my acquaintance with the 
route in question commenced in the 
year 1827. Previous to that date I 
believe but one attempt was made to 
cross the plains in the winter, and 
that was in the year 1824 or 1825, by 
a small party from St. Louis, at the 
head of which was Messrs. Faulkner 
and Anderson. They reached a point 
on the Arkansas River, near Choteau's 
Island, when they were met by a heav;\' 
fall of snow, in Avhich nearly all their 
horses and mules perished, and they 
were compelled to winter on an island 
that has since been known as "Log 
Island," from the quantity of timber 
cut for the subsistence of the few 
remaining animals, and to shelter the 
men from the storm. 

After this, it was for a number of 
years deemed impracticable to attempt 
the trip in the winter, but since the 
route has become better known, it 
has been frequently traveled, often. 



7917 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEWS' 



49 



however, resulting in great destruction In 1849, Messrs. Brown, Russell and 
of property, and not unfrequently of Co., in crossing the Jornada from the 
human life. In the month of Decem- Arkansas to the Cimarron, with a train 
ber, 1841, Don Manuel Alvarez, i\\\ of some twenty wagons, were over- 
experienced and enterprising traveler, taken by a storm of snow and sleet ac- 
with a small party, was caught in a companied with a terrific wind, 
snow-storm, on Cotton-wood Creek, The men retreated to their covered 
near Council Grove. In a few hours, wagons, leaving the cattle to wander 
two men and all his mules were frozen whither they would; but they instinc- 
to death, and the snow drifted in such tively kept within the inclosure formed 
torrents as to extinguish the fires in by the w^agons ; thej- perished, how-- 
a very few minutes. All hope seemed ever, in a fcAv hours, 
to be at once shut out from the party ; The suoav drifted into the wagons 
everything of life around them had through every crevice until they were 
perished, and they themselves seemed filled nearly to the tops of the bows ; 
fast sinking into an everlasting sleep, this fortunately- sheltered the men be- 
Two of the number, the stoutest among neath from the piercing cold without, 
them, had sunk to rise no more, and the Two of the men ventured about daylight 
remainder would unquestionably have to get out of theirwagon for the purpose 
shared the same fate but for the energy of kindling a fire, but in a few minutes 
of Mr. Alvarez himself, who, by ab- became so stiffened with the intense 
solutely driving the men into motion, cold, that they were unable to get into 
was enabled to keep them alive until their Avagon again without assistance, 
the storm had abated. Many of them, The others prudently kept beneath 
however, were badly frozen. their blankets and canopy of snow 
Few scenes have been presented to during the whole day and succeeding 
the view of men, more terrific than night, not venturing to change their 
the one encountered by this little party position, wisely determining to endure 
on that dreadful night. the pangs of hunger rather than run 
About the same period another the risk of sharing the same fate of 
party, under the charge of Don An- their unfortunate animals, 
tonio Roubidoux, met a snow-storm at On the second day the storm abated, 
the same place. They lost in one night though the cold was still intense. They 
over 400 mules and horses, and one or ventured from their coverts to look 
two men, and narrowly escaped the upon the sad wreck of life around 
loss of their entire party. them, and to think upon the awful con- 
In 1844, Dr. H. Connelly and Mr. dition in which the}' were placed — a 
Spyre, as early in the season as the condition which none can realize but 
12th of October, encountered a storm those who have experienced it. Hun- 
near the Arkansas River, in which a dreds of miles from any civilized hab- 
number of mules perished, and the re- itation, in the midst of a desert waste 
mainder were only saved by running producing not a stick of timber in a 
them into the timber on the river, a range of many miles, and no animal 
distance of some 15 miles. left, they seemed to be shut up by an 

The same part.y, a few days subse- inexorable destiny, 

quently, met a second storm, on the One consolation was left them, the 

Cimarron, in which they lost in one train was loaded with provisions, and 

night over 300 mules, and were com- they could use the wagons for fuel. But 

pelled to remain until mules were sent for this, they must all soon have per- 

f rom Santa Fe to their relief. ished ; they were, liow^ever, enabled 

In 1848, Messrs. Waldo, McCoy & thus to sustain themselves until suc- 
Co., government freighters, on _ their^^ c or arrived in the spring, 
return trip to Missouri lost^.^B'^^Iy "a^n ^/T!;^?^ 1850, the same company with a 

their cattle, amounting t^^\^Py nuii- taruo train of wagons with government 
dred head. The wagon/^weK6s.4©ft--orK-'^reiglit encountered a snow-storm be- 
the plains until spring^ py [}|i]Oiy UMieen t^is place and San Miguel, in 



4s. CORDlSi^ 



50 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



which the}' lost over a thousaud head 
of cattle. For this loss they have a 
claim now pending before the Congress 
of the United States. 

In the year 1851 the Cotton-wood 
Creek was again the scene of a terrible 
destrnction of life. A government 
train that had been started to the 
States by Col. Snmner, was overtaken 
by one of those destructive storms so 
frequently met with at that ill-fated 
spot ; in a single night nearly three 
hundred mules perished ; one man was 
also lost, and several others badly froz- 
en. In the same storm, the party in 
charge of the mail lost all their animals 
near Fort Atkinson, but were fortun- 
ately picked up by a train that had 
been more fortunate than themselves, 
and brought on to the Fort. 

Other losses of life and property 
could be recited if it were deemed 
necessary, and to this I could also add 
a detail of the destruction of the lives 
and property of our fellow-citizens by 
the marauding savage tribes that have 
infested the route for the last thirty 
3-ears, that would astonish the minds 
of the public, that the attention of the 
Government had not long since been 
directed to the subject. 

Trusting that the representations of 
your Excellency may arrest the im- 
mediate attention of Congress, to the 
end that further and more ample pro- 
tection may be given to this route, not 
only against the depredations of the 
Indians, but against the inclemency of 
the seasons, 

I remain. 

With high consideration, 
Your ob't. serv't, 

J. L. Collins" 

''His Excellency AVm. Carr Lane, 
Gov. of Ter. of N. M." 

In my collection of valuable histor- 
ical documents and letters from New 
Mexico's pioneers, the Governor's mes- 
sage, herein alluded to, is to be found 
numbered "165" under letter "L." 

Of the various authors and profes- 
sors of history that have called on 
me with a view of verifying 
statements found in my historical pro- 
ductions and to procure other inform- 



ation from my collections, only three 
have been allowed to read the Collins' 
letter and to refer to it in their own 
writings. These are, Prof. Ralph P. 
Bieber, of the Department of History, 
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 
Sister Mary Lo3^ola, Professor of His- 
tory, College of the Holy Names, Oak- 
land, Cal., and Professor St. George 
Leakin Sioussat, Professor of History, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia. 

Education in America 

By an Old College Professor 

It is very gratifying to observe that 
some of our best educators are begin- 
ning to raise their voices in criticism 
of the many serious mistakes we are 
making in our school system; but it 
is a deplorable fact that the words of 
those few who have the courage to 
utter their convictions in regard 
to our educational shortcomings are 
disregarded by the thousands who cry 
out : ' ' We have the best schools in the 
world." 

That we Catholics are badly infected 
with the same disease is shown by the 
fact tliat we gauge the success or pro- 
gress of Catholic activities according 
to dollars. A church or school has 
been, or is going to be erected some- 
where, and, to be sure, in one of the 
next issues of the diocesan paper you 
will see the picture of the newly erect- 
ed structure, with possibly the photo- 
graph of the pastor ; and you will read : 
"The new $86,000 school or the new 
$100,000 church just completed at . . . 

by the Rev " The zeal and 

liberality of the misera contrihiiens 
plebs are hardly ever even mentioned. 
The sum of mone.y which the building 
cost is the principal feature, not the 
architecture. The characteristics of 
religious education and appreciation 
are mostly wanting. 

It is even more regrettable that this 
method of judging things has crept in- 
to the education of our children. With- 
out entering upon a serious comparison 
of our results in the matter of educa- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



51 



tion with those achieved in other 
countries, we loudly proclaim our su- 
periority to the whole world : we have 
the best school buildings in the world 
in spite of the thousands of miserable 
shacks in the country districts; we have 
the most capable professors and school 
teachers in spite of a woefully defective 
training in pedagogics; we have the 
best and most complete equipment, es- 
pecially for athletics ; we have the 
best and cheapest books ; but above all, 
we spend more money on the education 
of our bo3's and girls than any other 
nation I 

Although comparisons are odious, 
the writer cannot refrain from men- 
tioning an incident that happened not 
long ago at the registr}- department of 
the Post Office in a city of some 30,000 
inhabitants, where many Slovenians and 
Croaiians are making a living by 
working for the different railroads that 
enter the city. A Croatian was tilling 
out a money order blank, and after 
paying, left. When the writer was 
through with his errand and was 
speaking to the clerk, who was Avell 
known to him, a farmer, who had been 
born and raised and educated in a 
country school three miles distant from 
the city, came in and presented a 
printed card which he had received 
in his mail, on which Uncle Sam ad- 
vised people to register letters if they 
wanted to be sure of their delivery. 
Upon the clerk's question what he 
wanted, the farmer said that he "want- 
ed that registered letter." After the 
clerk had explained to him the con- 
tents of the card, the man left, and 
the clerk said to the writer : "Is it 
not awful that you find such ignorant 
people in this country, where we have 
the best schools? All those Croatians 
and Slovenians, men and women, have 
a very good handwriting and after 
being here but a comparatively short 
time are able to make out any notice 
we send them." 



Notes and Gleanings 



In the twentj'-fourth annual report 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
Mr, Stewart Culin, of the Brooklyn Mu- 
seum, has an interesting paper on 
"Games of the North American In- 
dians." The paper may be read with 
profit by those who imagine the Red 
man had no time for sport, but in- 
dulged chiefly in hunting and taking 
the scalps of his enemies. Games of 
chance were very much in vogue among 
all tribes as were also games of dexter- 
ity. Mr. Addison Throop, Manager of 
the Call Printing Company, of East St. 
Louis, 111., who has made a thorough 
study of the remnants of the Indian 
mounds of Madison and St. Clair Coun- 
ties, 111., has invented an Indian game 
which he calls "Plummet, the Ameri- 
can Mound Builders' Game." It is 
something unique in the line of parlor 
games. An i.lustrative pamphlet may 
be obtained from the inventor. 



Few of us ever realize what a lot of 
wisdom there is in the penny catechism. 



"The Heptadic Structure of Scrip- 
ture ; with a Chapter on Seven and 
Four in Nature," by R. McCormack 
(London: Marshall Bros.), is a highly 
elaborate piece of Scriptural exegesis, 
wliich forms a sequel to its author's 
earlier work, ' ' Seven, the Sacred Num- 
ber," and, like it, is based on the very 
doubtful hypothesis that the words and 
even the letters in the original text of 
Holy Scripture are numbered. 

It is to be hoped that Dean Inge's 
summons to the Protestant Churches 
"to cease shuffling" may have some 
effect. The trust deeds of some Con- 
gregational churches in England at the 
present time are Calvinistic, but it 
would be difficult to find a Calvinist in 
any Congregational pulpit. The Pres- 
byterian Church of Wales is legally 
bound to a fixed creed, declared to be 
"forever unalterable." Most of the 
ministers of that denomination are en- 
tirely out of sympathy with the creed, 
and do not preach according to it. They 
feel that their position is anomalous, 
and many of them are advocating the 
alteration of the creed. In the Angli- 



52 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



can Church there are many varieties 
of belief that could not possibly be rec- 
onciled Avith the recognized standards. 



A vademecum for seminarists, none 
the less effective because brief, is Bish- 
op F. C. Kelley's "Pastoral Letter to 
the Ecclesiastical Students for the Dio- 
cese of Oklahoma," of which he has 
favored us with a copy. The Bishop 
emphasizes the need of charity, chast- 
ity, obedience, and humility in can- 
didates for the priesthood, and espec- 
ially cautions his students against mini- 
mizing or compromising the truTh, 
which, in Protestant communities, is 
such a dangerous bait for kind-hearted 
and considerate priests. 

"A Memorial of the Golden Jubilee 
of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Roman 
Catholic (Clerman) Church, Detroit, 
Mich.," is interesting from more than 
one point of view. This parish, founded 
in 1875, is one of the oldest in Detroit 
and was in charge of the Franciscan 
Fathers of the Cincinnati Province un- 
til 1890. In 1922 conditions in the 
neighborhood had so radicallj^ changed 
that a movement was started to turn 
the church, school, and parsonage over 
to the Italians. To this the 195 re- 
maining families ^'^gorously but re- 
spectfully objected. Their petition to 
Bishop Fole.v (here reprinted) was 
heeded and the parish continued in its 
ancient status. The remaining mem- 
bers did their duty so generously that 
improvements to the amount of $8,000 
have since been made, under the leader- 
ship of the scholarly pastor. Father H. 
F. Klenner, who, in addition to attend- 
itg to Sacred Heart parish, teaches 
Greek and German in the diocesan sem- 
inary. Ad mult OS annos! 

We see from Msgr. H. K. Mann's 
''Lives of the Popes in the Middle 
Ages" (Vol. XIII, p. 15) that at least 
one Supreme Pontiff, Honorius III, 
repeatedly and vigorously denounced 
long sermons, though from his own still 
extant collection we must suppose that 
he considered a sermon of half an 
hour's duration a short one. Inci- 
dentally Msgr. Mann notes (p. 16) that 



Pope Honorius "both in his sermons 
and in his letters was very careful of 
his style, and attached so much im- 
portance to correct expression that he 
is said to have deposed a bishop for 
not pacing sufficient attention to his 
Donatus [the current authority on 
Latin grammar] . ' ' 

Dr. di Martino Fusco's alleged un- 
published codices of Livy have cropped 
up once more in the Italian press. The 
government commission appointed last 
year to investigate his claims having 
reported adversely, Prof. G. L. Perugi, 
the inventor of a photographic de- 
ciphering system, has published a pam- 
phlet in which he bluntly affirms that 
Dr. Fusco hid the truth from the gov- 
ernment b}^ making" a false statement 
at the time of the investigation. Ob- 
viously it is the deliberate intention of 
Prof. Perugi to force Dr. Fusco into 
some sort of disclosure. Indeed, he 
puts some pertinent questions to the. 
alleged discoverer of the Livy codices, 
the answers to which would certainly 
throw light on this complicated matter. 
"Where are the codices that Dr. Fusco 
about two years ago or so showed to 
some friends, among them a Russian, 
and had examined by these friends, 
who published a declaration concerning 
ihem? To what end did Dr. Fusco urge 
a special convocation of the Naples 
Academy of Art if he knew that he 
did not possess any unpublished codices 
worth}' of examination?" Dr. Fusco 
has not yei made any reply to the pam- 
phlet, and great curiosity is felt on the 
possible disclosures he may make con- 
cerning the long lost works of Livv. 



In these tumultuous days of thirty 
and forty page newspapers, three vol- 
ume novels, and bulky biographies, 
many readers like to find peace of soul 
and spiritual refreshment in the easy, 
i)rief, and familiar essay. To such 
readers we gladly recommend a recent 
Herder publication, ' ' ProgressiA^e 
Ignorance, a Little Book of Familiar 
Essays," by Charles C. Miltner, C. S. 
C. The author has the gift of turning 
epigrammatic phrases. For instance, 
this one in the essav on "Homes and 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



53 



Houses " : " Criminal house-wrecking is 
not common. It is sufficiently rare to be 
' news. ' Uriminal liome-wreuking is al- 
most epidemic. It has ceased to horrif}-; 
because it has become so common as to 
be expected, and accepted,— as in- 
evitable, if not vet whollv excusable.'" 



Nobody can deny that the almighty 
dollar has gradually become the only 
god whom a vast number of our people 
adore. "A dollar in my pocket is 
dearer to me than one in my neigh- 
bor's" has almost become a slogan. 
That on this account the cardinal virtue 
of justice is often violated is not always 
considered a sin. "Business is busi- 
ness," whether a neighbor suffers a 
loss or damage in his possessions or 
not. The eternal, unalterable laws of 
God concerning our dealings with 
others are lost sight of ; the only thing 
to do is to kpc^p o.a UL ,j;:ii. 



The Germans have recently paid a 
great deal of attention to Ferdinand 
Lassalle, owing, it would seem, to the 
comfort the Social Democrats derive 
from reverting to the days when their 
party was in the making and gave hope 
of leading to a more desirable era for 
the nation. Eduard Bernstein, Her- 
mann Oncken, and Gustav Mayer are 
three of the outstanding names that 
have recently been found on new Las- 
salle books. Now comes Konrad 
Haenisch, former Minister of Educa- 
tion, with a large and handsomely il- 
lustrated volume, entitled "Ferdinand 
Lassalle as a Man and a Politician" 
(Berlin: Franz Schneider), in which 
there is no quibbling about factional 
theories or political dogmas, but just a 
plain and freshly written account of 
Lassalle as a human being. 



Though much adverse criticism from 
reputable scientific sources has been 
published of late concerning the 
Freudian system of psychoanalysis, in- 
terest at large in the subject is still 
wide-spread. The present reviewer has 
seen one of the works of Freud circu- 
lating from the St. Louis Public 
Library-, and judging from the ap- 
pearance of the book, it is one which 



is always "out." Hence we welcome a 
sane analysis of the merits and false as- 
sumptions of this much discussed 
psychologic method. In "Seelische 
Ursachen unci Behandlung der Nerven- 
leiden," von Dr. Ignaz Erhard 
(Herder), Ave have a handy book which 
we can recommend to those in quest of 
some straight-forward opinions on the 
methods of psychoanalysis with refer- 
ence to its value in treating nervous 
patients. AVe especially commend the 
author 's fearless and frank yet delicate 
way of treating the subject. The brief 
section "Concerning the Unconscious" 
gives a good insight into one of the 
main features of the Freudian system. 
In his foreword the author states that 
it was his desire to present the good 
points of the psycho-therapeutic 
methods of S. Freud, A. Adler, and 
Coue-Boudouin in their connection 
with the Christian view of life. The 
booklet is a worthy companion volume 
to the tAvo earlier Avorks by Dr. Wilhelm 
Bergmann on the same subject. 



Greed has to a great extent elimin- 
ated those poetical aspects of life 
Avhieh formerly caused the farmer 
Avalking behind his ploAv to sing and 
Avhistle in praise of God's love for 
men. Wnere do you hear of such a 
thing noAv? Labor is considered a 
burden and no longer looked upon in 
the sense of Gen. Ill, 19: "In the 
SAveat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, 
till thou return to the earth, out of 
Avhich thou Avast taken." 



Correspondence 



Negro Catholics and Higher Education. 

To the Editor: — 

lu the F. E. of January 1st you mention 
that two Colored boys are studying at St. 
Ignatius College (John Carroll University) 
and one Colored boy at St. Mary's Seminary, 
Cleveland, Ohio, this fact being unknown to 
you "when you wrote on ' ' Negro Catholics 
and Higher Education" in the F. E. of 
October 1st, 1925. 

In the above mentioned article you say 
that institutions of learning like Yale, Har- 
vard, etc., "are accepting Negro students, 
but of our Catholic colleges and universities 



54 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEY IE W 



February 1 



only Fordliaiij and the University of Detroit 
stand forth as honorable exceptions. ' ' 

In 1924 three Colored boys were pursuing 
their studies at Villanova College, Villanova 
(near Philadelphia), Pa. This Scholastic 
year there are likewise three Colored boy 
students at Villanova College. In the Sum- 
mer School at the same college in 1924 there 
were two Colored nuns. In the Summer 
School of last year there were three Colored 
nuns. Villanova College, a college in charge 
of the Augustinian Fathers, ' ' stands forth 
an honorable exception " and was ' ' an hon- 
orable exception" at the time you penned 
your defense of the Negro as a student in 
higher institutions of learning. 

May I add that the Sisters of the Blessed 
Sacrament, whose Mother House is near here, 
in September, 1925, opened a college for 
Colored Catholics in the city of New Orleans? 

I feel certain that you will be only too 

willing to give space to this communication 

in your valuable and highly esteemed Eeview. 

(Eev.) Geo. S. Walker, 0. S. A. 



The Catholic Farmer Boy and Higher 
Education 

To the Editor:— 

In No. 19 of the F. E. appeared an article 
on Negro Catholic and higher education. Com- 
plaint is made that they are up against a 
stone wall. Sure they are, and we have been 
saying that for a lifetime. But listen, brother; 
we white Catholics are up against the same 
thing. They tell us we have the schools, and if 
we don't make use of them, it's our fault. Is 
it our fault? How is the Catholic boy raised 
on the farm to get the advantages of a higher 
Catholic education? There are six children in 
the Bush family. As they arrive at school age, 
they are .sent to the local parish school. Papa 
Bush wants to send some of those children to 
a Catholic high school; none being nearer than 
that of the large city. He finds that it will 
cost him for tuition, board, clothing, etc., 
over $500 for a 9-montlis' term. Four years in 
high school at a cost of $500 is equal to $2 JOG. 
I ask those Solomons, how many of the Bush 
children are going to be able financially to 
go through the Catholic high school? But . 
listen further, brother. You and I are at the 
door of the Catholic college. It will take 6 
years for your boy to graduate in medicine or 
law, at a cost of not less than $600 per je.z.v. 
Now I ask, how many boys of Catholic par- 
entage from the farm are being graduated in' 
medicine or law? It may be denied, but it is 
true nevertheless, that the Catholic boy from 
the farm is as effectively barred from higher 
education as is the Negro. 

Now you who have been directing this un- 
til you have brought about this condition, we 
ask you, Avhat are you going to do about it? 

Bill Hicks, Farmer. 
Pacific, Mo. 



The Necessity of Communion 

To the Editor: — 

In the December number of Emmanuel the 
Eev. C. F. Curran has another article in which 
he tries to induce people to go more fre- 
quently to Holy Communion. It is a pity that 
so many minds of more than ordinary sagacity 
can not or will not grasp the practical dif- 
ference ))etween frequent and daily Commun- 
ion. Father Curran calls the ' ' Sacra Triden- 
tina Synodus" a decree on frequent Com- 
munion, whereas the title of it is: "A Decree 
on the Daily Eeception of the Holy Euchar- 
ist. ' ' 

That frequent Communion is declared nec- 
essary in the decree, and is therefore of obli- 
gation, he does not admit. He asserts that 
the decree puts daily and frecjuent Communion 
side by side in declaring that both are salu- 
tary practices. If frequent Communion alone 
had been declared to be a salutary prac- 
tice, his argument might have some 
standing, but both together are called salu- 
tary practices, the one being necessary by 
command, the other not. The confessing of 
mortal as well as of venial sins are salutary 
practices, but the one is of obligation, where- 
as the other is not. So also are frequent and 
daily Communion salutary practices, but the 
one is necessary, and therefore of obligation, 
whereas the other is not. 

Father Curran brings in the practical case 
of"' a penitent who is not conscious of any 
grave offense, but goes to Communion only a 
few times a year. He gives him quite an as- 
cetical lecture. Suppose the penitent, after 
listening somewhat absent-mindedly, suddenly 
catches the final words of Father Curran: 
' ' Jesus Christ would not be less insistent on 
the advisability and necessity of frequent 
Communion, " and in surprise asks his confes- 
sor : ' ' Father, this is news to me. Do you 
mean to say that frequent Communion is nec- 
essary?" What would Father Curran an- 
swer? Whatever is necessary carries with it 
an obligation. Why is it necessary? Father 
Curran may leave the why to the theologians, 
but the fact of the necessity is there, and he 
can not explain it away. It is stated too 
plainly in the decree. A Priest 



A Suggestion for Catholic Press Month 

To the Editor: — 

The announcement appearing in the Catholic 
Aveekly papers of the country, calling at- 
tention to Press Month, suggests this com- 
munication. It is in the nature of a "tip" 
to some of the brethren who, like the writer, 
believe in the policy of "live and let live." 

The announcements made in our Catholic 
newsnapers relative to Catholic Press Sunday 
and Press Month in the last years have alwavs 
reminded me of the notice which a manu- 
facturer placed on a container, advising that 
directions for opening Avere inside the lid. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REYIE^Y 



Next Sunday Morning 

in Hundreds of Catholic Gatliedrals 
and Churches 

Many thousands of men, women and children will worship 
at Holy Mass, attended b^v the beauty of Kilgen Organ Music. 

In countless instances, the forebears of these worshippers, for 
generations back, have listened to this same beauty of stately 
melody. 

Kilgen, you know^, have been building pipe organs for houses 
of Catholic w^orship for over a century, and have ever kept faith 
w^ith the Faith. 

^^lul^cl'5 
f tiJe O^rscins gT. Louis, Mo. 



MAIN OFFICE & PLANT 



Having some experience as a publisher, I 
tried out the hints for spreading the Catholic 
Press as outlined in the little pamphlet pub- 
lished two years ago by our press,' * Talce and 
Bead," wh'le sojourning for my health at 
St. Joseph's Church in Los Angeles, Cal. 

As a result, we secured in ten days time 
and in an average parish, 284 subscriptions 
to Catholic periodicals, some of them high- 
priced. These subscriptions represented 45 
different publications. The following are 
the publications whi:-h received six or more 
subscriptions : Daily American Tribune, Cath- 
olic World, Franciscan Herald, Tidings, Ave 
Maria, Messenger of the Sacred Heart, St. 
Antlinny Messenger, Echo, Ovr Sunday Visitor, 
Tabernacle and Purgatory, Fortnightly Re- 
view. 

The following methods were employed, in- 
dependently of the costly venture of the C. 
P. A. Catholic Press Month Committee of last 
year : 

1. Announcements. Three weeks previous 
to the campaign, the weekly bulletin, issued 
by the pastor, instructed the faithful about 
the Catholic Press in general. Special 
prayers were offered to St. Francis de Sales, 
patron of the press. On two Sundays preced- 
ing the campaign a special insert in the 
regular bulletin set forth the features of the 
forthcoming Press Month activitv. As in this 
church the usual Sunday announcements are rel- 
egated to the printed page, no reference to the 



campaign was ever made from the pulpit. 
On the Sunday immediately before the cam- 
paign copies of the pamphlet, ' ' Talce and 
Read," were distributed at the door of the 
church. 

2. Exhibit. From Quinquagesima Sun- 
day to the First Sunday in Lent the vesti- 
bule of the church was used to exhibit all 
the Catholic newspapers and magazines of 
the country. The "Catholic Press Direc- 
tory," published by Mr. J. H. Meier, of 
Chicago^ proved very useful in reaching pub- 
lishers. Publications of special literary 
merit were of course given a place of prom- 
inence in the exhibit. Before and after the 
various Leiiten services and noon-day Masses, 
and throughout the day, the writer was at 
the exhibit to guide inquirers in making a 
choice suitable to their tastes. Those who 
had no particular preference were directed 
to the writer 's own publication, on the plea 
that it afforded diversified reading matter. 

3. Payment. A staunch believer in the 
part-payment plan employed by magazine 
salesmen, I am convinced that most of our 
poorer people, who really are the chief 
supporters of our' Catholic Press, must buy 
their subscriptions much as they do other 
commodities, — on time. Accordingly, this 
plan was employed on this occasion. The 
season of Lent afforded a reasonably long 
period, and a seasonable one besides, over 
which the payment was extended. One dollar 



56 



THE FORT NIGHTLY REVIE^y 



February 1 



WiDMER Engineering Company 



LOUIS PREUSS 

ASSOCIATED 

ARCHITECTS 



LACLEDE GAS BUILDING 
ST. LOUIS ■ MO. 



(loAvn, the balance before Easter. Publica- 
tions which allowed us a reduction on the 
published price in view of our own initiative, 
were in turn advertised to the people at a 
bargain. Out of 296 patrons of our ex- 
hibit, only 12 failed to complete payment. 
May I add that this plan will be put into 
effect in Los Angeles by another Father this 
year, following the same lines? 

Fr. Maximus Poppy, O. F. M., 
of the Franciscan Herald. 
Chicago. 



Dr. O'TooIe and His Critics 

To the Editor: — 

We now have in full Father Eieharz' 
criticism of Dr. O 'Toole's book on evolution, 
and all who are interested in the subject 
will be grateful for this temperate, scientific 
examination of one phase of the work. 

Father Eieharz makes a good suggestion ; 
that, namely, three specialists, in philosophy, 
biology and geology, respectively, get together 
and produce an authoritative work on the 
subject of evolution. A work of such col- 
laboration would, indeed, be most welcome, 
but it would be perhaps too optimistic to 
hope that even such a work would be uni- 
versally accepted as the last word on the 
subject. 

In the mean time, Dr. O 'Toole has offered 
the fruit of his own years of study, and his 
book has been commended, both in this 



country and in England, as a valuable con- 
tribution to the copious literature on the sub- 
ject. Father Richarz thinks "it is regret- 
table that Dr. O 'Toole wastes so much time 
and space (15 pages) in reproducing the 
views of Price." Perhaps that time and 
space might have been devoted to a better 
purpose, but fifteen pages are not many in 
four hundred. Moreover, Dr. 'Toole does 
something more in those pages than simply 
reproduce the views of Price. He takes 
facts signaled by Price, but he supports them 
by the authority of recognized geologists, 
and proceeds to draw conclusions, follow- 
ing the lead of Price, but not blindly. He 
does not pretend that orthodox geologists 
share the views of Price, but that they sub- 
stantiate the facts he alleges. 

While willingly accepting Father Eieharz' 
statement about the reliability of geological 
chronology and the value of fossils as time- 
markers, I should like to signal a quotation 
or two which would seem to show that not 
all geologists of repute regard the chronol- 
ogy as definitely established. Schuehert, in 
his "Text-book of Geology" (192-4, Part 
II, p. 2), speaking of "geologic history," 
and of "the essential life of any given 
time," says: "Not even all the greater fea- 
tures of this history are yet known, and of 
the detail but little. ' ' On the following 
page, he says : "In Historical Geology the 
orderly sequence of time is determined by 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



57 



the geologist through a probable succession 
of rock formations. ' ' I underline the word 
'probable.' 

With tliese explanations, there can be no 
objection to the statement that the pages 
devoted to Price 's line of argumentation are 
the ' ' weakest feature of the book ' ' ; though 
I should prefer to phrase it, "the least ef- 
fective portion of the book." But then that 
line of argumentation is only secondary, as 
was pointed out before, being introduced after 
the arguments from palaeontology have been 
met directly, accepting the orthodox geological 
views. 

Father Eieharz calls attention to a number 
of alleg^ed errors in the work, and it is not 
surprising if one who is not a specialist in 
geology should, in some of his statements, fail 
to satisfy a trained authority on the subject. 
However, I do not think that there are errors 
which seriously affect the author's arguments. 
It may be, moreover, that the author, with 
his books at hand, would be able to jubtify 
some of the passages impugned. For in- 
stance, in the third article (Jan. 1st, p. 9) 
a paragraph begins: "Another mistake of 
Dr. O 'Toole's is this." The alleged mis- 
take is met by the statement: "No, not for 
this reason alone: there are many other 
reasons which point to life in 'these un- 
fathomed profundities.' " But Dr. 'Toole 
d'd not imply that the presence of life in 
the Proterozoic was not otherwise well at- 
tested. He said that geologists relegated 
the evolutionary process to the pre-Cambrian 
epoch because of the abrupt appearance in 
the Cambrian of highly developed organisms. 
The author speaks of the evolutionary process, 
and the critic speaks of life. Thus the 
author's statement is not contradicted, and 
consequently is not shown to be a mistake. 

In the same paragraph objection is made 



to the statement that ' ' all the great inver- 
tebrate types" are found in the Proterozoic 
group. In the first place, this statement is 
not of importance in the argument. The 
important point follows, in a quotation from 
Dana. Secondly, the statement does not 
seem to be so very far wrong or entirely 
without authority. Sehuchert says (op. cit. 
p. 177): "Most of the invertebrate classes 
of organisms were in existence in Proterozoic 
time, ' ' and he mentions, among others, Pro- 
tozoa, contrary to the statement of Father 
Eieharz. Perhaps Father Richarz means that 
no entire fossils of Protozoa and other in- 
vertebrates are found; he admits that there 
are fragments of crustaceans. 

Thus, I think, a number of points criticized 
could be shown to be not entirely unsup- 
ported. 

Not all will agree with Father Eieharz ' 
statement that evolution is above all a 
geological question. It may be maintained, 
as he states, that, without the discovery of 
the fossil world, probably no biologist would 
ever have thought of evolution. But, however 
originated, the question of evolution concerns 
living beings, their properties and capabilities, 
and comes directly within the scope of biology. 
Palaeontology is an important aid in the 
study of the question, but it is from biolog- 
ical sciences, such as genetics and morphology, 
that direct arguments for or against evolution 
are to be sought. Palaeontology can at most 
prove a chronological succession of types, 
but whether the succession was also phylo- 
genetic can be established, if at all, only 
b}' the study of living organisms. 

Father Eieharz ' criticism throws interest- 
ing light on the question, but it does not 
appear to discredit the value of Di-. 'Toole's 
work to a great extent. It is to be regretted 
that the author is not near enough to answer 



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58 



THE FORTS IGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



for lumself. He would no doubt Avelcome 
a discussion vdWi so able and so courteous 
a critic as Father Kicharz. 
Mundelein, 111., Jan. 7, 1926. 

(Eev.) William L. Hornsby, S. .1. 

Excerpts from Letters 

Enclosed find my check for reneAval. I 
would not miss j-our magazine — (Eev.) John 
P. ScliiUo, If. S. C, Eaycoclc Bun, Fa. 

I renew my subscrij^tion with sineerest 
wishes for the continuance of God's blessing 
upon yourself and upon your Avork. Ad multos 
annosl — (St. Eev.) C. Van de Ven, BlsJiop of 
Alexandria, La. 

Apropos of "Was Columbus a Jew?" (F. 
E., XXXII, 24, p. 515) permit me to call 
attention to the following facts. His father 
was named Jacob, his mother, Susanna. Jews 
gave him 17,000 ducats; two Jewish doctors 
went with him on his trip of discovery; a 
Jew, Eodrigo, was the first to see land. The 
confessor of King Alfonso, Msgr. Soto, re- 
cently drew attention to important new 
documents found in Pontevedero, northern 
Spain. I have this on the authority of 
Hlidlcd, a Bohemian apologetic magazine pub- 
lished in Briinu, Moravia, by Fr. Vyehodil, 
O. S. B. Did you notice the article in a 
late number of the Stimmen der Zeit about 
the prohibition of the Jesuits against Jews 
(converts) entering the Society? This still 
holds, although the impediment may be dis- 
pensed from for weighty reasons. Jew^s at 
one time almost Avrecked the Society of 
Jesus. This sheds some light, perhaps, on 
certain incidents in the life of Columbus. 
Some hold he Avas imprisoned because he was 
suspected of not being a true Catholic, but 
a Jew who had joined the Church merely 
for exterior motives. The Spanish govern- 
ment and American scholars are now in- 
vestigating the new documents, and we shall 
probably soon oljtain some more definite in- 
formation as to whether Columbus really 
was a Jew or not. — T. V. 

Do you know that Dr. Francis Aveling 
left the Church almost a year ago? Some- 
how or other his defection was kept entirely 
out of the newspapers in England. Con- 
sidering his position as head of the Depart- 
ment of Psychology at London Universitv, 
it was considered extraordinary that the 
press refrained from any comment. ' Dr. 
Aveling told an old classmate of mine, whose 
supervisor he was for two years, whilst the 
latter was preparing for a doctorate, that he 
had entered the Catholic Church for intel- 
lectual reasons and left it for sentimental 
reasons. Sapienti sat I — Sacerdos. 

It is noAv twenty -three years that I have 
been a constant reader of the F. E. and I 
am just as eager as ever to peruse each suc- 
cessive number from cover to cover. May 
your strength and your spirit remain un- 
broken for many years to come! — (Eev.) A. 
J. Dorrenhach, Menomonie, Wis. 



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Retreats for the Laity. 

The "enclosed retreat" (retraite fermee)* 
for the laity has come to stay. It had been 
hailed and cherished as an indispensable 
institution for the salvaging and deepening 
of the faith in other lands, \omi before 
it made its formal entry into the TT. S. in 
1903. The reason is not far to seek. The 
spiritual good it has wrought is an open, 
incontestable fact. To anyone not acquainted 
with the history of tlie movement it will come 
as a surprise to hear that, at a three days' 
conference of retreat masters at Innsbruck, 
in 1922, not less than two hundred priests 
were in constant attendance. More than a 
dozen religious Orders and Congregations 
were represented, besides a large number of 
the diocesan clergy, who had likewise been 
engaged in giving retreats to layfolk. A 
half dozen European countries had sent re- 
treat-masters. 

To cite but one specific example of the 
spread of lay retreats, — in little Holland, 
with its two million Catholics, the first six- 
teen years of "enclosed retreats" (1906- 
1922) have brought 154 301 men and 122.685 
women into the numerous retreat houses that 
dot the kingdom. No wonder the growth 
of the faith in that country has been phe- 
nomenal ! 

Though we, in the United States, began 
as earlv as the people of Holland and have at 
present at least ten permanent retreat houses 
■ operating all the year round, yet our northern 
neighbors across the border have been both 
more enthusiastic and more energetic in 
pushing forward this work. 

An interesting pamphlet Ijy the able and 
devoted founder qnd organizer of laymen's 
retreats in Canada, Father Joseph-Papin 
Archambault, S. J., entitled, " Quinze Ans 
de Eetraites Fermees" (Fifteen Years of 
Enclosed Retreats), briefly sketches the 
Canadian work of retreats for the laity: its 
modest beginning in June, 1909, its various 
stages of growth and development in new 
centres, the splendid results soon apparent 
on every hand. 28,572 is the stately grand 
total of retreatants during the fifteen years. 

This sketch is followed by extracts from 
letters of five archbishops and eleven bishops, 
endorsing enclosed retreats, chiefly Avitli di- 
rect reference to the extraordinary fruits 
that have been reaped from them. These 
episcopal letters speak of men brought back 
to their religious duties; men coming forth 
from retreat as apostles; parishes and as- 
sociations renewed and transformed, and — 
the iwint d'appui of all the success — men 



*In an enclosed retreat the retreatant separ- 
ates himself completely from business, home 
and every distraction, for the entire time of 
t e retreat (three days or more), boarding and 
lodging in a house set aside and equipped for 
the purpose. 



(i(J 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



IMPOSING ST. JOSEPHS CHURCH 




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Illinois 



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changed into a veritable elite of Catholic 
citizenship and leavening whole districts and ' 
dioceses. 

It is this last point in particular Avhieh 
deserves special emphasis, as it had been 
made the formal objective of the retreat 
enterprise according to Father Archambault. 
Thus he tells us in his pamphlet (p. 16) : 

' ' Expressly undertaken to form an elite, 
the enclosed retreats in Canada give evidence 
of having realized their original intent and 
purpose. For only fifteen years have they 
been in operation, and ah'eady the splendid 
fruits have become manifest. A new spirit 
is stirring a goodly number of Catholics, a 
spirit of greater loyalty to our Saviour, of 
true devotedness to their Church, of burning 
zeal for souls. And there is the question 
of serious reform ; for this change is rooted 
first of all in the understanding. Under 
the action of quiet reflection, assisted by the 
words of the priest and vivified by divine 
grace, life has suddenly changed its out- 
look and direction. Purely human interests, 
to which otherwise all things would have 
frequently been sacrificed, have now been ele- 
vated to a higher plane; the professional 
conscience has been stirred and rectified; 
the social apostolate has come into being. ' ' 

Specific proof of this is furnished by the 
enumeration of the various active and vig- 
orous organizations that have sprung from 



the seed sown in retreat: — the Association 
Catholique des Voyageurs de Commerce, the 
Syndicats Ouvriers Catholiques, the Asso- 
ciation Catholique des Cheminots; as well 
as of the revival and renewal of such bodies 
as already existed, notably the Associa- 
tion Catholique de la Jeunesse Canadienne- 
Franc:aise, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, 
and various mutual benefit associations. Much 
of this work is accomplished by reason of the 
closely knit unions of those who have ac- 
tually gone through enclosed retreats and 
who are constantly renewing and deepening 
the spirit imbibed there, through regularly 
recurring days (in some cases monthly) of 
spii-itual retirement and renovation. 

It is thus, Father Archambault points out, 
that the enclosed retreat for layfolk has 
come to be for Canada what Pope Pius X, 
declared it to be, "a providential work, a 
work that will save us." 

A fitting crown to the first fifteen years 
of retreat achievement in Canada was the 
inauguration of the first "Journee Catholi- 
que, ' ' for which five hundred former retreat- 
ants assembled. Interesting details of the 
transactions of this body, fixed by resolu- 
tion henceforth to become an annual affair, 
form the concluding lines of the author's 
important and absorbing pamphlet. 
St. Louis University 

James Preuss, S. J. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



61 



Literary Briefs 



— The ' ' CoUectio Eerum Liturgicarum ' ' by 
the Eev. Joseph Wuest, C. SS. R., which has 
already passed through four editions, has 
been adapted into English by the Eev. Thos. 
W. Mullaney, of the same Congregation, and 
in its new form will no doubt be welcome 
to many more of the reverend clergy than 
have used it hitherto. The English edition, 
revised and brous-ht up to date by editor and 
author, is entitled, "Matters Liturgical," 
and, like the Latin original, is designed to 
aid the clergy in the ready solution of the 
numerous liturgical questions which arise, and 
to instruct seminarians with regard to their 
future duties in the sacred ministrv. The 
little book fulfills both objects admirably and 
will no doubt be heartily welcomed by the 
reverend clergv, many of whom have long 
been wishing for just such a handy manual. 
(Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc.) 

— Dr. Johannes Eeinke, the famous botanist, 
now 76 years of age, tells the story of his 
life and work in "Mein Tagewerk, " a volume 
of some 500 pages recently published by 
Herder of Freiburg. Eeinke is a Protestant, 
but his staunch championship of theism 
against Haeekel and other modern infidels 
has won for him Catholic sympathies, which 
is no doubt the reason why his reminiscences 
are brought out by a Catholic firm. The 
story is that of a typical German professor, 
who lives for his scientific work and lays 
it aside only occasionally, when higher inter- 
ests compel him to take a seat in a legislative 
assembly, as Prof. Eeinke did in the Prussian 
Herrenhaus, or Avhen he is called upon to 
bear arms for his country, as Eeinke was in 
the Franco-Prussian War. His reflections 
on the World War are those of a convinced 
monarchist, who sees that the monarchy was 
destroj'ed by an incompetent occupant of 
the throne and by the progress of democratic 
ideas, but hopes that the time will come 
when Germany will once more grow strong un- 
der a monarchial government. The present vol- 
ume is of interest to foreign readers main- 
ly because it shows how a really great scien- 
tist, even though not a Catholic, can be a 
convinced believer in God and Divine Provi- 
dence. 

— Vol. II, L to Z, concludes the small 
Catholic encyclopedia known as "Der Kleine 
Herder, ' ' of which we gave some account 
in our Vol. XXXII, No. 22. Like its prede- 
cessor, this volume is remarkably condensed 
and richly illustrated with maps, plates, and 
cuts of every description. It would hardly be 
possible to crowd more information into 
two moderate 12mo. volumes than "Der Kleine 
Herder" embraces. The only unsatisfactory 
thing we have come across in this volume 
is the survey of the daily newspaper press 
ot the world on page 1514, which impresses 
one as having been made ten years ago. (B. 
Herder Book Co.) 



— Cardinal Bellarmine 's five best-known 
ascetical treatises have been reprinted in 
Pustet 's "Bibliotheca Ascetica. " The three 
volumes of the series, titled ' ' Opuseula Ascet- 
ica Auctore B. Eoberto Bellarmino, S. J., 
S. E. E. Cardinali, " comprise the "De As- 
censione Mentis, ' ' the ' ' De Aeterna Felicitate 
Sanctorum, ' ' the ' ' De Gemitu Columbae, ' ' 
the ' ' De Septem Verbis Christi in Cruce, ' ' 
and the "De Arte Moriendi. " These works 
were the fruit of the Cardinal's annual re- 
treats and have always been regarded highly 
for their sound devotional spirit and deep 
piety. It is pleasant to have them in the 
handy form of the ' ' Bibliotheca Ascetica, ' ' 
and at such a moderate price. (Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc.) 

—The latest Pustet edition of ' ' The Little 
Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the 
Office of the Dead" is based on the third 
Typira Vaticana. It presents the Latin text 
with English rubrics and notations and com- 
prises the Penitential Psalms and the Litany 
of the Saints. There are various editions, 
priced according to binding. (Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc.) 

— That Noldin 's ' ' Summa Theologiae 
Moralis" is still being widely used is appar- 
ent from the fact that new editions are con- 
tinually appearing of its three volumes. The 
latest to reach us is the 17th edition of 
Volume III, "De Sacramentis. " The new 
editions are all by Fr. A. Schmitt, S. J., 
Noldin 's successor in the chair of moral 
theology at the University of Innsbruck. 
Needless to say, the text has been carefully 
adapted to the Code of Canon Law, and 
whatever new questions arise from time 
to time, are briefly but clearly discussed. 
Thus in the present edition a note on page 
107 refers to the controversy whether Holy 
Communion can be offered up for others. Of 
course, as the author points out, there can 
be no question of transferring the effects 
which flow from the Sacrament of the Holy 
Eucharist ex opere operato; but merely of 
the fruits which Communion, like every 
other good work, produces ex opere operantis. 
These fruits may be meritorious, impetra- 
tory, or satisfactory. The meritorius ef- 
fects belong to the subject and cannot be 
communicated to others; but the fructus 
impetratorii and satisf actorii can be applied, 
the former to the living, the latter to the 
dead. For this reason, and because Holy 
Communion is a good work exceeding all 
others, and the prayers which accompany 
and follow its reception are specially accept- 
able to God, the custom of offering up Com- 
munion for others is to be recommended to 
the faithful. The principal qualities of 
Noldin 's Moral Theology, its clearness and 
sweet reasonableness, are retained by the 
new editor, and hence it may justly be ex- 
pected that this excellent work will remain 
in use in seminaries and among the pastoral 
clergy for many years to come. (Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc.) 



62 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



— Mr. John W. Winterich, of Cleveland, 0., 
has made his "Mass Intention Calendar" 
even more useful and handy for 1926 than it 
was for 1925, when he first put it forth. All 
the pro populo masses are marked by red 
asterisks. The Ordo is followed throughout. 
At the close there are eighteen blank form- 
ularies for transferring mass stipends. The 
word "stipends" should be substituted 
throughout for "intentions," according to 
Dr. Keller's suggestion in his recent doctoral 
thesis on ' ' Mass Stipends, ' ' which is soon 
to be published for the general public by the 
B. Herder Book Co. Winterich 's ' ' Mass In- 
tention Calendar ' ' can be ordered through 
any Catholic book store or church goods house. 
We recommend it to the reverend clergy. 

- — Msgr. F. G. Holweck 's ' ' Calendarium 
Liturgicum Festorum Dei et Dei Matris 
Mariae" (Philadelphia: The Dolphin Press) 
is more than a new edition of the learned 
author 's well-known ' ' Fasti Mariani, ' ' pub- 
lished in 1892. It is the fruit of forty years' 
research and the most complete modern cal- 
endar extant of the liturgical feasts of God 
and the Bl. Virgin. In calendar form the 
Rt. Eev. author gives day by day throughout 
the year every liturgical feast of our Lord 
and Our Lady. Brief historical memoran- 
da accompany each entry to explain the pur- 
pose, origin, and history of the feast, as well 
as to furnish the reader with references to 
the sources. The book, well printed and 
stoutly bound for every-day service, presents 
the results of wide reading and much original 
research, and forms a valuable addition to 
our liturgical literature. To prevent mis- 
understanding we must add that the text 
is entirely in Latin. 

New Books Received 

TJie Mass Intention Calendar for 1926. Pub- 
lished by John W. Winterich, 1865 Pros- 
pect Ave., Cleveland, O. $1. 

The Little Flower Prayer Bool~ for Little 
Boys and Girls. By Philothea, a Sister 
of Notre Dame. 64 pp. 16mo. Illustrated. 
Cincinnati, O. : The Ad-Vantage Press, 
436 Pioneer Str. 30 cts. (Wrapper). 

Sister Benigna Consolata Ferrero, Religious 
of the Visitation, of Como, Italy, 1885- 
1916. Translation by M. S. Pine from 
the Community Circular of Como. 208 pp. 
12mo. Chicago, 111.: John P. Daleiden Co. 

Zeal in the Classroom. Pastoral Theology for 
Clergy and Religious Engaged as Teach- 
ers. 'By the Rev. M. V. Kelly, C. S. B. 
Second edition. 232 pp. 12mo. Chicago, 
111.: John P. Daleiden Co. 

The Spirit of the Servant of God, Sister 
Benigna Consolata Ferrero. Drawn from 
her Writings by the Rev. P. Duriaux, O. 
P. 24 pp. 12mo. John P. Daleiden Co. 

Counsels of Jesus to Sister Benigna Conso- 
lata Ferrero, the Lily of Como, Italy. 
Translated by M. S. Pine. John P. Dalei- 
den Co. 46 pp. 32mo. 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

(Terms: Cash with Order; Postage Pre- 
paid to any Part of the U. S.) 



Die hi. Sophie Magdalena Barat und ihre 
Stiftung, die Gesellschaft der Ordens 
frauen vom heiligsten Herzen Jesu. 2te 
Auf. mit einem Vorwort von Bischof P. 
W. von Keppler. 17 Bildertafeln u. eii 
Autograph. Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2.5' 

Fassbinder, H. Vor dem Sommer. Ein 
Buch vom inneren Reifen fiir unsere 
kiinftigen Frauen, Freiburg i. B., 1925. 
80 cts. 

Voldin, H., S. J. De Sacramentis. (Vol. 
Ill of the Summa Theol. Moralis). 12th 
ed. Revised accdg. to the New Code 
Innsbruck, 1920. $2. 

Browne, Hy. (S. J.) Darkness or Light. 
An Essay in the Theory of Divine Con- 
templation. St. Louis, 1925. $1.50. 

jaresche, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
zation in Parishes. N. Y. 1921. $1.50. 

Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
Empire. Denver, 1925. $1.25. 

Clarke, J. P. A Rose Wreath for the Crown- 
ing of St. Therese of the Child Jesus 
N. Y. 1925. 80 cts. 
lacDonald, Alex. The Apostles' Creed. A 
Vindication of the Apostolic Authorship 
of the Creed, etc. London, 1925. $2.50 

Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Es 
senee, and Attributes. 4th ed. St. Louis, 
1921. $1.75. 

Weiss, Albert M., O. P. Lebensweg und 
Lebenswerk. Ein modernes Propheten 
leben. Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2. 

jrandgent, C. H. Dante. (Master Spirits of 
Literature Series). N. Y. 1916. $2. 

Le Buffe, F. P. (S. J.). Communion De- 
votions for Religious. For the Daily Use 
of Members of all Religious Communities 
N. Y. 1924. $2. 

Oladder, H. J, (S. J.). Als die Zeit er 
fiillt war. Das Evangelium des hi. 
Matthaus dargelegt. Freiburg i. B., 1915 
$1.25. 

Oookson, R. The Life of Our Lord in Ser 
mons. With a Preface by Bishop J. S. 
Vaughan. X. Y., 1925. $2. 

Poulain, Aug. (S. J,). Handbuch der 
Mystik. 2te u. 3te gekiirzte Auflage. 
Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2. 

S. M. C, Parables for Grown-up Children. 
With a Foreword by Fr. Edwin Essex 
O. P. Loudon, 1925. 70 cts. 
'Elliott, Walter, C. S. P. A Retreat for 
Nuns. Washington, D. C, 1925. $1.50. 
Glater, Thos., S.) J. A Manual of Moral 
Theology for EngJish-Speakiug Countries 
4th ed. Revised according to the New 
Code. 2 vols. N. Y., 1918. $3. 

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
5851 Etzel Ave. St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEY IE W 



63 



E ECHO 

A Superior Catholic Newspaper 

The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
who used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, aEvaAND^'o. 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



Stations or the Excercises of the Holy Way 
of the Cross, as Practiced in the Churches 
of the Congregation of the Mission of St. 
Vincent de Paul. Prepared by a Priest 
of the Mission. John P. Daleiden Co. 64 
pp. 32mo. 

Otir Queen's Treasure. Prayers and Devo- 
tions for May and October to the Queen 
of Heaven. By Eev. F. J. Bergs. 84 pp. 
32mo. John P. Daleiden Co. 

St. Joseph 07ir Patron. Prayers taken from 
Authentic Sources. By Eev. F. J. Bergs. 
Especially Suitable for the Month of 
March. 68 pp. 32nio. John P. Daleiden Co. 

Devotions to St. Anthony of Padua. For 
Private or Public Use. Compiled from 
Approved Sources. By Rev. F. J. Bergs. 
62 pp. 32mo. John P. Daleiden Co. 

Thoughts and Prayers Ahout the Eosary for 
Little Children. By Sisters of Notre Dame. 
35 pp. 16mo. Illustrated in colors. Ben- 
ziger Bros. 55 cts. net. 

Six Fundamentals of Religion. By Rev. John 

A. McClorey, S. J. 150 pp. 12mo. B. 
Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

Betrachtungen iiher Geschichte. Von Adolf 
Dyroff. Festgabe der Gorres-Gesellschaft 
zum 70. Geburtstage ihres Ersten Vorsit- 
zenden, Heinrich Finke. 141 pp. 8vo. 
Cologne: J. P. Bachem. 

Saint Frangois d' Assise d'apres les Aquarel- 
les de P. Subercaseaux Errazuriz, Moine 
Benedictin de Solesmes. (Reproductions 
of the Errazuriz paintings, with French and 
English text). 201 pp. 9%xl2i^ in. Bos- 
ton: Marshal Jones Co. 

Liturgische Bewegung. Ein Beitrag zu ihrer 
besseren Wiirdigung von Eev. H. J. Un- 
traut, Priester der Diozese La Crosse, Wis. 
108 pp. lomo. Im Selbstverlag des Ver- 
fassers. 

Papst und Kurie in ihrer PolitiTc nach dem 
WeltJcriege. Von Friedrich Ritter von 
Lama. IV. und V. Heft, pp. 145—280, 8vo. 
Illertissen, Bavaria : Verlag der Martinus- 
buchhandlung. 

Bab Comes into Her Own. By Clementia. 
[Another of the Mary Selwvn Books]. 
298 pp. 12mo. Chicago: Matre & Co. $1.50. 

Considerations on the Sacred Priesthood. 
For Young Priests and Seminarians. 
Adapted from the Original of the Rev. 

B. S. Piot by F. J. Remler, C. M. x & 146 
pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.25 net. 

Mere Henriette and Her WorJc. An Account 
of the Foundress and the Congregation of 
the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 
and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration 
(Picpus). Adapted from the French by 
a Member of the Institute of the Bl. Vir- 
gin Mary. 160 pp. 12mo. Sands & Co. 
and B. Herder Book Co. $1.25 net. 

St. Philip, Tutor and Saint. By W. Hall- 
Patch. With a Preface by Father Ross, xi 
& 201 pp. 12mo. Sands & Co. and B. 
Herder Book Co. $1.35 net. 



64 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



W. H. P. writes: "A batch of jokes I 
sent to the editor were rejected as no good, 
but when I threw them in the stove, the fire 
jnst i-oared. " 



Mr. Owen D. Young, in discussing inter- 
Allied debts, draws a. picture of General 
Pershing returning to the tomb of Lafayette. 
He stands at attention, salutes, and declaims : 
"We are here, Lafayette; and this time we 
want our money! " Why drag Lafayette into 
it? Why not! Lafayette had as much to do 
with the lending of the money as did the 
people who will be asked to pay it back half 
n century hence. — The Nation. 



In the Gasetta del Popolo the French 
painter Chartran tells some anecdotes about 
Leo XIII, who sat for him. Having on 
one occasion observed the Pontiff when borne 
in the sedia gestatoria, the painter compli- 
mented His Holiness on his deeply mystical 
attitude and the whiteness of his face. The 
Pope smiled and said : ' ' You know, this 
sedia gestatoria always give me the belly- 
ache. As soon as I sit in it, I am overcome 
by a feeling akin to seasickness. ' ' 



' ' Give him a book, ' ' someone suggested 
to a young lady who was puzzled in choosing 
a present for her fiance. "He's got one al- 
ready," was the disconcerting reply. — Ave 
Maria. 



Jim Albright missed his pocketbook the 
other morning and at once advertised for it 
in the evening paper. When he got up the 
following morning he found it in the pocket 
of his other trousers. ' ' Gracious ! ' ' 
he said, ' ' it does pay to advertise. ' ' — 
Jo.sephiniwi Weekly. 



Gabrielle M. Vassal, in her Book, ' ' Life 
in French Congo, ' ' tells of a native who 
was being fattened up in order to be eaten 
at a tribal feast. He was rescued by a 
missionary, who carried him off to his mission. 
The man proceeded to escape. "He did not 
like the mission — would not work. He told 
us, 'Me wish go back village. Me never 
work there. Me well feed. If eat me, no 
matter. ' And off he went. ' ' 



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write undersigned for terms and programmes. 
A leading organist, with years of study, and 
a graduate of Prof. J. Singenberger. Brilliant 
technique, artistic interpretation. Address, 

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1926 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



65 



JUST PUBLISHED 
CONSIDERATIONS 

ON THE 

SACRED PRIESTHOOD 

For Young Priests and 

Seminarians 

Adapted frcm the Original 

of the 

REV. B. S. PIOT 

By 

F. J. REMLER, C. M. 

Cloth, 8vo., X & 146 Pages, net $1.25 

In tliis book, Avhieli is especially in- 
tended for young- priests, the author 
treats of subjects that relate partly to 
the ascetic and partly to the pastoral 
life of priests in charge of souls. 

The subject matter is based mainly on 
the work, ' ' Considerations on the Sacred 
Ministry," by B. S. Plot — a little work 
now 'out of print. The chapters — five 
in number — embody many of the direc- 
tions and instructions the author has 
repeatedly addressed to candidates for 
the sacred priesthood in their retreats 
preparatory to ordination. 

In the first chapter, the dignity of tlie 
Sacred Priesthood is considered; in the 
second, the dangers by which the priest 
is surrounded are pointed out ; in the 
third are treated the difficulties encoun- 
tered in the care of souls and the means 
of overcoming these difficulties; the 
fourth deals Avith the graces granted to 
tliose who are charged Avith the priestly 
otfice; while in the tifth the advantages 
of the priesthood are considered. 

The aim of the author has Ijeen to aid 
young priests to grasp the full signifi- 
cance of tlieir sublime calling, and thus 
contribute his little mite towards helping 
them to foster a great love for their 
vocation and a burning zeal for the glorv 
of God and the good of souls. 



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GRAYMOOR'S PERPETUAL NOVENA TO ST. ANTHONY 
INCREASES IN POPULARITY 

A new Xt)vt'mi to St. Anthony is started every 
Tuesday by the Franciscan Friars of the Atone- 
ment in the Church of St. Francis on the Mount 
of the Atonement, Graymoor, N. Y. This amounts 
in actual practice to a Perpetual Novena, for as 
a Novena which begins on Tuesday ends on a 
Wednesday of the following week, before its con- 
clusion a New Novena begins and in consecjuence 
these Tuesday Novenas constitute an endless chain, 
each Novena being interlinked with its successor. 
The popularity of these Novenas increases all the 
whili'. A thousand Clients of the Wonder-Worker 
of Pa<lua now appeal to him through his Gray- 
moor Novena to every hundred who did so ten 
years ago. Thousands of testimonials like tlie 
folloAving explain the why and the wherefore: 

Mrs. J. B., Minneapolis, Minn.: "Enclosed 
find cheek for One Hundred Dollars to be applied 
for St. Anthony 's Poor, as E promised to give this 
amount if we sold our farm. We are very grate- 
ful. We feel that it is through St. Anthony's in- 
tercession that the farm was sold. 

>rrs. M. E. F., Massachusetts: ''I have 
wonderful results from my last two Novenas for the restoration of my health; and I hope 
our Blessed Mother and St. Anthony Avill finish the good work they have already 
started. ' ' 

M. B., Albany, N. Y. : "About a month ago I was forced to give up my position, 
and I at once called upon St. Anthony and the Little Flower to help me obtain another, 
promising publication and a donation in their honor. Within a week I had obtained 
another pjosition and at a very good salary. I continued to pray to my patrons to 
help me hold this position and to earn advancement. I have just been advised that 
1 am to be promoted to the position of secretary to the vice-president and manager of 
the concern with a substantial increase in salary, although I am the newest girl in the 
office. I gratefully acknoAvledge that I owe this wonderful favor entirely to the in- 
tercession of St. Anthony and the Little Flower. ' ' 

A Grateful Wife: "Enclosed is an offering which I promised to send in thanks- 
giving for a favor received through a recent Novena to St. Anthony. This favor, Avhich 
was the definite removal of a woman out of my husband's company, meant the happi- 
ness of our life and home. It was brought alaout by her unexpectedly resigning her 
position after unsuccessful attempts to break up our home." 

Address all communications to 

ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 




The Fortni§:htly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, Xo. 4 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI February 15th, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



The New Feast 

Our Catholic weeklies are printing 
the full text of the Encyclical "Quas 
primas, " which proclaims that a new 
feast has been appointed for observ- 
ance throughout the Universal Church 
— the Feast of Christ as King. At 
the first Christmastide the Eternal Son 
of God laid His glory by. "Non eripit 
mortalia qui regna dat cae^estia." But 
to-day, as Pope Leo XIII said, and 
as Pope Pius XI again reminds us, 
the whole human race and not merely 
those members of it who accept the 
Christian religion are subjects of Christ 
the King. So long as any of them are 
rebels against Him or are oblivious of 
His rights over them, much will still 
be Avrong in His world. That His 
Kingdom m.ay come, and His AVill be 
done on earth as it is in Heaven, will 
be the burden of the new feast. 

We can all hasten "the day of His 
coming" by not only rebuking men 
and women for holding back the hom- 
age which is their King's due, but still 
more by bringing them to know how 
grievous is their loss when they try 
to live their lives unhelped by His grace 
and uncheered by His love. 

A Franciscein Year 

The year 1926 will witness the world- 
wide commemoration of the seventh 
centenary of the death of St. Francis 
of Assisi. For the past two years an 
international committee has been ac- 
tive in preparing for the event. The 
Italian government has proclaimed the 
saint's death-day a national holiday. 
From all parts of Christendom pil- 
grimages to the tomb of the saint are 
being arranged. And not only amongst 
Catholics is the centenary commemora- 
tion exciting enthusiasm. Non-Cath- 



olic admirers of the Poor Man of Assisi 
are also preparing to lay their meed of 
praise at the saint's feet. A few 
months ago the Anglican Church 
Times published a two-column article 
setting forth a course of reading in 
Franciscan literature by way of prep- 
aration for the centenary. In this 
country the non-Catholic firm of Mar- 
shall Jones (Boston) has issued an 
edition de luxe of P. Subercaseux Er- 
razuriz's Pictorial Life of St. Francis 
of Assisi, to which we shall revert later. 
The present year will be a Francis- 
can year, and St. Francis of Assisi and 
his message to the world will undoubt- 
edl}' be the theme of much literature, 
journalistic and otherwise, and of 
much oratorical display. Doubtless, 
too, there will be many interpretations 
of his message to the world, orthodox 
and unorthodox, as there have been 
for some years past in the growing en- 
thusiasm for this popular saint. 

A Masonic-K. of C. Banquet 

At Marine City, Mich., on Jan. 21st, 
was held a Masonic-K. of C. banquet 
with an attendance of more than 250 
men, about 125 of them Knights of 
Columbus, with the S. Ward Lodge 
No. 62 F. and A. M. as hosts and the 
Ladies of the Eastern Star (a Masonic 
auxiliary) serving the supper. There 
M'ere speeches by Deputy Grand Knight 
W. H. Quaine of Detroit, who ex- 
pressed the hope that "not only would 
this annual banquet be continued in 
Marine Cit}', but that the example 
might spread to other cities," and by 
Shirley Stuart, an attorney and prom- 
inent member of the Masonic Order, 
who assured his hearers that "the re- 
ligious opinions of any man are his 
own business and his worth in the com- 



68 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



munity and his value as a citizen are 
not aifected by them." A feature of 
the evening was "an exchange of gifts 
between the two organizations," the 
Masons i)resenting the Knights of Col- 
umbus with a handsome gavel, while 
the Knights gave to the Masons an 
American flag and to the Order of 
the Eastern Star a beautiful bouquet. 

The Michigan Councillor, "official 
publication of and by the Michigan 
State Council, Knights of Columbus," 
in its edition of Jan. 27, instead of 
censuring this unbecoming fraterniza- 
tion of the Marine City Knights with 
an organization essentially inimical to 
the Catholic Church and solemnly con- 
demned by many popes, proudly de- 
clares that the banquet in question 
"was staged with the avow^ed purpose 
of expressing to the world the idea be- 
hind the banquet, the real truth that, 
in Michigan, Masons and Knights of 
Columbus are working side by side 
and plajdng the same way." 

Meanwhile Pope Pius XI has as- 
signed as general intention for the 
Apostleship of Prayer for February 
"The Defense of the Church against 
Secret Societies"! 

The Begmnings of the Beuron School 
of Art 

The "Erinneruugen unci Studien" 
edited by the Benedictines of Beuron 
in honor of their late founder ("Maur- 
us AVolter, dem Griinder Beurons, 
zuni 100. Geburtstag, " Beuron, 1925), 
among other interesting and notable 
contributions contain a study by Dom 
Ansgar Pollmann, 0. S. B., of Arch- 
abbot Wolter's views on art and his 
relations to the originator of the so- 
called Beuron School, Dom Desiderius 
Lenz, 0. S. B. Archabbot Maurus, it 
appears, was an enthusiastic connois- 
seur and admirer of the Gothic style as 
traditionall}' cultivated in the Rhine- 
land, whereas Dom Desiderius wished 
to bring back Christian art to the 
rule and majestic dignity of the mon- 
umental art of ancient Egypt, and thus 
to create a new hieratic style. This 
idea did not quite suit the Archabbot, 
and he sharply criticized the "Egyp- 



tian ' ' tendency in many of his letters ; 
but he was too prudent to suppress the 
new movement with one fell blow, as it 
lay in his power to do. On the contrary, 
he permitted the gifted Fr. Lenz (who 
was not, by the way a priest, but a 
simple subdeacon), architect, sculptor, 
and painter all in one person, to go 
on with his work, and only tried to 
induce him to inject more of positive 
Christianity into his creations. 

In the end Archabbot Maurus from 
a sharp critic became a sincere and 
enthusiastic admirer of the produc- 
tions of the Beuron School, especially 
of its paintings in the Toretta at Monte 
Cassino. 

Missionauries Turned Murderers 

The following editorial article of 
the Ave Maria (N. S., Vol. XXIII, No. 
4) is of such grave importance that 
we reprint it for the benefit of those 
of our readers who ordinarily do not 
see that excellent weekly magazine, 
published by the Fathers of the Holy 
Cross at Notre Dame, Ind. : 

' ' On what seems reliable authority, it 
is stated that sixty-eight members of 
French religious communities were 
mobilized — some of them were killed — 
during the recent uprising of the 
Druses in Syria. Officials of the French 
government declare that 'the situa- 
tion was desperate, that self-preser- 
vation necessitated extreme measures.' 
Fair-minded Frenchmen, however, will 
not deny that, at no time during the 
World War, even when disaster was 
most threatening, did the German gov- 
ernment oblige ministers of religion to 
bear arms. A bishop in Syria tells us 
that it will be half a century before 
the scandal of 'missionaries turned 
murderers,' as one of the natives ex- 
pressed it, is entirely removed in the 
Far East. 'Your hands are red with 
the blood of your brethren,' said a 
Mohammedan chief to a missionary 
who fought as a soldier in France ; 
'and you come back here and tell us 
that your God is a God of love and 
peace ! Go home, and remain there 
with your Christian dogs ! ' 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REV I EM' 



89 



"We should very much like to for- 
get other things which have come to 
our knowledge since the Armistice. 
Broadly speaking, religion was at a 
low ebb during the war, whatever may 
be said to the contrary." 

"Antonianum" — A New Franciscan 
Review 

In order to keep pace with the grow- 
ing revival of Franciscan studies 
throughout the world, and as a fitting 
tribute to the 7th centenary of the 
death of S. Francis, which opens on the 
2nd of Aug., 1926, the professors of 
the International Franciscan College 
of St. Anton>- at Home have inaugui'- 
ated a philosophical-theological review 
under the title, Anfonianum, the first 
number of which appeared the 1st of 
January. The Anfonianum will em- 
brace all the various branches of phil- 
osophy, dogmatic, moral and ascetical 
theology, patristic science, canon law, 
biblical science, Church history, and 
sacred eloquence. Under the imme- 
diate direction of a select body of pro- 
fessors it purposes to illustrate partic- 
ularly the work of the great Fran- 
ciscan scholars of the Middle Ages 
and of Franciscan writers in general, 
and to keep in touch with the latest 
achievements in the field of sacred 
sciences. The official language of the 
periodical is Latin, though articles in 
English, German, French, Italian and 
Spanish are admitted. A synopsis in 
Latin will be appended to every such 
article. The Antonianiim will contain 
about 120 pages octavo quarterly. The 
subscription price is 35 lire or, at the 
present rate of exchange, $1.50. 

The first number contains the fol- 
lowing leading articles: "De Indole 
Anselmiana Theodiceae S. Bonaven- 
turae" (Van de Woestvne) ; "Revela- 
tiones B. Elisabeth" (Oliger) ; "De 
Obligatione Sigilli Confessionis juxta 
Doctrinam Hadriani VI" (Kurt- 
scheid) ; "De Grammatica Hebraica 
P. Ludovici S. Francisci" (Kleinhans). 
To these are appended "Miscellanea", 
a rich "Bibliographia," and a " Chron- 
ica" of important scientific events. A 
sample copy will be sent on request 



by the Amministrazione del "Anton- 
ianum, " Via Merulana, 124, Roma 
(24), Italy. 

A Modern Crusader 

"Quae ngio iit lerris nosiri non 
plena lahoris?" is a question that may 
be asked by the Society of the Divine 
Word, one of the "youngest" yet 
most efficient missionary congregations 
of the Church to-da}'. Founded in 
1875 at Steyl. Holland, where the 
Mother House is still located, the So- 
ciety now has missionaries in the United 
States, China, Japan, the Philippines, 
the Dutch P]ast Indies, the Pacific Is- 
lands, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, and 
Brazil. Surely every Catholic in the 
United States has heard of Techny, 
111. We have evident signs of God's 
blessing upon the work of these zealous 
priests and brothers. It is proper that 
tlie life of the founder of such a vig- 
orous company of Gospel heralds should 
b(! adequately Avritten. We are not 
disappointed in Fr. II. Fischer's "Life 
of Arnold Janssen, ' ' as Englished by 
Fr. F. M. LjTik, S.V.D., for it pre- 
sents a sensible, hmnan picture of the 
great founder and xn-iesf, whose suf- 
ferings in the beginning of his work 
did not break a truly heroic will. The 
little announcement sent out by tlie 
Techm- Fathers together with this 
book rightly refers to him as '"a mod- 
ern crusader, a knight whose soul Avas 
filled with an immense love of God's 
holy places in the souls of men." The 
supernatural motive helped Arnold 
Janssen to survive trials which might 
have weakened a will less firmly fixed 
in God. But it also enabled him to 
add a new and well-equipped body 
of picked men to the legions of the 
Church Militant who do duty on the 
outposts of civilization. 



THE SURPRISE 



By Charles J. Quirk, S. J. 



"Yes, follow Me," One gently said. 
At Death's dark door of sighs; 
Then flung the mask of Death aside- 
Lore stood before mine eyes. 



70 



THE FOh'TMGIITLY REVIEW 
Catholics and Community Life 

By P. H. Callahan of Louisville 



Februar\- 1.5 



■'Wherever you go in this country, 
.\-(iu will find the same conditions — 
prodigious parochial 'activity and 
supine indifference to the general 
need of the Church. In consequence, 
Catholics, where they are strongest, 
are isolated, out of touch with the 
connnunity, exerting no influence 
commensurate with their numbers, 
Their enterprises or their splendid 
i-<»nstructive thought." 

These words, spoken by the Arch- 
bishop of St. Paul in his notable ad- 
dress to the lioly Name Society in 
< 'ineiiniati last year, point to a weak 
spot in our Catholic organism. It is 
not only a weak spot,' but a sore one, 
and most of us wince when it is touched. 
Some are quick to advance an explana- 
tion, some make an excuse, while some 
set forth the difficulties, nay, even per- 
liaps the danger of any other attitude 
tlutn that described. 

Yet Archbishop Dowling spoke the 
simple truth. Ten years ago the Com- 
mission on Heligious Prejudices, in 
inakJng their first report on the con- 
ditions that excite susi)icion and ill- 
will against Catholics in our country, 
noted tlie facts which the Archbishoj^ 
mentions, and among their recommen- 
dations to the Knights of Columbus at 
tliat time was the following: 

■ ' We urge our members to become 
more intimately acquainted with 
sd-ial ])roblems and more closely 
ideutilied with right movements look- 
ing to their solution, that they ac- 
lively join with those of all other 
ci-eeds for the betterment of public 
morals, the furtherance of social jus- 
tice, and the ]:)ro]notion of the l)est 
in citizenship." 

That recommendation was widely ap- 
]n-oved, but it was also widely crit- 
ized. We Catholics, it was said, are 
taught personal responsibility to our 
^Nlaker, not to society, for our thoughts 
and deeds, and are trained to culti- 
Aate our individual conscience, not the 
community conscience, and naturally 



Ave (_lo ]iot evince the same degree of in- 
terest in civic movements that they do 
who are taught community responsibil- 
ity and trained to cultivate the com- 
munity conscience. 

Again it was said : AVe have our 
l)rayers night and morning, our grace 
at meals, our Mass on Sunday, our 
seasons of fast and penance, our pastor, 
the Church, and divers charities to 
support continually, all regulated by 
precept and counsel, which, having 
bt^en observed, leaves us with a sense 
of duty done toward both God and 
num. Any other activities are apt to 
be construed as in the way of business, 
politics, or some other form of self- 
seeking. So keen is this feeling among 
us that we actually ascribe motives to 
those Catholics whom we see active and 
forward in the promotion of civic 
movements, and indulge in specula- 
tions as to ''what they are after.'" 

Another objection was this : In near- 
ly all civic activities the chief pro- 
moters seem to lug in some religious 
service that smacks of Protestantism, 
with ])reachers on the platform and 
invocations and benedictions in Prot- 
estant style. Even the Lord's Prayer 
is always said with the King James' 
ending. ^lore often than not they 
manage to hold their meetings in some 
Protestant church. Usually the local 
ministerial association is forward with 
its endorsement and ready, at least, 
^\ itli its recommendations. The small- 
(']• tlie city, the more pronounced are 
these notes of Protestant leadership, 
a))d in many communities any move- 
ment started Avithont them is doomed 
to die stillI)orn. 

It must be confessed that these are 
j'eal difficulties for Catholics and, to 
some extoit, — having regard for the 
min<ls of little children, and those that 
think as children though they are no 
]ong(u- little, — they are insuperable dif- 
ficulties. But they leave no doubt of 
the fact that our position of isolation 
in communitv movements renders Cath- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



,71 



olicis collectively weak. We do not as 
a whole begin to exert the influence in 
our respective commnnities to which 
our numbers, our training, and our in- 
terests entitle us. As Monsignor Shan- 
non some time ago said in the Ne-w 
World: "Catholics make up one-fifth 
of our population, but judging by rep- 
resentation at prominent affairs, one 
would think they are as rare as Bud- 
dhists. 

Some have thought that a remedy 
lies in the direction of so-called fra- 
ternization, whereby an organization 
of Catholics joins haiids with a non- 
Catholic organization, perhaps with 
one which Catholics, as individuals, 
maj^ not affiliate with. A better rem- 
edy seems to be to educate our Cath- 
olic people to take up individually the 
duties they owe their community. We 
should all realize that, in these days 
of intense social activity, it is not 
enough for one merely to keep the 
(;ommandments. Of course, if every 
one kept them, we should have 
a perfect society ; but because many 
do not know, or are not willing to do 
their duty, there exists a sort of No 
Man's Land in society, and it becomes 
the duty of those who have the time 
and the means, to cultivate that land. 

In the field of social work, in educa- 
tion, in domestic and industrial prob- 
lems, there is a great opportunity for 
individual Catholic leadership, not for 
selfish purposes, but for the common 
good. We have the correct principles 
to solve these vexed questions, and 
A\e owe it to our fellow-citizens and 
to our community to make sacrifices 
if necessary, to suffer a little from criti- 
cism, if any one feels that way about 
it, in order to work out these principles 
in co-operation with our fellow-citizens. 
Aside from the special providence by 
which the Church is guided in her di- 
vine mission on earth, we know that in 
the long run human wisdom finds its 
highest expression in her authoritative 
Aoice, which is, in fact, a composite 
of the best thought of the civilized 
world, assembled from all quarters, 
tested by all phases of an experience 
accumulated through the nineteen 



hundred years of uninterrupted ac- 
tivity in human aft'airs. Surely, every 
Catholic who has learned to appreciate 
this vast store of knowledge and light, 
should exert himself to the extent of 
his means in making its benefits avail- 
able to his fellow-citizens in all com- 
munity affairs. 

Yes, there is prejudice against Cath- 
olics ; but much of that prejudice has 
nothing to do with our religious be- 
lief, but is excited by the attitude which 
we take towards public civic and com- 
munity activities, by the position of 
isolation which Archbishop Dowling 
deplores. A right attitude on the part 
of those Catholics who, by reason of 
their circumstances, the community has 
a right to expect to be active in the 
interest of public welfare, will dissi- 
pate most of that prejudice. The fol- 
lowing comment of the London Cath- 
olic Times on the speech of a Protest- 
ant refjresentative of the Swiss govern- 
ment at the recent consecration, cere- 
monies of the Bishop of Basle, is elo- 
quent of the possibilities open to Cath- 
olics in America : 

"The speech was received with the 
greatest enthusiasm. It marks a 
wonderful advance, and shows that 
the unsparing and unceasing efforts 
of the Swiss Catholics in all depart- 
ments of intellectual and social life, 
and their loyalty to the State, have 
broken down the barriers of prej- 
udice, which for more than six 
decades produced bitterness and in- 
justice in the State's treatment of 
them. ' ' 

This in the country of Calvin and 
Zwingli, where for centuries no mark 
of respect was ever paid by the gov- 
ernment to a Catholic bishop ! What 
could be done here in America by the 
same public-spirited activity of Cath- 
olics in all departments of intellectual 
and social life? 

Let us have less of Catholics in poli- 
tics, where, with some notable exeep- 
lions, they have never reflected distinc- 
tive honors upon us, and more of them 
in those public-spirited activities whose 
leaders and supporters do not ask. 
but give. 



72 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW February 15 

The Catholic Foundation at the University of Illinois 

A Reply to the Rev. John McGuire, S. J. 

By 

TTie Rev. John A. O'Brien, Ph. D., Chaplain of Catholic Students at the University of 

Illinois 



For the past moiitli or more the 
Rev. John McGuire, S. J., has been 
having great sport in exploiting his 
concept of the Catholic Foundation at 
the University of Illinois, painting it, 
to be sure, in colors all his own. The 
manuscript he submitted for publica- 
tion to the Colwnhiad in Chicago 
having been turned down by the 
Knights of Columbus officials, who 
happened to know a thing or two about 
the Foundation themselves, he goes out 
to Kansas Citv and in a paper publish- 
ed by the K.' of C, called The Mar- 
quette Pilot — of all the papers ! — tries 
to knife in the back a project sponsored 
for more than six years with passionate 
devotion by their brother Knights of 
Illinois. Then a few weeks later he 
goes down to St. Louis and fulminates 
in The Fortnightly Revikw a second 
attack against it. 

At times he grows rhetorical and you 
see the flushing sky and the setting 
sun; at others, he drops his voice to 
the low tremor of pathos, and you hear 
the soft patter of the falliug rain out- 
side. But most frequently he waxes 
humorous, poking fun at the Founda- 
tion, thinking the idea that Catholic 
students at a State University should 
be given any systematic courses of in- 
struction in the Catholic relia'ion is 
enormously funny. That's the best 
joke of all. he thinks. 

It is difficult to argue seriously Avith 
Father McGuire because he has a dis- 
tinct advantage over his opponents, 
inasmuch as his mind is not burdened 
with an understanding of what the 
Foundation is all about. In no sen- 
tence among the thousands of Avords he 
has written, ha.s he displayed even a 
feeble understanding of the real signif- 
icance of the Catholic Foundation and 
the Avork it is accomplishing, or the 
eonditions that render it a necessarv 



instrumentality, approved by the Bish- 
ops of the State for the dissemination 
of the Church's teachings in the bosom 
ol more than half of her youth who are 
receiving a university education. While 
it would require a volume to answer 
m detail all the misrepresentations and 
caricatures drawn by Fr. McGuire, we 
Avill hold the searchlight of actual fact 
to his chief assertions, and if these are 
found at variance with the facts, then 
it follows that his other allegations are 
likewise unreliable. 
Assertion No. J. The Foundation is a 

lure or halt for Catholic Students. 

To quote his own words: '"Father 
John O'Brien, Ph. D., urges Cath- 
olic students to attend the (Illinois) 
seat of learning." (F. R., Jan. 15, p. 
26.) Fr. McGuire has copies of every 
address the (;haplain has delivered, 
every article written, on the subject. 
The w7-iter challenges him to coml:> 
them with a fine comb and to produce 
one single sentence where the chaplain 
ijas invited or solicited, much less urg- 
ed. Catholic students to come to Illinois. 
AVith our capacity already overtaxed, 
what possible reason would we have for 
seeking more? Yet this is one of the 
charges that he repeats ad. nauseam, 
thus totally misrepresenting tlie atti- 
tude of the chaplain and tli(^ whole 
Foundation project. In case such a- 
sentence is not forthcoming — as it can't 
})e, for none such was ever uttered by 
the chaplai)! — the writer leaves it to the 
readers of tliis magazine to decide if it 
is not up to Fr. McGuire miblicly to 
retract the charge or stand convicted 
of flagrant misrepresentation. 

Nor will Fr. McGuire escape convic- 
tion by citing passages in which the 
writer speaks with eager faith of the 
ability of the Foundation to influence 
favoi-ably the Catholic 'Students al- 
ready here, and to quicken their love 



192G 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



73 



and devotion to Holy Mother Church. 
For such statements always refer to 
students already in attendance. There 
is as much difference, however, be- 
tween asking for facilities properly to 
care for the students already in attend- 
ance (and for those whom circumstances 
for many j^ears will force to the State 
University) and asking for more stu- 
dents as there is between day and 
night. Fr. McGuire overlooks entirely 
the fact that the addresses from which 
he quotes were delivered solely to the 
Knights of Columbus in an appeal for 
funds and were not directed to audien- 
ces of prospective students. That point 
must never be lost sight of by one who 
would understand the real purpose of 
the addresses. 

Assertion No. 2. The Catholic Founda- 
ation is antagonistic to Catholic 

education. 
To quote : " If this scheme succeeds 
at our State University . . . the present 
system of Catholic education will pass 
to the discard.'" (Marquette Pilot, Nov., 
1925, p. 3). The Foundation is, by 
no possible stretch of the imagination, 
an abandonment of our own system 
of Catholic education, but a continu- 
ance and extension of it to that large 
number. — constituting approximately 
two-thirds of all our Catholic young 
men and women receiving a university 
education — who were previou.sly with- 
out any systematic instruction in the 
Catholic religion. With the same Ic^ic 
one might argue that the work of the 
Catholic Instruction League in under- 
taking to instruct children attending 
the pulilic schools meant an abandon- 
ment of all our parochial schools ! No, 
just as the Catholic Instruction League 
swppletnents the work of Catholic 
instruction in the elementary field, so 
the Catholic Foundation supplements 
the work of Catholic education in the 
university field. No amount of mis- 
representation can blind the Catholic 
people of Illinois to that fundamental 
and obvious fact. If Fr. McGuire 
would grasp the above simple, clear dis- 
tinction between supplementing; and 
opposing he would lay his pen down 



peacefully and apply himself to more 
fruitful labor. 

Why, if the Foundation were in the 
slightest manner antagonistic to Cath- 
olic education, have the leading Catho- 
lic educators of the State— who have 
taken time to study the Foundation 
plan, and to grasp the distinction be- 
tw^een supplementing and opposing)— 
been so whole-hearted in their support 
of it? Why, if it were opposed to 
Catholic education, did that magnifi- 
cent peerless champion of Catholic edu- 
cation, idolized by every priest in Illi- 
nois, Rev. ^Y. J. iBergin, C. S. V., who 
has devoted his whole life unflinchingly 
to the cause, leave his college Sunday 
after Sunday last jear to plead with 
moving eloquence the cause of the 
Catholic Foundation before the larger 
parishes of the Peoria diocese? 

Why. if it were opposed to Catholic 
education, did that great to^vering fig- 
ure of ('atholic education in the middle 
Avest, Rev. Dr. John Cavanaugh, C. S. 
C, for so many years president of 
Notre Dame University, after learning 
of the project, send to the writer these 
stirring words of encouragement : " It 
Avas good Americanism for the Univer- 
sity of Illinois to encourage this spirit- 
ual enterprise and good Christianity 
on your part to push it so zealously. 
Nothing remains for its complete suc- 
cess except the whole-hearted and unit- 
ed support of our people. I hope you 
will have it. It is quite clear that for 
a variety of reasons there will always 
be a considerable number of Catholic 
young men attending state universities. 
You have the best method of dealing 
with the situation. There ought to be 
no lack of financial support." Why, 
too, did the hierarchy of Illinois, after 
studying the matter carefully, endorse 
the project with a solid unanimity 
that knew no shadow of division, and 
publicly plead its cause before the 
Knights of Illinois ? 

It was simply because these great 
Catholic educators, and the far-seeing 
members of the hierarchy of Illinois, 
grasping clearly the distinction be- 
tween supplementing and opposing^ 
perceived that it would strengthen im- 



74 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



measurably the cause of Catholic edu- 
cation all along' the line, and bring the 
saving elements of Catholic truth to 
a vast army of young men and women 
who otherwise would be forever de- 
prived of these great stabilizing and 
enriching spiritual verities. These men 
clearly perceived the obvious fact that 
the scope of Catholic education is not 
lessened, but enlarged and strengthened 
by extending it to that vast number 
of young men and women, constituting 
about QQ 2/3 % of all our Catholic 
young men and women receiving a 
college education, who had hitherto 
remained untouched by its saving in- 
fluence. Strange, isn't it, that any 
Catholic, much less a priest, could 
raise his voice in opposing the extension 
of Catholic religious teaching to this 
vast number of Carbolic men and wom- 
en? 

Assertion No. .V. The Catholic Stu- 
dents' Hall at Missouri is a Failure. 
To quote : ' ' These things . . . have 
been tried out for some years at the 
State Universit}- of Missouri with very 
unsatisfactory results." (F. E.., p. 26.) 
"About half the rooms prepared by 
Catholic charit}' Avere left vacant until 
non-Catholic students .... occupied 
them." {Marquette Pilot, p. 3.) 

Now is Fr. McGuire any more ac- 
curate in his representation of condi- 
tions at the Catholic students' hall in 
Missouri than with the Catholic Foun- 
dation at Illinois? Let us see. Not 
being personally familiar with the 
Missouri situation, inquiry was made, 
not by the writer, but by Knights in 
Illinois. A letter from one of the K. 
of C. officials in Missouri, tjioroughly 
familiar with the actual facts, was re- 
ceived in reply. It reads : 

"In our work, we have the active 
support and co-operation of Arch- 
bishop Glennon, Bishop Lillis, and 
Bishop Burke, and .the faculty 
at St. Louis University, one of 
the greatest Jesuit schools in America. 
Archbishop Glennon, Bishop Lillis, 
Bishop Byrne, and Father Robison, 
President of St. Louis University, were 
all present and took part in the dedi- 
catory exercises, and Father Robison 



was the ]n-incipal speaker at the ban- 
quet that evening. There was nevei" 
a question of antagonism by the Jesuits 
in our work. 

' ' The building has been popular and 
well-supported. However, we found 
it necessar}' to make a change in the 
management in the fall of 1924, and 
we were unfortunate in the choice of 
the manager at that time. I need not 
tell you that whenever you change man- 
agers, you are experimenting and run- 
ning the risk that the new management 
will not be successful. It happened 
that the manager we employed in the 
fall of 192-1 was not well adapted to 
the position and was very unpopular 
with the l)oys, with the result that 
about the middle of the year the build- 
ing was only a little more than half 
filled. The article written by Fathei- 
McGuire in criticism of your move- 
ment refers to our Avork at the Uni- 
versitA- of Missouri, and it happens that 
he selects the particular period re- 
ferred to and states that it demon- 
strates that the moA'ement is unpopu- 
lar. His article does not correctly 
represent conditions at the University 
of Missouri, and it is not quite fair to 
select the particidar time which he did 
select as an example of our Avork. I 
regret exceedingly if it should cause 
you auA" annoyance, and Avhen you 
knoAv the facts as I am giving them to 
you here, you Avill understand that 
they do not warrant the position which 
Faiher McGuire has taken." 

The letter casts a lurid light upon 
the accuracy of Fr. McGuire 's repres- 
entation of the Missouri situation. It 
shoAvs that he is at least consistent Avith 
his statement of the Catholic Founda- 
tion work in Illinois. He has the happy 
faculty of never alloAving facts to 
interfere Avith his argument. In an ar- 
ticle that Avill folloAv the Avriter will 
expose further misrepresentation from 
Avhich the Foundation has suffered and 
will present it in its true light. 

The Catholic Foundation invites the 
closest inspection from every Catholic, 
priest or layman, in America. We have 
no secrets to hide. We are willing to 
stand or fall on the actual facts. All 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



75 



Ave ask is that one view honestly, and 
then present fairly, all the facts in the 
case. It has been this actual personal 
inspection b}" many bishops of the 
work done by the Foundation, in spite 
of the lack of almost every necessary 
material facility, that has rendered 
them so devoted to it — and incidently 
rendered them proof against the mis- 
leading propaganda of Fr. McGuire. 

Towards the end of his article in the 
F. R., Fr. McGuire sounds the note 
of charit}' . 

What we ask is not charity, hut jus- 
tice; not misrepresentation, but a plain 
statement of the simple truth ; not dis- 
tortion, but a presentation of "facts 
as they are. " It is not a pleasant task 
for the writer to make these observa- 
tions. He allowed the first article of 
Fr. McGnii'e to pass Avith the cliarity 
of silence, thinking him simply misin- 
formed. But Fr. McGuire 's continued, 
incessant, ceaseless misrepresentation of 
the facts connected with the Catholic 
Foundation project, with possible harm 
resulting, has left the Avriter no alter- 
native. Nor shall he cease in the future 
to raise his voice in defense of the 
truth, and in protest against the dis- 
paragement of the authority of the 
Cardinal Archbishop and the Bishops 
of Illinois in tlieir Christ-like zeal and 
courage in seeking to extend the knoAvl- 
edge of the saving elements of Divine 
Truth to all the children of men. 
(To be concluded) 

[After this article is completed, it will be 
answered at length in the F. E. — Editor.] 



A Latin manuscript has been dis- 
covered at Berlin containing the com- 
plete text of the treatise of Peter 
Abelard, "De Unitate et Trinitate 
Divina, " Avhich Avas thought to be lost. 



Success in life depends not so much 
on public estimation as upon character. 
The truly successful man is he Avhose 
whole life has been a preparation for 
eternitA\ 



In character, in manners, in style. 
in all things, the supreme excellence 
is simplicity. — Longfellow. 



Hell for a Single Mortal Sin? 

Theologians hold that a man Avill 
go to hell for a single unrepented mor- 
tal sin, but, as Father Ernest R. Hull. 
S. J., points out in the Examiner i \"ol. 
7H. No. 18), there are three practical 
considerations Avhich make it improb- 
able that men do go to hell for a single 
mortal sin : — ■ 

(1) A man whose habitual dispo- 
sitions are good is not likely to commit 
a mortal sin unless under a sudden and 
strong temptation. As soon as the act 
is done, he is almost sure to recover 
himself and be sorry for his momen- 
tary aberration. Noav for repentance 
l)raetieally no time is needed — to a 
jnan of general good dispositions it 
Avill be spontaneous and instantaneous. 
No matter how suddenly a man dies, 
he is almost sure to have a moment of 
time to realize that he is dying ; and 
he will jump to repentance on the 
instant. 

(2) God is not anxious to damn 
souls; on the contrary he is anxious to 
save them. He Avill not be glad to catch 
a sinner by a sudden death; but in 
case of a sudden death will make a 
special effort to give him a chance. 
He will put in a flash of grace, bright 
enough to make the man realize his 
state, and enable him to repent in the 
one moment that remains to hun. 

(3) A mortal sin must be a deliber- 
ate act Avith clear realization and full 
wilfulness. But in strong sudden 
temptations a man is generally in a 
storm of passion, or carried away by 
a strong impulse. His mind is ab- 
sorbed in the object, which pulls him 
by a sort of fascination, so that the 
act takes place almost by itself. If 
his mind is clear about the moral 
Avrongness of the impulse, he is bound 
to check it, and can check it. But 
probably the mind is so absorbed as 
not to see — or not to see clearly — the 
bearings of the case, and so the choice 
hardly presents itself to him as a 
choice, and the thing is done with a 
plunge before he comes to himself. 

Theologians teach that passion, mem- 
tal distraction, and impulse diminish 



76 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEVIES' 



February 15 



tlie voluntariness of acts because they 
blur the vision of the cJioice. It is in 
this way that people of general good 
habits sometimes have sudden falls. 
A man struggling with poverty, with 
debts to meel; and a wife and children 
starving, suddenly comes across a 
chance to steal. An intense desire 
wells up in his soul and overflows into 
action. The thing is done before he 
realizes it. Such an impulsive act 
would be lacking in the conditions for 
mortal sin at the moment of the ac- 
tion. A mortal sin would supervene 
aftencards if, when recovering his bal- 
ance of mind, he did not repent, and 
kept the money. The first act of steal- 
ing may have been almost a blind im- 
pulse. The second act of retention is 
a matter of deliberate choice. 

From this it wull appear that though 
in theory a man can go to hell for a 
single mortal sin, in practice this is for 
many reasons unlikely to happen. 



Notes and Gleanings 



The Acta Apostolicae Sedis publishes 
an Apostolic Constitution extending 
the jubilee indulgence for a year to 
the whole Catholic world outside Rome. 
The "special generosity'' of which His 
Holiness spoke in the Consistorial Allo- 
cution is seen in more than one point, 
first in the extension for a year, instead 
of six months, as in 1900. The ordinary 
conditions are, naturally, the same as 
they were in Rome: Confession, Com- 
munion (the Easter duty does not suf- 
fice for this), and prayers for the in- 
tentions of the Holy Father. The visits 
prescribed are five, on succeeding days 
or any day following in the course of 
the year, to the principal church of the 
place and to three other churches. The 
ecclesiastical authority will indicate 
the churches; if four cannot be con- 
veniently visited, a lesser number will 
suffice, even one; but four visits must 
be made each day. Bishops, person- 
ally or by deputy, can grant modifi- 
cations in special cases. 

Representatives of forty Catholic 
colleges and universities from all parts 



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1928 



THE FOBT NIGHTLY BEVIE^Y 



77 



of the United States met in AVashing- 
ton, January 5, and formed the Amer- 
ican Catholic Philosophical Association, 
with the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edward A. 
Pace, of the Catholic University, as 
president. The object of the new body 
is to promote study and research in 
the field of philosophy. A quarterly 
magazine is to be established for this 
purpose. 

After lying in a cemetery in Chica- 
go since 1895, the body of Eugene 
Field, the famous American poet, has 
been removed to the courtyard of the 
Episcopalian church at Kenilworth, 111. 
A grandson of the poet lives in this 
suburb and has been instrumental in 
the establishment of a "poet's corner" 
and the placing of a memorial window 
in the church. 



"Everyman," the loth-century 
"morality" play, was presented at 
Leeds (England) on Jan. 5 in some- 
thing like its original setting. Similar 
experiments have been made before, 
but this performance was noteworthy 
because it was given by the Leeds Civic 
Theatre, a quasi-municipal undertak- 
ing, in Holy Trinity, one of the oldest 
churches in the city. The play was 
beautifully and reverently performed. 
This is an experiment that might well 
be repeated. As the drama sprang 
from the Church, there is no reason 
why such reverent subjects, reverently 
presented, should not return to it. 

At the time of the jubilee of Card- 
inal Merrj^ del Val it was reported 
that an "0 Salutaris" of his own was 
sung in the course of his Jubilee Mass 
in St. Peter's. The Catholic Choir- 
master, of Philadelphia, has the dis- 
tinction of publishing in its current 
number (Vol. xi, No. 4) not only this 
piece, but also two others from the 
same eminent pen. All are for four 
mixed voices, the "0 Salutaris" in 
G minor ending on the major chord, 
a "Tantum ergo" in E flat, and a 
motet, "Panis angelicus," in A major. 

The Nation announces the establish- 
ment in France of a weekly journal. 



to be edited by Victor Margueritte, 
Baron Baudran, Professor Ebray, and 
other Frenchmen for the purpose of 
undoing the wrong done to Germany 
by clearing her of the accusation of 
sole guilt and of immoral war prac- 
tices, most of which have been explod- 
ed, like the Charteris falsehood that 
the Germans boiled the bodies of their 
dead for fat. 



The Catholic Transcript, otYicial or- 
gan of the Diocese of Hartford, Conn., 
a propos of the recent death of V. 
Rev. Edw. R. Dyer, S. S., provincial 
of the Sulpitians, recalls the crisis 
through which that Society passed 
about twenty years ago and brings out 
tiie Iiitherto unpublished fact that Dr. 
Dyer, at a time Avhen some of its best 
members deserted the Society, wrote 
a defense of it, which was printed in 
book form and quietly sent to all the 
bishops of the Qountry. It dealt "with 
certain modernistic tendencies" and 
"also with other things that are as far 
I'emote from orthodoxy as fair play is 
from knavery." It would be interesting 
to know more about this obscure chap- 
ter in American church history. 



In a notice of ' ' The Cruise of the 
Nona" {Literary Digest International 
Book Review, No. 35) Richard Le Gal- 
lienne characterizes Hilaire Belloc not 
ineptly as follows: "Mr. Belloc has 
always struck me as a writer spoiled 
by life coming too easily to him, and 
premature praise. Too early he devel- 
oped so good a conceit of himself, that 
he seems to think that anything be- 
comes him, and that anything he cares 
to dash down is good enough for the 
reader. So once he wrote a volume of 
essaj^s with the foolish, take-it-or-leave- 
it title 'On Nothing,' and followed it, 
I think, with another 'On Something.' 
He is really not big enough for these 
great-man antics. Of course, he can 
write well — I do not wish to seem un- 
grateful for 'The Path to Rome' — but 
he is neither great nor entertaining 
enough to indulge in such big formless 
books as this 'Nona' in a world where, 
for many of us, so many really great. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEM^ 



February 15 



books have still claims upon our brief 
mortal span." 



A quarterh- magazine devoted en- 
tirely to the ascetic life and to mys- 
ticism has been established at Inns- 
bruck in Austria ( Verlagsanstalt Ty- 
rolia). Its first number is dated Jan- 
uary, 1926, and contains 96 pages. The 
prospectus says that the new magazine, 
called Zeitschrift fur Aszese unci Mys- 
tik, is to deal scientifically with the the- 
ory and history of Catholic piety, but 
Avill present the Avork of scholarly wri- 
ters in a form intelligible to educated 
laymen. The Zeitschrift is edited by 
Jesuit Fathers connected with the the- 
ological facult}- of the University of 
Innsbruck, which has quite a few alum- 
ni in the United States. 



ionianum, published by the Interna- 
tional Franciscan College of St. An- 
tony in Rome (see p. 68 of this num- 
ber" of the F. E.) 



The report of the Seventh Annual 
Meeting of the Franciscan Educational 
Conference, held last summer in Cin- 
cinnati, 0., forms a stout volume of 
nearh^ 300 pages and shows that the 
discussions of the Conference were de- 
voted almost entirely to Biblical ques- 
tions in connection with the schools of 
the Order in the U. S. Fr. Bernard 
Cuneo's paper on "Biblical Scholars 
in the Franciscan Order" has the value 
of a carefully wrought monograph and 
will no doubt be reprinted separately. 
We are glad to note (p. 22) that the 
new "Schola Scrip torum" now being 
organized by the Friars Minor Con- 
ventual in Rome, is to continue and 
complete the "Bullarium Franeisea- 
num" of Sbaraglia and Eubel. Not a 
feAv will be surprised to learn that 
the Friars of the First Order, /-. e., 
the Franciscans, Conventuals, and 
Capuchins, now publish no less than 70 
periodicals. A goodly number of these 
are scientific, but the majority are is- 
sued in the interest of the Third Order. 
The Friars of the U. S. are now pub- 
lishing eleven periodicals, — seven in 
English, two in German, one in Slov- 
enian, and one in Polish. This list 
does not include college magazines. 
At the Cincinnati Conference an appeal 
was made to the Friars to interest 
themselves in the new quarterly, An- 



Th(;re are only four Negro priests 
in America : Father Randolph Uncles, 
S. S. J., Professor of Latin and French 
at Epiphany College, Newburgh, N. 
Y.; Father' J. H. Dorsey, S. S. J., 
pastor of St. Monica's Church, Balti- 
more, Md. ; Father Charles Theobald, 
pastor of St. Peter Claver's Church, 
St. Paul, Minn. ; Father Joseph John, 
L. A. M., assistant at St. Augustine's 
Church, Louisville, Ky. Four priests 
from a population of 11 millions! One 
priest from every 75,000 Catholic Ne- 
groes! Do these figures not bear a 
message for us? Do they not loudly 
demand action along lines more ef- 
fective than those we have been fol- 
lowing ? 

Bainbridge Colb}', one of the late 
President Wilson's several secretaries 
of State, reviews in the Saturday Re- 



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1926 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



79 



Not How Many --But 
How Well" 

Has been the maxim of Kilgen craftsmen during 
three quarters of a century of organ building. 

In this memorable span more than 500 edifices of Catholic 
worship, from small Parish churches, to imposing Cathedrals — have 
installed Kilgen Pipe Organs. 

These noble instruments have kept faith with the Faith, so 
well that Prof. Renzi, Official Organist of the Vatican, recently 
said, "You are doing Mother Church a great service." 

1B^lil^cr5 
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view of Literature (Vol. II, No. 19) 
Lhe third volume of the letters written 
by Walter Hines • Page, war-time am- 
bassador in London. Many have won- 
dered why AVilson permitted a man 
to remain as ambassador who regularly 
took a line in direct opposition to 
American interests and to his instruc- 
tions. Colby's explanation is that the 
President did not have time to read 
3r answer Page's letters; he wrote to 
Page only a few times on official busi- 
ness, and got his information else- 
svhere. However, President Wilson was 
apparently aware of Page's failure to 
retain the American viewpoint. Colbj^ 
says that when he [Colby] was setting 
Dut on a mission to London during the 
war, Wilson said to him: "Now be an 
A.merican. Our men only last about 
six months in England, and then 
they become Anglicized." 



tion, in 1909, to the late AVilliam War- 
ren Vernon, of a gold medal of herself, 
specially struck for the occasion, on 
the completion of the second edition of 
his "Readings on the Divina Corn- 
media." It ma.y be Avorth while to 
point out that the German translation 
of the "Commedia" by Queen Marg- 
herita's grandfather, King John of 
Saxom- ("Philalethes"), which is in 
blank verse and accompanied by a 
learned historical commentary, is still 
regarded as one of the best of its kind. 



The late Queen Margherita had a 
hereditary interest in Dante, a grace- 
ful majrk of which was her presenta- 



The London Tablet, in its No. 4464, 
brings out the interesting fact that the 
late Lafcadio Hearn, who married a 
Japanese woman and became a Budd- 
hist, as "Jack" or "Paddy" Hearn 
attended Ushaw College in 1863, in 
the hope that he might discover an in- 
clination towards the priesthood. He 
was a classmate of Bishop Casartelli, 
of Salford, who died last year. The 
Greek forename by which Hearn is 
distinguished from all other Hearns, 
seems to have been a later introduction. 



80 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Febniarv 15 



I 



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Correspondence 



The Catholic Farmer Boy and Higher 
Education 

To the Editor: — 

Apropos of the reuiarks of "'Bill Ilieks, 
FarBier" in Xo. 3 of the F. E., I tv'ould state 
that the conditions which evoked "Bill's" 
lament do not prevail everywhere. Here in 
Perr^'ville, for example, there is a Catholic 
High School, accredited to the State Uni- 
versity, offering standard courses in the class- 
ics and in commercial subjects. This High 
School charges no tuition, but is maintained 
by the free-will offerings of the Catholics 
of the community. For ten years it has been 
giving a first-class high-school education to 
farmer boys and farmer girls. Some of these 
come a distance of fifteen miles daily, and 
many of them have passed from this school 
to larger Catholic institutions in the city, where 
they have managed to work their way through 
to a degree in medicine or dentistry or 
science with little or no expense to their 
parents. 

Joseph L. Lilly, C. M. 
Perryville, Mo. Country Curate. 



Catholic School Children and the "Movies" 

To the Editor: — 

.-Educators generally admit that frequent 
attendance at the "movies" reacts detri- 



mentally on children by producing what may 
be called "thought atrophy." Knowing that 
jnany of the films shown in the neighborhood 
of our church were by no means "harm- 
less," we inaugurated our own "movies." 
I find that about one out of six is the per- 
centage of "harmless" feature films (7 
reels). The other day I. went to the different 
rooms of our school and asked the children 
to answer the following questions on a slip of 
paper: (1) How often have you attended 
the "movies" during the 39 days from 
Dec. 1st to Jan. Sth? " (2) To what theatres 
did you go? Here is the result: 

1. Grades involved — 4th. Sth, 6th, 7th, and 
Sth. 

2. Number of pupils in these rooms, 306. 

3. Reply slips turned in, 299. 

A. Of these 299 children, 271 had attend- 
ed 54 theatres 1679 times, — an average of 
6 times, not including attendance at our 
hall. 

B. Taking 129 slips at random, I found: 1 
girl had attended 34 different times ; 2 had at- 
tended 24 times; 2 had attended 20 
times; 3 had attended 18 times; 2 
had attended 16 times; 1 had attended 
15 times; 4 had attended 14 times; 4 had 
attended 13 times; 5 had attended 12 times; 
6 had attended 11 times; 5 had attended 10 
times; 5 had attended 9 times; 5 had at- 
tended 8 times; 8 haid attended 7 times. 

C. At the same time about 65 per cent 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



81 



3f the children had attended the "movies" 
given at our ovrn hall, on an average tvpice. 

D. 30 per cent of the total did not attend 
our hall at all, the majority preferring to 
JO to theatres that combine vaudeville with 
"movies." 

E. The vaudeville-' ' movie ' ' theatres had 
728 attendances. 

F. 15 per cent of the above (C) 65 per 
tent were permitted to attend our "movies" 
only. 

The people of our parish for the most part 
belong to the "laboring class." 

The parish contribution of the parents who 
permitted their child to attend theatres 34 
times in 39 days amounted to $0 for Christ- 
mas. Sacerdos 

Elxcerpts from Letters 

I enjoy the reading of your valuable paper 
it any price. — (Rev.) J. H. Winlcelmann, 
Chamois, Mo. 

I notice with a feeling of disquietude the 
growth of advertising, and with it a tend- 
ency to increase the number of pages of the 
F. E., which I have read for 32 years. Please 
don't! One of the F, E. 's best features 
always has been that it was short enough 
to be read through. I think this is one 
of the reasons of the undeniable influence 
you exercise on public opinion. If the F. E. 
were still smaller, and its readers would 
peruse some of its articles twice or three 
times, it would be still better. It is the 
steady drop of water that makes a hole in 
the stone, not the bucket-full. If I had my 
choice, I would vote in favor of going back 
to the Fortnightly of twenty or more 
years ago, with twelve or sixteen pages and 
no advertisements. — An Old Suhscriher and 
Admirer, 0. M. C. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

St. Thomas and Herbert Spencer Compared 

The doctoral dissertation of Sister M. Fides 
Shepperson entitled "A Comparative Study 
of St. Thomas Aquinas and Spencer," which 
was briefly noticed in Vol, XXXII, No. 17 
of the F. E., in the opinion of one of our 
collaborators, who has read it carefully, de- 
serves censure rather than commendation. He 
writes : 

Aside from a number of sweeping state- 
ments that can hardly be proved, the main 
subject is entirely too wide for a doctoral 
dissertation, since it presupposes a thorough 
acquaintance with the spirit of the thir- 
teenth century thought and with all the works 
of St. Thomas (else it were impossible to 
say what St. Thomas does and what he does 
not say). 

To say that the Summae of St. Thomas 
treat ' ' of every phase of thought that 
bears upou the truths of Christian faith ' ' 
because * ' before the time of St, Thomas 
philosophy and theology had not been clearly 
differentiated" (p. 5) is surely a misappre- 
hension of facts which any recent study on 
St. Thomas should have corrected. More 
so is the alleged standard of truth guiding 
St. Thomas in his arguments against op- 
posing philosophical views: "... that was 
accepted as truth which is consonant with the 
teachings of the Church as based upon the 
Scriptures; that which is not so consonant 
was rejected as error" (pp. 5-6), In the 
light of this view it is not surprising to 
meet the statement that "Aquinas sees with 
the vision of faith, of creedal assurance" 
(p. 28), which may easily be misunderstood; 
and that "Aquinas has no theory as to the 
genesis or the genetic processes of the uni- 



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82 



THE FORTNWnrLY REVIEW 



February 15 



vcrbf lie offers no criticism. Aquinas 

was content with the Biblical assertion — 
In the beginning God created the heavens 
and the earth" (p. 76). 

Historicalh', Porphyry 's dieere renisaio in 
regard to the objective reality of universals 
started the long and fruitful discussion on 
universals. It is surprising, however, to 
read that "the dieere reenisabo of Porphyry 
is still the only safe conclusion of philosophic 
thought"' (p. 4'i) ; to which statement 
only the most radical of the humanists would 
subscribe, certainly not James. The state- 
ment prepares the reader for a description 
of St. Thomas 's theory of the origin of con- 
cepts that absolutely inverts the order of 
Ihe intellectiis agens and the intellectus pos- 
sibilis, the latter receiving the phantasms 
from which the former thereupon abstracts 
the ideas (pp. 3S), 56). Equally surprising is 
Ihe attribution to St. Thomas of just that 
which Mas distinctly anti-Thomistic even dur- 
ing his lifetime. Thus "when it [the intel- 
lect] apprehends relations among things ; 
when it discovers the laws that govern the 
relations among things — it does so bv vir- 
tue of an 'illumination' that is infused into 
it by the eternal Light, by the Lawgiver of 
the natural laws'' (j). 5S; also p. 40). 

We are also told that "St. Thomas does not 
discuss in detail the nature of sensation nor 
the manner or mechanism of sense percep- 
tion" (p. 56). no mention being made of 
his coiiiiHcjitary on the De Anima of Aristotle, 
or of the Opuseula, even in the bib- 
liography, wliich also omits the other 
commentaries on Aristotle as well as the 
(J'udest tones . although all modern authorities 
agi-ee that the latter are indispensable for 
fathoming the philosophic thought of St. 
Thonias. The l^ibliograph}- likewise nuikes 
no mention of ^Nlsgr. M. Grabmann, the fore- 
most ' ' 'I'lioiiiaskeniier " of the day, not even 
of the recent works of De Wulf, Avhich are 
availalih' in Kiiglish. 

As to tlie aim of the dissertation, it was 
merely to coiupare Aquinas and Spencer; but 
ju.st where the comparison begins to be most 
interesting ''the reader may draw his own 
conclusion as to the reconcilability of the 
Aristotelian-Thomistic doctrine of the origin 
and nature of the intellect with that held 
hy Spencer" (p. 5D) ; and he is sent off 
with the statement that ' ' there is in the 
Avritings of these philosophers [Aristotle, 
Aquinas, and Spencer] confused termin- 
<»logy. — |ierlia])s even confused expression of 
thought ■ ■ (pp. 59-60). The conclusion as 
to the ''fundamental sameness" of St. Thom- 
as anil Spencer niaile "after making due 
allowance for the varying mental attitudes 
of these jihilosophers, their temperamental 
dilfereni-es of approach to the respective 
jirobiems'' (p. 60; also p. 79) is not con- 
vincing. It looks rather like saying that, 
after abstracting from the dift'erences, there 
is uiuch in common between theist and pan- 
theist, or between realist and materialist. 



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the modern problems." 

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Rev. M. J. Mahony, S. J., in our college 
freshman class for four years, and have 
found it satisfactory in every way. It 
is concise, accurate, and clear in presen- 
tation." Rosemont College. 

Small octavo, 105 pages, cloth, black 
stamping, postpaid $1.00. 

Augustine and Evolution 

By Reverend Henry Woods, S. J. 

AVhat precisely did Saint Augustine 
mean by the terms which have led some 
scientists to hold that he believed in 
Evolution at least in principle? 

"This little work will be most welcome 

to all who have been looking for some 

clear and reliable elucidation of tlie ciues- 

tion."' America. 

Vellum de Luxe Cloth Binding, gilt 

letters. $1.60 postpaid. 

The Universal Knowledge Foundation 

119 East 57th Street, New York City 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



83 



And the oouclusiou that "the chief difference 
in their view-points arises from the fact 
that .Aquinas considered a static order of 
things; Spencer a developmental order" (p. 
76; see also p. 74) is very modern in tone, 
but hardly has much connection -with the pre- 
ceding development; it does not rise naturally 
out of the foregoing treatment. Once before, 
indeed, there is a rather definite allusion to 
the view-point. On p. 68 Ave read the follow- 
ing exposition of Aristotle's (and Thomas's^ 
thought : ' ' Matter endures, form changes 
incessantly, ' ' while a footnote gives the fol- 
lowing : ' ' Forms are the essences of the 
things of which they are the forms, but 
' the essences of things depend upon the 
essence of God. ' jSTow God is immutable, 
hence all essences, or 'forms,' whether con- 
sidered primarilv or dependenth-, are im- 
nmtable" (pp. 68-69). 

The general imj^ression of the reviewer is 
that the author is not so much to blame 
for the defects mentioned as are others. 
The subject should not have been allowed 
for a doctoral dissertation ; it is far too 
extensive, and then such dissertations must 
needs generally be iumiature. Indications 
show that the background of professional 
guidance usual in dissertations was wanting. 
That a certain competence is not lacking in 
the author is shown in some expositions, e. g., 
pp. 72-75, and in the philosoj)hical analysis 
in the note on p. 62. These are signs that 
better things may appear in the future un- 
less the doctoral dissertation, as unfortunately 
often happens, marks the end instead of the 
beginning of development. 

Literary Briefs 

— "Thoughts for Today,'' by Eaymond 
' T. Feely, S. .1. (Benziger Brothers), is an- 
other of th'j many books in miniature form 
which have been issuing so plentifully of late 
from our presses. The readings have a 
modern tone and will be useful in furnish- 
ing solid and helpful reflections to souls in 
earnest about the higher things. 

— Most of our catechisms of Christian 
doctrine are cast in a form and employ lan- 
guage more suited to the mind of the adult 
than to that of the child. We all know what 
ludicrous contortions have been made by 
children of the terms and phrases of our 
catechisms. Hence any consistent attempt 
to ' ' simplify '' ' the terminology and make it 
intelligible to children and unschooled per- 
sons, deserves the encouragement both of 
pastors and teachers. We have such an 
effort in "The Faith' for Children (from 
Seven to Fourteen)," by Mary Eaton, Ee- 
ligious of the Sacred Heart. We bespeak a 
trial for this timelv and simple exposition 
of our Faith. (B. Herder.) 

— When fervent, spiritual, deeply religious, 
and even "pious" thoughts come from the 
lips of a man who is tied down for a long 
timf TO a bed of racking pain, we are more 



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84 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Felji'uarv 15 



apt to listen than when the same reflections 
proceed from a person buoyed up by smil- 
ing fortune. Such thoughts Ave have in the 
booklet "The Path of Prayer," extracts 
from the diary of Sir Laurence Shipley, by 
Vincent J. McNabb, O. P. (Benziger Broth- 
ers.) The thoughts will briuj;- a timely mes- 
sage to the earnest reader. 

— A religious tract with the title, ' ' The 
Direct Eoute, ' ' is bound to attract notice 
find when it is written by an experienced 
guide and religious teacher like tlu; Ht. Kev. 
Francis C. Kelley, D. D., Bishop of Okhi- 
homa, it is also bound to be read with profit. 
We need many such "pocket-pamphlets" to- 
day. It is a direct and pointed answer to 
the question "Why you ought to belong to 
the Catholic Church." (The Paulist Press.) 

—"What the Catholic Church is and What 
She Teaches," by the Rev. E. E. Hull, S. J. 
(Paulist Press), comes from an experienced 
guide in matters controversial and religious, 
and out of an abundant and practical knowl- 
edge. The author's position as editor of the 
Bombay Examiner for many years gave him 
opportunity to survey carefully the religious 
situation of our day. The pamphlet has 
been written ' ' to supply non-Catholic in- 
quirers with concise and correct information 
about the Catholic position and Catholic 
teaching. ' ' 

— The tenth edition of Wapelhorst 's "Com- 
pondium Sacrae Liturgiae, ' ' edited by Fr. 
Aurelius Bruegge, 0. F. M.. has been brought 
into conformity with the New Code of Canon 
Law, the new Missal, and the revised Bre- 
viary, and will no doubt be hailed by the 
reverend clergy and seminarists as an up-to- 
date text-book of liturgical information in 
handy form. There is none better. (Ben- 
ziger Bros. ) 

— The Viucentian Press, of this city, has 
reprinted Mother Teresa Austin Carroll's 
' ' Life of Catherine McAuley, Foundress and 
First Superior of the Institute of Religious 
Sisters of Mercy," which originally ap- 
peared in 1S66 and has long been out of 
print. There is nothing to indicate what the 
editor has done to the text, and — not having 
a copy of the original for comparison — Ave 
presume the text has simply been reprinted 
Avithout a change. An elucidating foot-note 
here and there Avould have helped the present- 
day reader to understand many, to him more 
or less obscure facts and allusions. The 
greater part of Mother McAuley 's life be- 
longed to the most exciting period of Irish 
history — the leadership of 0'Connell,and por- 
tions of it make attractive reading even 
for those not particularly interested in the 
Foundress and her institute. 

— "The Seraphic HighAA'ay, " by the Rev. 
Fulgence Meyer, O. F. M., Commissary of the 
Third Order Province of St. John the Bap- 
tist, i.s made up of discourses preached by the 
author to tertiary gatherings in retreats, 



octaves or novenas, and on other occasions, 
and aims at explaining the nature and ob- 
jects of the "Order of Penance" and to 
dispel misconceptions and prejudices still all 
too Avidely harbored in connection with it. 
( C'lucinnati, O. : St. Anthony Messenger.) 

— The secret societies Avith Avhich Dr. Franz 
Schweyer deals in his book, " Politische 
Geheimverbiinde" (Herder & Co.) are main- 
ly: Freemasonry, the Illuminati, the Rosi- 
crucians, the " Tugendbund, " the Orange- 
men, tlie I'^'eniaus, the Carbonari, the Com- 
niuneros, the Camorra, the Mafia, the Fas- 
fisti, tlie Omladina, the Hetairia, the Deca- 
hrists, the Nihilists, the Anarchists, the Bol- 
shevists, .'uid the Ku Klux Klan. The author 
gi\es a sketch of the history of these and 
a i\:\\ otJiei' less important societies and their 
aims. Iiased on such standard Avorks as those 
of Rhyu, Ileckethorn, Schuster, Martens, and 
A. Prcuss. His judgment of Fascismo is 
reserved, tliough he tliinks Mussolini may find 
ways and means to bring about a reconcilia- 
tion betAveen the Italian government and the 
papacy. On the Avhole Dr. SchAveyer regards 
secret societies established for political pur- 
poses as a serious menace to State and 
Church. The final chaptea- of the book (pp. 
211-229) is devoted entirely to the proof 
of this thesis. The book is useful as a 
reference Avork, for it contains much reliable 
information. 

— The latest volume of Fr. Coustautine 
Kempf 's series "Jesuit en" is a life of St. 
Francis Xavier by the Rev. George Schur- 
hammer, S. J., who has devoted many years 
of close study to the sources and is prepar- 
ing a full-length biography of the Saint 
in four volumes. Fr. Schurhammer 's prcA'ious 
publications on the subject in the Acta Bol- 
I(iiidi<t)ia, the Stimmrn der Zeil, etc., .as AvelJ 
as this preliminary sketch shoAV that he has 
not only, like P. Brou, consulted all the 
printed sources, but inedited materials as 
well, of Avhich there seems to be a great 
mass. In the present volume he gives the 
outlines of the life of the great Jesuit mis- 
sionary in a matter of fact AA'ay, confirming 
most of the traditional data, Avith the ex- 
ception of all but a fcAv of the miracles 
and leaving the critical discussion of the 
many controverted questions raised by his 
use of the sources for his larger work. 
(Herder & Co.) 

— 'Dr. LudAvig von Pastor, the historian of 
the Popes, has devoted a portion of hia 
leisure to the composition of a life sketch 
of the late Dr. .J. B. Heinrich, a leading mem- 
ber of the famous Mayence group of theolo- 
gians, who is known outside of Germany 
hy his scholarly "Dograatische Theologie, " 
Avhich Avas completei] by ^Isgr. GutberU't. l)r. 
Heinrich was one of the two men (Johannes 
•Tanssen Avas the other) Avho influenced Dr. 
Pastor's intellectual development most ef- 
fectively, and no wonder, for he was in 
everv Avay a remarkable man — that rare 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



85 



SOMETHING NEW IN STATIONS OF 
THE CROSS. 

The Eeverend clergy, secular and religious, 
are invited to send for information relative 
to the most beautiful Stations of the Cross, 
designed and executed by a celebrated Euro- 
pean master, recently honored by His Holi- 
ness, Pope Pius XI, by being elevated to the 
rank of Knight of the Order of St. Sylvester, 
for merits in the designing of art work, of 
truly Christian character. A sample has been 
received by undersigned, and he will gladly 
send information as to quality, style of 
work, and prices. These Stations of the 
Cross are adapted especially to incorporate 
directly in the wall, either in shallow niches, 
or with a frame of composition, or wood 
enclosing them. Permanent, as mosaic, but 
richer in outline and coloring. Figure work 
of rarest execution. 

Address for definite information, 
ADOLPH B. SUESS, 

Art Church-Furnishings 
1314 Lynch Ave., East St. Louis, Illinois. 

M ■ © i A T K S X 

Eine meiriologische Frage 

Dogmatisch-kritische Studie von Ferdinand 
Heinrich Schiith S. J. 

364 Seiten. — Gebunden $1.75. 
Seit den Tagen des tiefschiirfenden Mario- 
logen Scheeben ist wohl kein Buch in deutscher 
Sprache erschienen, das so griindlich und 
eingehend die grosse Frage der Stellung 
Marias im Erlosungsplan, ihre Mitwirkung 
beim Erlosungswerk and ihre Gnadenmittler- 
schaft behandelt. Das Buch ist zugleieh 
aktuell, well ja die Lehre der Gnadenvermitt- 
lung Marias vielleicht in Balde Gegenstand 
einer dogmatischen Entscheidung sein wird. 
Nach dem Urteil berufener Faclikritiker ist 
dieses Werk eine wertvolle Bereicherung der 
Mariologie. 

Der bekannte Theologe Arndt urteilt : ,,Ein 
Werk, geschriebeu mit ebensoviel Geistes- 
scharfe wie Herzenswarme; es erhebt das 
Banner des Glaubens, um die erhabenen 
Vorziige der Mutter Gottes und unserer Mutter 
unanfechtbar festzustellen ..." 

Zu beziehen durch 

Rev. J. Schueth, Schnellville, Ind. 



TEACI 



The CATECHISM? 

Write for frCe^OOJUet illustrat- 
ing- the new Victor Method. 

Victor Animatooreiph Cd; 

324 Victor Bldd., ° Davenport,IoWa 



combination of an ideal priest and a first- 
rate scholar. He influenced the men of 
Ms generation mainly througli the famous 
Kaiholilc, which he helped to establish and 
of which he was for many years the re- 
sponsible editor. It was in the pages 
of this magazine that Pastor's first essay 
in church history appeared, as far back 
as 1875. We cordially recommend this charm- 
ing sketch of an extraordinary priest by an 
extraordinary layman. ("Der Mainzer Dom- 
dekan Dr. Joh. Bapt. Heinrich, 1816—1891. 
Ein Lebensbild nach originalen Quellen und 
personlichen Erinnerungen von Ludwig Frei- 
herrn von Pastor. Mit einem Bilde Hein- 
richs. ' ' 69 pp. 8vo. Freiburg i. B. : Herder 
& Co.) 

— The new 12mo. edition of the "Eituale 
Eomanum, ' ' recently issued by the Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., has been adapted to the New Code, 
the revised Breviary, and the latest Eouian 
decrees, and will therefore supplant all pre- 
vious editions. It is gotten out in the 
usual accurate and handsome form to which 
we are accustomed in the liturgical publi- 
cations of the house of Pustet. 

— ' ' Bab Comes Into Her Own, ' ' by 
dementia, is the latest of ' ' The Mary 
Selwyu Books, ' ' and to our mind the 
best. The author is a master in the 
depiction of childhood experiences, though 
one may doubt Avhether girls of twelve or 
thirteen really employ such "old" ideas 
and language. The book, like its predeces- 
sors, makes fine reading for growing girls, 
being clean, full of action, interesting and 
wholesome. (Matre & Co., Chicago, 111.) 

—"That Fool Moffett" (B. Herder Book 
Co.) is a young doctor who manages to get 
himself into a terrible scrape though, nay to 
some extent because, he means well. The 
story is well written and the denouement 
more pleasing than one would expect. We 
hope this will not be the last time that the 
name of E. C. Scott appears on the title- 
page of a novel. 

— What we need to-day in the line of 
spiritual and ascetic literature is the prac- 
tical and popular, and at the same time 
deeply religious tone of an Alban Stolz, whose 
writings some sixty years ago, were widely 
read in Catholic Germany. To speak out 
the truth frankly and fearlessly in matters 
that concern our highest spiritual interests 
is always wholesome and useful. And so 
we gladly recommend the latest book by 
Franz Michel Willam, a well known Ger- 
man priest, Avho knows how to write about 
things religious and ascetical in a manner 
to make his thoughts and counsels come home. 
This book is called " Tempelreinigung : Pil- 
gerbuch fiir Zeit und Ewigkeit."( B. Herd- 
er). Beginning with a picture of the Biblical 
scene of the casting out of the money-chang- 
ers from the Temple, the author compares 
conditions among the Jews of old and the 



86 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



Christians of to-day, not always to the honor 
of the latter. To those pastors and preachers 
who want to learn how to present the old 
ti-uths in a new and practical way this vol- 
ume can be cordially recommended. 

— Some useful and practical hints for 
preachers are offered in a recently published 
collection of sermons by Dr. Theol. Eobert 
Linhardt, honorary canon of St. Cajetan, 
Munich. ('Teurige Wolke: Kanzelvortriige 
auf die Sonn- und Festtage des Weihnachts- 
und Osterkreises " (B. Herder). These hints 
are given in the preface and are chiefly 
concerned wdth the all-important fact that the 
old truths and the old principles of the Chris- 
tian life must be cast into a new mould so 
as to make them appeal to the modern mind. 
He asks : ' ' Have we realized that the Ehrlers 
and the Eberhards are dead and have passed 
away, great as they niay have been in a 
former day? That the faith must be preaclied 
in a new way to-day^new not in content, 
but in the presentation?" Dr. Linhardt fol- 
lows out this direction himself, as can be 
seen from his sermon for the First Sunday 
after Epiphany. Speaking of the new and 
more unrestrained conduct that characterizes 
the youth of to-day, he asks: "Let us take 
thought for a moment. Why are youth so 
different? Is it really their 'fault'? Is 
it not rather their ' fate ' ? Through no fault 
of theirs they were born into the midst of 
a terrific war, at a time of complete up- 
heaval in political and social life, w^hose 
consequences we cannot even begin to esti- 
mate to-day. . . . But our youth are the first 
children of this new period. If they are 
true, they must be different in many ways 
from their elders, who are rooted in another 
period, now past. Whether this pleases us 
or not, is not really the question. We can 
stop the wheel of history neither in this nor 
in other matters. ' ' It seems that a preacher 
of God's eternal w^ord who can bring this 
sane view into the pulpit will have something 
to say for the men of a new era. — A. M. 

— We have only limited information con- 
cerning the Holy Family, especially the life 
of St. Joseph, and so we think that Dr. H. 
J. Heuser 's latest book, ' ' In the Workshop 
of St. Joseph" (Benziger Brothers), will 
be welcomed by many readers, especially 
since its beautiful makeup renders the book 
suitable for presentation. The reverend author 
himself tells us that his purpose is to intro- 
duce * ' the reader to the hidden life of the 
Holy Family by familiarizing him Avith the 
conditions of time and place referred to 
briefly in the Gospel. The incidents related 
are not matter for the Biblical critic, but 
they will be found in the main to agree with 
the historical data of the period to which 
they refer." Besides serving as devotional 
reading, the book will therefore supply a 
welcome picture of the background of the 
life of the Holy Family. 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

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Mever, Rev. Fulgence, O. F. M. The 
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of St. Francis. Cincinnati, 1925. 70 cts. 

Leonard, Ludger, O. S. B. Die klosterliehe 
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Gebeten. 6th ed. Eatisbon, 1924. $1. 

Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. With 
Introduction and Notes by F. A. Purcell 
and L. M. Somers. Chicago, 1915. 50 cts. 

Noldin, H., S. J. De Sacramentis. (Vol. 
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Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



87 



A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
w^ho used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the bock for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, clevSd"''o. 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



— ' ' Die klosterliche Tagesorclnung, ' " that 
excellent instruction and prayer laook for 
religious, by Father Liudger Leonard, O. S. B., 
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—The Eev. Dr. Alfons Heilmann 's " Sun- 
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"Yom kostbaren Leben" (Herder), are full 
of the Christian philosophy of life, yet writ- 
ten in a simple style which even the less edu- 
cated can understand and enjoy. These in- 
formal meditations will make excellent spirit- 
ual reading. 

—"The 'Practice' of Mother Clare Fey, 
Foundress of the Congregation of the Poor 
Child Jesus, ' ' describes the principal means 
by which that saintly religious, whose life 
has been so beautifully written by Fr. Otto 
Pfiilf, S. J., strove for perfection. The 
"Practice" is mainly the walking in God's 
presence, and its fruit is continual recollec- 
tion. The book is well translated and appeals 
especially to religious. (B. Herder Book 

New Books Received 

church Mu6-ic and Cathulic Liturgy. By Leo 
P. Manzetti, Mus. D., Director of Music, 
St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md. 42 pp. 
12 mo. (Wrapper). 

New Pamphlets hij the Paulist Press, 401 W. 
53th Str., New York City: Indulgences 
For Sale, by Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J., 
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TJie Sacramentary. (Liber Sacramentorum). 
Historical and Liturgical Notes on the 
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Vienna: Herder & Co. $2.85 net. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



First Englisliman : "Charlie, did you hear 
that joke about the Egyptian guide who 
showed some tourists two skulls of Cleopatra 

Second Englishman : ' ' Let 's hear it. ' ' 
— one as a girl and one as a woman?" 



Irvin Cobb was the guest at a recent in- 
formal gathering at which Msgr. Quinn, 
National Director of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Faith, and several other 
priests were present. The humorist was tell- 
ing of bigotry in parts of the South and re- 
counted a little incident that hapjjened in 
Paducah, his home town. A Kentuckian who 
fished more in the streams than he did in 
literature, was speaking one night before a 
number of fellow-townsmen. After enthral- 
ling his listeners for a few minutes with 
weird tales of the Church, he ended his 
peroration with this stirring announcement : 
"Yes, sir; them Catholics is controlling every- 
thing. If we don't watch out they'll be 
erecting chasubles in the public square. ' ' 



A millionaire went to Heaven. St. Peter 
asked his name. Yes, it sounded familiar, 
so it must be in the great book; but could 
he think of what he had done while on earth 
to get his name registered in Heaven? The 
man of many millions was sure he could. 
"Speak up," said St. Peter. And the mil- 
lionaire "spoke up" and said: "One stormy 
night a little newsboy asked me to buy a 
paper. I bought one. It was only a penny, 
but I gave him three cents for it. ' ' St. 
Peter turned to his clerk, requesting him 
to see if the deed had been recorded. It had. 
St. Peter said : ' ' Give him back his three 
cents and tell him to go to the devil!" 



Jacob A. Eiis, in his autobiography, ' ' The 
Making of an American," tells the follow- 
ing anecdote of Cardinal Gibbons : "On 
an occasion when the Cardinal wished to ex- 
cuse himself on the plea of being very tired, 
he explained that he had had a very weari- 
some day, and added: 'And I am an old man, 
on the sunny side of sixty. ' ' On the shady 
side, you mean, ' corrected a clergyman, who 
stood nearby. The old Cardinal shook his 
head: 'No, the sunny side, — nearer Heav- 



There is a point as well as humor in the 
saying of an old and experienced priest, 
that the longer he lived the more inclined 
he felt to worship a man or Avoman who kept 
the Ten Commandments. — Stella Maris, Vol. 
XIV, No. 157. 



Comparing our giving with that of the 
Eoman Catholics, we have heard some one say, 
"What we need is a pope," — to which the 
reply suggests itself that even a pope would 
not serve any pur|30se without a purgatory. 
— Lutheran JVitness, Vol. XLV. No. 2. 




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ST. ANTHONY'S BEST KNOWN SHRINE 



St. Anthony's Gravnioor Shrine is probably the 
most widely known and most liberally patronised 
Shrine erected in honor of the Wonder-Worker of 
Padna in America. Ever since the statne of St. 
Anthony was set up in the Gospel corner of the 
sanctuary, a few days before the dedication of 
St. Francis Church on the Atonement Mountain, 
it has been the object of an increasing devotion 
on the j)firt of his clients. 




A fresh novena to the Saint begins ever_y Tues- 
day, and as these weekly novenas constitute an 
endless chain, it has come to be known as St. 
Anthony's Perpetual Xovena. There has been a 
notable increase of petitions from all XJai'ts of the 
United States and Canada during the past six 
months, and their volume, we are happy to report, 
is ever swelling to larger proportions. That the 
efficacy of St. Anthony's intercession justifies the 
confidence reposed on liim by so many thousands 
of clients, the testimonials which follow serve to 
show. They are only a small fraction out of 
the hundreds of such testimonials which come to us 
every month. 

THANKSGIVINGS FOR FAVOES RECEIVED 

H. M. K., N. Y. : " No words of mine can express my deep and sincere gratitude 

to St. Anthony for favors he has granted me. One, especially, of these favors was 

pretty close to hopeless, if not entirely so, but it was granted at almost the last 

minute, but in time, thank God. In gratitude I am gending an offering as promised." 

Mrs. G. S. L., Calif: "Inclosed please find money order in thanksgiving for a great 
favor received through the intercession of St. Anthony. My husband, Avho is a non- 
Catholic, promised this sum should he be helped througli a business crisis which greatly 
worried him. ' ' 

D. M., Penn.: "I am enclosing a check for St. Anthony's Bread which I promised 
should my mother regain her mind. Her mind is entirely restored, and she is slowly 
regaining her health, thanks to St. Anthony. ' ' 

Mrs. M. E. H., Balto, Md. : "Enclosed find offering in honor of St. Anthony for 
favors granted. I thank you for prayers for my husband in your perpetual novena, as 
he has not touched a drink for six months, and I hope he will stay aAvav from it for 
life. " 

Prayers and directions for making the Novena will be sent upon request, ten cents 
postpaid. We also suj)ply a short "Life of St. Anthony" for twenty-five cents post- 
paid. Address your petitions to 

ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 



The Fortnigfhtly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, No. 5 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI March 1st, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



Witchcraft in England 

At a recent meeting of the Lingard 
Society, Dr. Letitia Fairfield, read a 
paper on "Witchcraft in England." 
Dr. Fairfield showed that whilst witch- 
craft had long existed, the witch mania 
was not a horror of the Middle Ages, 
but had developed chiefly after the Ref- 
ormation. Dealings with Satan in- 
volved heresy, and the University of 
Paris made a specific pronouncement 
that all forms of sorcery involved the 
guilt of heresy. In England, Henry 
VIII made witchcraft a felony ; but 
despite the well-known cases of Elean- 
or, Duchess of Gloucester, and of Jane 
Shore (both in the fifteenth century) 
there is no record in England of any 
execution on that charge until the reign 
of Elizabeth. It was undoubtedly the 
return of many of the ultra-Protestant 
clergy from the Continent after the 
death of Queen Mary that gave the 
great impetus to the persecution of 
witches which was henceforth to be a 
characteristic of Protestant countries. 
Geneva and Zurich had been great 
centres of witch-burning, and the Cal- 
vinistic Bishop Jewel urged this course 
upon Elizabeth when preaching before 
her in 1563. 

The New Doctor of the Church 

In the Innsbruck Zeitschrift fur 
katholische Theologie (Vol. 49, No. 4) 
Father C. A. Kneller, S. J., discusses 
the significance of the recent elevation 
of St. Peter Canisius to the rank of a 
Doctor of the Church. He finds it im- 
portant in three respects. (1) For the- 
ological science, inasmuch as St. Can- 
isius is the first representative of pos- 
itive in contradistinction to speculative 
theology who has been thus signally 
honored by the Holy See; (2) for 
catechetics, inasmuch as St. Canisius, 



though not the first to compose a cate- 
chism of religious doctrine, was most 
successful in this special line of work, 
being known outside his native land 
mainly as the author of a famous and 
widely-used catechism; (3) for the 
science of prayer, in the populariza- 
tion of which St. Canisius was a pioneer 
through the publication, in 1560, of his 
"Bettbuch, " in which he teaches the 
"man in the street" how to meditata. 
How well the saint knew the popular 
taste may be seen from the fact that 
his so-called "Universal Prayer" is 
still in use in many parishes in Ger- 
many. 

We would add that (4) the Holy 
See may also have wished to honor St. 
Canisius as a pioneer of the growing 
liturgical movement, for in his "Bett- 
buch" as well as in his "Hortulus 
Aniniae" and his "Manuale Catholi- 
eorum" he taught the people to pray in 
the spirit of the sacred liturgy. 

We concur in Fr. Kneller 's wish 
that the day may come when all Ger- 
many will recognize and honor the new 
Doctor of the Church as its favorite 
teacher. 

The Story of an Ex-Priest 

In writing the life of his friend, the 
ex-priest Hebert ("Marcel Hebert : un 
Pretre Symboliste"), M. Albert 
Houtin, himself an apostate priest, il- 
lustrates, not for the first time in his 
career, the continual drain of priests 
from the Church in France, and also 
the swift and complete collapse of re- 
ligious sentiment which usually follows 
the abandonment of the sacerdotal vo- 
cation. His friend Paul Sabatier, who 
had much to do with this movement 
along the lines of extreme "symbol- 
ism, ' ' hoped to the end and urged Mar- 
cel Hebert not to la}^ aside the soutane, 



92 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Maivh 1 



^variied him against association witli 
priests who had abandoned their cal- 
ling, and with surprising frankness 
begged him not to take refuge in Prot- 
estantism. "Protestantism," wi'otc this 
son of the Huguenots, "is a great and 
beautiful historical epocli, but I believ(^ 
that its special mission is finished.'' 
M. 11 u t i 11 insists tliat Msgr. 
Louis Duchesne was another of 
Hebert's guides, if not the originator 
cf his heterodoxy, and prints some as- 
tonishing letters which seem to bear 
out that contention ; but those who know 
the mordant humor of the great histor- 
ian, will perliaps read them in another" 
sense. At all events, Duchesne advised 
Hebert, when the crisis came, to throw 
hnnself into pastoral "work and so re- 
cover his balance. 

The whole story is painful and in- 
structive. It is clear that Hebert,had 
reached a point at which it was im- 
possible for the authorities of the 
Church to permit his farther exercise 
of priestly functions, all Christian doc- 
trines, even the most fundamental, be- 
ing dissolved into pure symbolism ; but 
it seems equally clear that he had been 
handled by his immediate superiors 
without judgment or kindly sympathy. 

Is Masonry a Religion? 

In defending themselves against the 
attacks of the Catholic Church, Masons 
like to deny that Freemasonrv is a 
religion, but in their official and other 
publications this proposition is fre- 
quently admitted without reserve. Thus 
l>i'o. H. (\ de Lafontaine savs in the 
Builder (Vol. XI, No. 10) : ' 

"Masonry in its highest essence 'is 
Religion, a worship in which all good 
men may unite, that each may share 
the faitli of all.". . . Masonry imposes no 
dogma, invents no shibboleth, imprints 
no creed. In its vast idealism, it em- 
braces all peoples, tolerates all world- 
Avide religions and narrow sects, holds 
out its hand to all who are groping 
in darkness for a way to light, and says 
benignly in words, not strange to our 
ears, ' Come, I Avill show a^ou a more 
excellent way.' I quite believe that 
many Masons do find in the higher 
teachings of Masonic science that which 
more nearly satisfies their sjnritnal 



yearnings than any carefully elaborat- 
ed system of religious thought which, 
encrusted into rigidity by tradition, 
has come to be known as all that is 
necessary to the soul's health. One of 
the great powers of Masonry, and one 
of the chief factors in its stability is 
that it 'seeks to free men from a limit- 
ing conception of religion, and thus to 
remove one of the chief causes of sectar- 
ianism.' " 

Clearh' no self-respecting religious 
organization, least of all one that claims 
to lie in possession of the whole truth, 
can permit its members to join Mason- 
ry. 

Doctrinal Progress and Its Laws 

An Irish priest, the Rev. Eugene 
O'Doherty, has written a book on 
"Doctrinal Progress and Its Laws" 
(Dublin: Browne & Nolan), which is 
a subject of particular interest in these 
days of evolutionist propaganda. He 
begins with a definition of dogma and 
tlien proceeds to sliow in what legit- 
imate progress consists, referring in a 
special way to Newman's famous "Es- 
say" and the attempts of the Modern- 
ists to claim its support. The remain- 
der of the book deals with the causes 
of doctrinal development. The "tran- 
scendent causes," according to Fr. 
O'Doherty, are the authority of the 
Church and human reason. At differ- 
ent times other factors promote prog- 
ress. The early Church owed not a 
little to Greek philosoplw. The Scho- 
lastics of the Middle Ages returned 
to Aristotle and reared a complete 
structure of theology on his philosophy. 
The development in sacramental theol- 
ogy dates mainly from their time. The 
dogina of the Immaculate Conception 
is a development from their teaching 
on original sin. In another chapter 
he shows ho\^' the doctrines of papal 
supremacy and infallibility came to be 
defined, and makes it clear that these 
dogmas were no more ' ' novelties ' ' than 
the definitions of Nicaea and Chalce- 
(loii. A long cliapter is devoted to the 
iiilhicncc of heresies on doctrinal pro- 
gress — not as causes, Init as occasions. 

Dr. Windle on the Einstein Theory 

Dr. Samuel H. Guggenheim in his 
book, "The Einstein Theory" (Maemil- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



93 



Ian), says that if things are as Einstein 
thinks they are, then "truth must for- 
ever elude us, since we can assert of no 
phenomenon that it is physically ulti- 
mate. Our point of view must be for- 
ever false." 

Commenting on this. Dr. Bertram 
C. A. Windle, the distinguished Cath- 
olic scientist, in a notice of Dr. Gug- 
genheim's work in the Catholic World 
(No. 727), quotes Fr. Rickaby, S. J., 
as saj'ing somewhere that we should 
distrust all philosophies which lead up 
to an absurdity and adds : ' ' Science — 
though this is a point which is seldom 
recognized — is built on faith every bit 
as much as religion is, a faith in the 
view that the universe is a rational 
and intelligible thing, and that man has 
the capacity for explaining it. That 
is not altogether the view of Kant per- 
haps, and Dr. Guggenheim, a Kantian, 
thinks that Einstein and Kant do not 
go badly in double harness, if I under- 
sland him aright. But if we can n^ver 
hope to arrive at the truth ; never even 
kjiow when we have approximated to 
it, then what is the use of science? 
Or of philosophy founded on the work 
of science? Are not their occupations 
gone ? Surely there we are led into an 
absurdity which makes one think that 
Einstein's explanation, at least his 
metaphysics, are not the last word in 
this matter. ' ' 

The Journal of Christopher Columbus 

The London publishing house of Jar- 
rold, we see from the Times Literary 
Supplement, has reprinted Columbus's 
"Journal of his First Voyage to Amer- 
ica." The version is not a new one, 
but a reprint of an earlier rendering 
by Samuel Kettell, which appeared at 
Boston, Mass., in 1827. 

The reader who has any other know- 
ledge of the subject will not be misled 
by Mr. Van Wyck Brooke, Avho contrib- 
utes a short introduction, into believ- 
ing that what is given here is an ab- 
stract of Columbus's own manuscript, 
done by his "companion" Las Casas. 
The summary was indeed the work of 
Las Casas ; but he was not the compan- 
ion of Columbus on the first voj^age, 
and from a passage in which he ex- 
presses doubt of the accuracy of the 



copy before him he appears not to have 
worked on the original. But he was 
too well informed and too honest a 
man to have gone perilously wrong ; and 
when he marks long- passages as quota- 
tions of the Admiral's own words, he 
is to be trusted. The internal evidence 
of the trustworthiness of the story as 
told by Columbus is convincing. Only 
a perfectly candid man, who moreover 
saw no harm in what he had done, 
would have told the Catholic Sov- 
ereigns how he bamboozled his sail- 
ors, and kept them cheerful by 
lying about the length of the 
day's run. He was a son of the Re- 
naissance and of "virtu," and saw no 
sin in lying for a good purpose. 
The way in which he got out of the 
difficulty which arose when his ships 
crossed the meridian of no variation 
is creditable to his promptitude and 
powers of invention. The sailors were 
scared when they saAv that the needle 
no longer pointed to the same side of 
the Polestar. Columbus soothed 
their fears by assuring them that the 
compass was as correct as ever, but 
that the star had changed its place. 
It is a telling proof of the trust they 
felt in his skill that this grotesque so- 
lution of the mystery was taken on 
trust. When it is remembered that a 
good part of his crew was made up of 
criminals, who were allowed to escape 
the "garrote" or the galleys by going 
on this dangerous voyage, it is highly 
to his credit that he kept any measure 
of order among them at all. Indeed, 
apart from the shifty tricks of Pinzon 
and the negligence of the crew, who 
went below in the middle watch and 
left the deck in charge of a boy, and 
thereb}^ wrecked the flagshij), he did 
not suffer as much as some others 
among the old navigators from dis- 
obedience and mutiny. 

The direct simplicity of the narra- 
tive condemns those modern "Ameri- 
canists" who represent Columbus as 
ah impostor. 

Leisure is time for doing something 
useful. 



94 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW March 1 

The Rosary in the Light of Modern Psychology 



A. G. Herring contributes to No. 736 
of the Month an interesting paper on 
the Rosary in the light of modern psy- 
chological research. 

When a man recites the Rosary, he 
says, the mystery occupies the focus of 
attention, while the vocal prayers con- 
stitute what is called the fringe, i. e., 
the indefinite region that surrounds the 
area in which the attention is most in- 
tense, where attention is weaker and 
weaker as we recede from the focus. 
This is a very strong combination. The 
focus is surrounded by a fringe, which 
exactly fulfils the psychological re- 
quirement that the fringe should be 
(1) subdued or secondary and (2)' 
steady. Consisting as it does of the 
constant repetition of a short prayer, 
the fringe is subdued in the interest, 
and therefore not likely to compete with 
the mystery, and it is steady, for repe- 
tition is the antithesis of change. The 
consideration of the mystery is like a 
flowing stream, the repetition of the 
Hail Marys is like the abiding banks. 

The Rosarj^ can be used either as a 
purely vocal prayer or as a means of 
meditation. In the former case the 
Hail Marys occupy the focus and the 
fringe is filled by X, i. e., various ac- 
cidental phenomena arising from our 
situation and surroundings. In the 
latter case, the mj^stery occupies the 
focus, and the fringe is filled by vocal 
prayers. Tn the former case, the Hail 
Marys are everj- thing; in the latter, 
they are (practically) nothing and 
mean to us little more than our heart- 
beats or respirations, although, of 
course, the prayer remains a true 
prayer of praise and petition, directed 
by our original and abiding intention. 

AVe must not imagine that because 
the repetition is mechanical, it is all 
machinery, and any other form of 
words would do just as well. The 
intention remains even when the at- 
tention is wholly absorbed in the mj^s- 
tery. 

The special merit of the Rosary con- 
sists not merelv in the fact that it 



can be used in either one of these two 
ways, but in that, between these two 
extremes, it provides an infinite grada- 
tion, it has many resting-places, ac- 
cording to one's degree of absorption 
in the mystery. 

But the Rosary has a property still 
more wonderful. If a person begins 
to use it as a purely vocal prayer (pro- 
vided he have the desire and inten- 
tion to pass to mental prayer when he 
finds himself able) the Rosary Avill, by 
its very constitution and design, not 
merely aid him, but, one might almost 
say, impel him on past verbal prayer 
to meditation. It allows for human 
frailty, it provides the vocal prayers 
as a second string to our bow. AVhen 
the mind can no longer dwell on the 
mystery through fatigue to maintain 
it or failure to develop it, the at- 
tention can be calmly turned to the 
vocal prayers, till we are ready to re- 
sume the meditation. 

The Rosary aids us in withdrawing 
the mind from the bodily senses. Such 
a withdrawal, when developed, is a 
marked characteristic of the higher 
forms of prayer. Thus, the bodily ef- 
fects of the mystical union are said to 
be, (1) that the senses have little or 
no action, (2) that the members of 
the body are motionless, (3) that res- 
piration almost ceases. The Rosary 
evidently prepares us for higher 
things. AVith regard to (2) it is clear 
that the Rosary's rhythmical action has 
a great effect in calming and control- 
ling the jerkiness and jumpiness so 
often characteristic of the human or- 
ganism. In relation to (3) we can 
but point out that there is a very close 
connection between respiration and at- 
tention. AVe commonly speak of 
"breathless attention." Indian ascet- 
ics undergo most careful breathing ex- 
ercises to aid concentration. The rep- 
etition of the Hail Marys tends to 
make breathing fairly regular. 

If the meditation is the flower, the 
repetitions constitute the roots. And 
this habit of reciting ten Hail Marys, 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



95 



etc., tias a physical basis, for such hab- 
its are due to pathways in or through 
the nerve centers. A Catholic may 
neglect the Rosary, he may lapse from 
the faith; may even abandon it; that 
is, the "mysteries" may be doubted 
or denied, but the basis of the habit 
remains — in some cases even the habit 
itself. Like a river bed, though dry, 
like a railway track, though rusty, it 
lies embedded in his system, ever ready 
to be used again. Such a habit will 
always tend to delay a man's departure 
from religion and also to facilitate his 
return. 



The Catholic Encyclopedia 

Father John J. Wynne, S. J., in an 
article recently contributed to the N. 
C. W. C. Bulletin asks the question: 
AYhat has the Catholic Encyclopedia 
done for the Church? and answers it 
as follows: In the first place it has 
organized Ca^.holie talent and scholar- 
ship all over the world. It employed 
the services of over a thousand men and 
women, in forty-three different coun- 
tries, writing in every language. It has 
discovered and brought out writers in 
this country who never before had an 
opportunity to display their talent, 
style and special knowledge. It was the 
first religious encyclopedia to go be- 
yond the limits of a Church Dictionary, 
to treat not only the doctrine of the 
Church, its canon law, liturgy, and the 
ecclesiastical side merely of its history, 
but also to give its full share in human 
life, in every field of mental and moral 
activity, in secular history, in all art, 
philosophy, science, education, litera- 
ture, exploration, racial and national 
matters. It emphasized the fact that 
the Church was the greatest factor in 
civilization as well as in Christianity. 

The Catholic Encyclopedia has given 
the position of the Church on every 
vital question, on evolution, authority, 
capital, labor, usury, strikes, education, 
marriage, law, racial and national char- 
acteristics and ideals, charities, immi- 
gration, prohibition. It has done 
all this in such a way as to show the 
reasonableness of this position, the con- 
sistency of the Church's stand at the 
present day with her stand on all these 



things in the past. Best of all, it il- 
lustrates the spirit of the Church in 
dealing with every question of human 
interest, its dislike of controversy, its 
impartiality, its habit of treating fair- 
ly all sides, its readiness to accept any 
established fact or theory, its painstak- 
ing manner of weighing proofs. 

Archbishop-. Quigley of Chicago pre- 
dicted that the Encyclopedia would cre- 
ate a new public opinion, and this it 
has been doing from the start. First, 
it developed a common sentiment 
among Catholics, and extreme caution 
in the discussion of religious matters 
during the period when Modernism was 
rampant. It has had a decided influ- 
ence on public opinion as expressed in 
our newspapers, periodicals, books, es- 
pecially in general works of reference. 
Rarely now do we meet in any of these 
with the errors and absurd statements 
with which the Catholic reader was con- 
fronted at the dawn of this century, 
just before the Encyclopedia was an- 
nounced. Less and less do we hear of 
the Inquisition as a Church Tribunal, 
of the Massacre of 8t. Bartholomew as 
icstigated by Rome, of the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes as inspired by 
religious prejudice, of the Pope grant- 
ing annulments of marriage instead of 
divorce, etc. Even the publishers of 
general works of reference, like the In- 
ternational, Americana, Britannica, 
have felt it necessary to correct thou- 
sands of mis-statements which littered 
their pages, and to employ a large num- 
ber of Catholic writers, whereas up to 
1900 they had scarcely a Catholic 
among their contributors. 

The Encyclopedia is in everj^ public 
library worthy of the name in this 
country, in all the great secular univer- 
sities and State colleges, in every Prot- 
estant seminary of importance. One 
public library has several sets. One of 
them has been so much used that it 
had to be rebound four times. 

The Encyclopedia is referred to in al- 
most every scholarly list of books pub- 
lished under the title of Bibliography 
in works on religion, history, philoso- 
phy, sociology, etc. It has been quoted 
in court decisions, as, for instance, on 
the subject of bequests for Masses, 



96 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Marrli 1 



gambling, dancing, education, etc. It 
is not unusual to have it recommended 
or quoted as an authority not only by 
Catholic speakers, but by Protestants 
also over the radio. 

Many a bishop and hosts of priests 
are fond of telling how the Encyclo- 
pedia is a never-failing source for their 
lectures, sermons, and for the casual re- 
marks they are often obliged to make 
at receptions, dinners, commencements, 
and other gatherings. The teachers in 
Catholic schools look to the Em'vclo- 
pedia for the read}^ information they 
need to round out and make more in- 
teresting their knowledge of the sub- 
jects they are teaching. Editors of 
Catholic papers are forever sounding 
its praise as a valuable auxiliary to 
their Avork. The Catholic layman who 
has to speak in public or write has now 
the advantage that with the Encyclo- 
pedia he is sure of his ground and that 
he can venture to talk with confidence 
on subjects which formerly he con- 
sidered it more prudent to leave to 
those who have been trained specially 
in ecclesiastical lore. 

Finally, with the Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia we are no longer in the position 
we were a quarter of a century ago, of 
having to complain about the erroneous 
things that were said against us, with- 
out having positive and authoritative 
statements on every subject connected 
Avith religion. The Catholic EncA^clo 
pedia is thus a poAverful constructive 
element in the life of the Church. What 
it has already done for religion since 
its completion, it will continue to do 
even more abundantly in the future. 

(Through special arrangement the 
publishers are offering the Encyclo- 
pedia temporarily at reduced prices, 
namely, $50 cash or $60 in twelve $5 
monthty payments. The regular pub- 
lication price of the 17 volumes, in 
cloth binding, is $85.— Ed.) 



Notes and Gleanings 



This is one solution of so many riddles, 
the key to the mysterious fate of so many 
souls: one must order one's life accordingr 
to one's principles, else one will sooner or 
later evolve a set of principles correspond- 
ing to one's mode of life. — P. Bourget, " Le 
Demon de Midi," circa f:nem. 



In the first number for 1925 of the 
Zeitschrift filr Morphologie unci An- 
thropologie there is a picture of a 
present-day Neanderthal man. His 
name is Mesek ; he lives in Breslau, 
Germany, and is 70 j^ears old. He is 
a microcephalous man, of normal 
health, ' ' a living, walking proof against 
DarAvinism." 

A resolution urging Congress to in- 
sert in the regular 1930 federal cen- 
sus a question to learn the religious 
denomination or the religious pref- 
erence of individuals was made at the 
closing session of the American Luth- 
eran Statistical Association's annual 
meeting. Hitherto this information 
al)Out the religious affiliation of individ- 
uals has not been permitted in the 
taking of the census. The resolution 
requests the National Lutheran Council 
to take the matter up Avith the Federal 
Council of Churches, the bureau of 
census, and the proper congressional 
committees. 

A group of famous English men and 
Avomen have signed a petition to their 
government to eliminate from the 
Treaty of Versailles, Articles 227 and 
231, Avhich pronounced German^' re- 
sponsible for the Avar and guilty of 
grave offenses against international 
moralitA\ Among the signers are Ber- 
nard Siiaw, H. G. Wells, Gilbert Mur- 
ray, St. John Ervine, Julian Huxley, 
Israel ZangAvill, and Forbes-Robert- 
son. "AVe regard these tAvo articles," 
sa.ys the petition, "as haAdng expressed 
a state of mind . . . Avhich has now 
largely passed aAva.y. AVe believe that 
they are manifestly unjust and con- 
stitute a grave obstacle to internation- 
al understanding." 



The Franciscan Fathers of St. Clem- 
ent's Parish, St. Bernard, near Cin- 
cinnati, 0., have sent us a souvenir of 
the diamond jubilee of that parish, of 
which the Order has been in charge 
since 1850. The parish, like so many 
others shepherded by religious, has 
been extraordinarily^ prolific in voca- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



97 



tions to the priesthood and the religious 
life. No less than fourteen of its sons 
have become Franciscan priests (with 
four more almost ready for ordination), 
two, secular priests, eight, Franciscan 
clerics, and four. Brothers, while nine 
more are preparing for the priesthood 
in St. Francis Seminary. Of its 
daughters, 73 have joined religious 
orders, mainly the Sisters of St. Fran- 
cis, who have their mother-house at 
Oldenburg, Ind. This is a remarkable 
record, of which St. Clement's Parish 
may justly be proud. The souvenir is 
handsomely illustrated, but somewhat 
deficient on the historic side. 



To the January issue of the Month 
Father Herbert Thurston, S. J., 
contributes a temperate, and on 
that account all the more destruc- 
tive, article on Madame Blavatsky, 
the foundress of the Theosophical 
Society, which kept its jubilee in 
the closing months of last year. 
Father Thurston marshals the main 
facts of her career, relying for his evi- 
dence mostly upon her own writings 
and those of her friends and admirers. 
It would seem impossible that anyone 
who reads this article eonld believe in 
good faith that Madame Blavatsky was 
aught else than an ingenious if interest- 
ing imposter. 

While Bernard Shaw was ready to 
accept everything about Joan of Arc 
except her visions, the Spiritists, it ap- 
pears, have selected precisely the vi- 
sions as most acceptable. A certain 
Leon Denis has written a book, which 
Conan Doyle has translated under the 
title "The Mystery of Joan of Arc." 
Its thesis is that St. Joan's visions, 
abilities and achievements must be con- 
sidered and interpreted ps^^chically, 
and he undertakes to show how they fit 
into modern Spiritistic teaching. As 
usual, each sect picks out the fragment 
of Catholic truth which happens to fit 
in with its own false, or at least partial, 
philosophy. 

The plumes, buttons, pins, regalia, 
and ritual of the Moose looked good 
to some colored folk in Missouri, and 
they organized the Paramount Progres- 



sive Order of Moose. The white 
Moose obtained an injunction, claim- 
ing the Negroes were not only using the 
name, but were imitating the emblem, 
by-laws, and ritual of the Loyal Order. 
In a decision rendered by Circuit Judge 
Hamilton, November 17, the suit was 
dismissed, since ' ' a Moose is an animal, 
and anybody has a right to use the 
word." The question remains, How 
did the ritual get out? Second ques- 
tion : If the Negroes can obtain the 
lodge rituals, why not admit that others 
may have the genuine text ? — Lutheran 
^Yitness, Vol. XLIA^ No. 24. 

Writing in the Ephemerides Theo- 
logicae Lovanienses (1925, No. 2) ''Sur 
la Notion de Marie Mediatrice," Fath- 
er J. Eiviere says, apropos of Pere 
Bainvel's doctrinal study "Marie Mere 
de Grace" (Paris, 1921), that the 
terms employed by this writer and 
other advocates of the doctrine need 
clearing up before any fruitful discus- 
sion of the problem can be entered up- 
on. 

Msgr. Benson's grave in the garden 
of Hare Street House, London, bears 
the following inscription: "Hie iacet 
Robert us Hugo Benson, Sacerdos Cath- 
olicae et Romanae Ecclesiae, Peccator 
expectans ad Revelationem Filiorum 
Dei." Fr. Martindale says this inscrip- 
tion was of Benson 's own devising, but 
J. Brodrick points out in No. 736 of 
the Month that the epitaph is curious- 
ly like the one given on page 6 of John 
Henry Shorthouse's romance "John 
Inglesant": " Suh marmore isto loan- 
nes Inglesafit, Peccator, usque ad indi- 
cium latet, expectans revelationem fili- 
orum Dei,'' which, in turn, was bor- 
rowed from the tomb of John Noble 
in St. Aldate's Church, Oxford. 



The wage earner cannot consent to 
accept lower pay while the landlord 
demands high rents. And the landlord 
in turn points to a high tax rate and 
high construction and maintenance 
costs as his reason for keeping up the 
rents. It is so all along the line. 
Where is the practice of economy to 
begin? Reasonably the start should 



98 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Marcli 1 



The Walcker Symphonic Pipe Organ 

In the Walcker Symphonic Pipe Organ has been visuaHzed 
tonally, the value of artistic tone perception and the ability to 
produce organ tone. 

Character of tone presupposes, first, knowledge of tone. One 
hundred and forty years of study by the Walcker family, has 
given precision of tone-coloring in Symphonic organs. 

The fallacy of augmentations, especially in the manuals has 
been proven in the wonderful tone quality of these organs. 

Augmented organs cost more, in proportion to their musical 
value, and produce less. 

The discerning and music loving organist, as also the wise 
purchaser, will examine into the merits of these wonder tonal 
instruments. 

Uniphonic pipe organs, for small churches, chapels, and halls 
or parish houses. 

Address all enquiries to the Importer. 

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be made by State and local govern- 
ments, just where it has been made by 
the federal government, first by spend- 
ing less than is collected. Gradually, 
by such a process,, the burden imposed 
bv taxation can be lessened and reason- 
able deflation begun. The beginning 
must be at the top, working down- 
ward, rather than at the bottom, work- 
ing upward. 

If old Dr. Johnson were alive to-day, 
he would find little cause to modify his 
oft-quoted saying that "patriotism is 
the last refuge of scoundrels." It is 
under the cloak of patriotism that gov- 
ernments for the most part conceal 
their aggressive ambitions. As the 
London Universe truly observes, ' ' hith- 
erto patriotism has been far too close- 
ly identified with war and the my- 
country-right-or-wrong spirit. As an 
outcome of this we have the doctrine 
of absolute allegiance to the nation, 
no matter what its aims may be. We are 
cursed with a narrow spirit of national- 



ism, which in effect denies the unity of 
humanity. We will have to widen tne 
sphere of our loj^alties by enlarging 
patriotism so as to include not merely 
love of family, city, county, nation, 
but also human brotherhood, the Cath- 
olic ideal. ... It is but a matter of 
progress to substitute law and orderly 
processes of justice for the sword and 
poison gases." 



AVe can agree with Agnes de Lima 
when she says in her book, "Our En- 
emy the Child" (New Republic Co.) : 
"To laymen, to parents particularly, 
the outstanding contribution of modern 
psychological research is the emphasis 
placed on the early years of childhood. 
These years, it is now generally agreed, 
are hj far the most important of the 
entire life span, emotionally and men- 
tally, as well as physically." The 
Catholic Church has always taught the 
paramount importance of early train- 
ino' in moralitv and religion. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



99 



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Dr. O'Toole in His Own Defence 

To the Editor:— 

Since my return to America, my attention 
has been called to certain criticisms of my 
book ("The Case against Evolution") which 
appeared in recent numbers of the F. E. 
One of them, which began by being uninten- 
tionally anonymous, has been already answer- 
ed by an abler pen than my own. If, there- 
fore, I refer to it again, it is not because I 
deem it necessary, but because my defender. 
Father Hornsby, has invited me to speak for 
ni.yself. Before doing so, however, I should 
like to say a few words on the sub.ieet of the 
permanently anonymous critic who signed 
himself 'M. C, 0. F. M. " and whose gibe 
appeared in the November 1st number of the 
F. E. 

This critic ridiculed the figures which, I 
gave on pages 182 and 184 of my book, in- 
sisted on my accountability for the computa- 
tions of Arrhenius et al., and denied me the 
mental acumen of a high-school student. In 
point of fact, I took the criticized figures 
from two scientific papers dealing with the 
Panspermia theory, namely: "Life: Its 
?s'ature. Origin and Maintenance" by E. A. 
Schaf er, and * ' The Appearance of Life on 
AVorlds and the Hypothesis of Arrhenius" by 
Alphonse Berget (cf. Smithson. Inst. Ept. for 
1912, pp. 503, 547). Moreover, I had, on 
page 184, at any rate, sufficiently disclaimed 
personal responsibility for the figures by pre- 
facing the words : ' ' Arrhenius calculates that, 
etc. ' ' 

In justice, however, to this critic, I must 
admit that he was right in calling attention 
to the discrepancy which occurs (on page 
184) with reference to the period of transit 
of a particle from the earth to Neptune. 
Instead of the correct figure, which is "a 
year and 3 months ' ', I had written in my 
manuscript: "a year and 3 weeks." This 
error, moreover, was unfortunately aggra- 
vated by a typographical omission in the text 
which resulted in the erroneous reading: "3 
weeks." A solitary accident of this nature, 
however, hardly deserves to be stigmatized as 
"blundering pure and simple," and the use 
of such energetic language betokens more 
animosity than sense. 

Though my argument was in no way de- 
pendent upon the accuracy of this particular 
figure, the critic was fully justified in point- 
ing out the error in question; and, had he 
stopped there, all would have been well. When, 
however, in his desire to convict me of stupid- 
ity, he went further, to the extreme, namely, 
of taking exception to all the figures, he suc- 
ceeded only in revealing his own utter in- 
competence to deal with a problem of that 
complexity. Did this critic ever hear of. 
SLich things as the formulas of gravitation 
and the acceleration of falling bodies? If 



100 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



so, ■\vhy did he attempt to cut the Gordian 
knot by such an absurd simplification as: 
"assuming the average velocity of a meteorite 
to be 20 miles a second"? — Si tacuisses, says 
the adage, pMlosoplius mansisses. J. C. 's 
mathematical powers are obviously not of 
the highest order, and, Avith all due respect 
for him, he would have been better advised 
to have chosen less formidable antagonists 
than Arrhenius and Berget. 

As regards the criticisms of Father Stephen 
Richarz, S. V. D., the incisive, yet courteous, 
reply of Father Hornsby, S. J., leaves me 
very little to say. The latter has pointed 
out not only logical inconsistencies, but also 
several technical errors not easily pardoned 
in one who lays claim to special knowledge on 
the subject. In the sequel, I shall add a few 
more examples to Father Hornsby 's list. It 
is surprising, indeed, to find so many errors 
of this kind in an article so short as that of 
Father Richarz. The only explanation seems 
to be that his eagerness to put me, at all 
costs, in the wrong, induced him to fling 
scientific caution to the winds. His constant 
refrain is: "Another mistake of Dr. O 'Toole 
is, etc." In fact, the word "mistake" is 
overworked throughout his article, where it 
generally signifies, not what is Avrong, but 
anything that meets with the disapproval of 
Father Eicharz. 

Father Richarz declares that no one can be 
a master in three such fields as philosophy, 
biology, and geology. As regards that part 
of philosophy known as logic, he himself is 
the best illustration of his own principle. 
Take, for example, his complaint that on 
pages 289 and 290 I have given the minimum 
figures for the age of man. The fact that my 
reason for so doing was to minimize the force 
of my own argument against the Lamarckian 
principle of use and disuse, has utterly es- 
caped him. Wishing to show that right- 
handedness, in spite of its long duration in 
the human race, had not affected the human 
body, I wrote: "But, even according to tbe 
most conservative scientific estimates, man is 
said to have been in existence for 30.000 
years, and the prevalence of righthandedness 
among men is as old as the human race" 
(p. 290). I had no reason, accordingly, for 
minimizing the age of man, on the contrary, 
I had every reason to maximize it. If, there- 
fore, I refrained from doing so, it was merely 
for the sake of being fair and obiective. 
Father Richarz, however, strives to convev the 
impression that this minimizing proves me 
to be "unscientific" and reactionary, an 
enemy, in short, and not a friend, of science. 
Father Richarz, then, assuming that he did 
not unfairly fail to read what he criticized, 
has done small credit to his own ability as a 
logician by this total misconception and mis- 
representation of my position. As to the 
figures which he calls into question in this 
connection, they are not, of course, inval- 
idated by the mere fact of his exception. 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



101 



JUST PUBLISHED 
CONSIDERATIONS 

ON THE 

SACRED PRIESTHOOD 

For Young Priests and 

Seminarians 

Adapted from the Original 

of the 

REV. B. S. PIOT 

By 

F. J. REMLER, C. M. 

Cloth, 8vo., X & 146 Pages, net $1.25 

In this book, which is especially in- 
tended for young priests, the author 
treats of subjects that relate partly to 
the ascetic and partly to the pastoral 
life of priests in chai'ge of souls. 

The subject matter is based mainly on 
the work, ' ' Considerations on the Sacred 
Ministry," by B. S. Plot— a little work 
now out of print. The chapters — five 
in number — embody many of the direc- 
tions and instructions the author has 
repeatedly addressed to candidates for 
the sacred priesthood in their retreats 
preparatory to ordination. 

In the first chapter, the dignity of the 
Sacred Priesthood is considered; in the 
second, the dangers by which the priest 
is surrounded are pointed out; in the 
third are treated the difficulties encoun- 
tered in tlie care of souls and the means 
of overcoming these difficulties; the 
fourth deals with the graces granted to 
those who are charged with the priestly 
office ; Avhile in the fifth the advantages 
of the priesthood are considered. 

The aim of the author has been to aid 
young priests to grasp the full signifi- 
cance of their sublime calling, and thus 
contribute his little mite towards helping 
them to foster a areat love for their 
vocation and a burning zeal for the glory 
of God and the good of souls. 

B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



The only citation by which he attempts to 
substantiate his objection proves solely that 
Obermaier considered the Mauer jaw to be 
more than 100,000 years old. One cannot 
but respect the opinion of so great an 
authority on prehistoric archaeology, when it 
comes to assigning the age of Quaternary 
fossils. He is not, however, an authority on 
anatomy. Hence we must be sure that the 
IViauer jaw is really human, before we can say, 
on the strength of such a quotation, that 
man, according to Obermaier, is over 100,000 
jears old. The Harvard anatomist, Thomas 
Dwio-ht, who was by no means an anti- 
evolutionist, contended that the Mauer jaw 
might be "the jaw of some aberrant species 
of ape" ("Thoughts of a Catholic Anat- 
omist," p. 1G4). The point, however, is not 
a very important one. 

Father Eicharz is nowhere any happier in 
his logic. He begins his discussion of 
overthrusts by an irrelevant introduction on 
' ' overturned folds. ' ' No one doubts that, in 
the latter case, the "wrong order" can be 
set right by an exclusive appeal to strati- 
graphic evidence, irrespective of the fossils 
contained in the rocks. Conclusive evidence 
of this sort, however, is absent in the case of 
overthrusts, where the sole geological evidence 
(apart from fossils) is the existence of so- 
called "fault planes" more or less horizontal 
and sometimes indistinguishable from ordi- 
nary bedding planes. Now the mere existence 
of a low-angled "fault plane" is not, in it- 
self, a sufficient proof of an overthrust, or 
thrust fault. Displacements of the same kind 
may occur in places where the accepted 
sequence of fossils is perfect, and where the 
possibility of an overthrust is positivelv ex- 
cluded. An unconformity, therefore, is not 
sufficient evidence of an ' ' overthrust, ' ' as 
Father Eicharz would have us believe. It 
nuist, of necessity, be proved by fossil 
evidence, and it is mainly on this basis that 
a given disconformity is pronounced to be a 
"thrust plane." 

Father Eicharz, therefore, must not expect 
to dispose of the difficulty encountered in the 
Montana overthrust by such a cant phrase 
as. "fault lines" indicating "dvnamical 
action." This may, indeed explain matters 
to the full satisfaction of convinced evolu- 
tionists, but it does not constitute an in- 
dependent geological proof that the so-called 
"dynamical action" must have been "thrust 
faulting." Here the only logical necessity 
for assuming an overthrust is the fact that 
even one undeniable instance of fossils in the 
"wrong order" would suffice to overthrow 
the whole paleontological argument for evolu- 
tion. Evolutionists, therefore, must fight 
tooth and nail to prevent any official recog- 
nition of an instance of this sort. 

Any explanation, however idiotic, is gladly 
welcomed, provided the sacred dogma of index 
fossils is thereby preserved intact. Father 
Eicharz, for example, complains that I did 
not continue my citation from the Eeport of 



102 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



li. G. McConnell to the extent of including his 
explanation of why the soft shales of the 
Bow Eiver Gap were not injured by the 
"overthrust" limestones. I did not do so, 
because I considered the explanation ab- 
solutely fatuous. When McConnell says that 
the shales owe their immunity to their soft- 
ness, he is talking sheer nonsense. Had the 
shales been actually invaded by such moun- 
tain masses, they would have been scooped 
and gutted out by that huge trench-machine 
of limestone. A great mining company in 
Alaska was ruined by the fact that, being 
obliged to allow their quartz gold ore to roll 
down a shale incline, they found tliat the mere 
sliding of light loads of ore over the shales 
so gutted out the latter as to render the ore 
valueless by reason of the admixed debris. 
If their engineers had taken into account the 
da.mage that hard stone can do to shale, 
thousands of dollars might have been saved. 
Tiloreover, in view of the absurdly arbitrary 
character of his explanation, it is evident 
tliat McConnell would have gladly adopted the 
opposite and more reasonable hypothesis, if 
tlie case had been reversed. Then, no doiibt, 
he would have assured us that the under- 
lying limestones owed their immunity to their 
hardness. 

I do not, however, Avish to imply that the 
overthrust interpretation is always and every- 
where ridiculous. On the contrary, there are 
many cases in which it is not only probable, 
but also plausible and satisfactory. What 
] object to is the arbitrary attitude which 
takes it for granted that no other explanation 
is possible. Given this attitude, it is impos- 
sible to conceive of any concrete sequence of 
rocks which could not be explained away by 
means of overthrusts. It is the onesided at- 
titude of : Heads, I win ; tails, you lose. It 
is a game played with stacked cards, or load- 
ed dice. It is, in short, a foregone conclu- 
sion that anything which contradicts the ac- 
cepted sequence of fossils Avill be ingeniously 
' ' explained away. ' ' 

There is a great North-American formation 
known as the Laramie, which extends from 
Colorado, up through Wyoming and Montana, 
into Canada. The palaeobotanists, after 
studying the fossil plants of this formation, 
pronounced it to be Cretaceous. The palae- 
ontologists, however, having investigated the 
fossil fauna, rendered a contradictory ver- 
dict, "ufe., that Laramie belongs to the Ter- 
tiary system. The controversy waxed hot 
and furious, and the contestants frequentlv 
became positively scurrilous in their attacks 
upon one another. The peace of a geological 
meeting was menaced whenever representatives 
of both sides chanced to be present. To the 
impartial observer, however, it looked as 
though both sides were probably right as to 
their facts, the only difficulty being that both 
sides were proceeding upon a wrong prin- 
ciple, namely, that index fossils are infallible 
signs of the age of the containing rocks. 
Had this principle been given up, there Avould 



have been no occasion for this bitter con- 
troversy. Recently, it seems, the contending 
parties have agreed to disagree, and a compro- 
mise has been reached whereby the Laramie is 
said to represent ' ' the time-hiatus ' ' between 
the Cretaceous and Tertiary series. The fact 
remains, however, that, in the Laramie, at 
least, Mesozoic fossils are coeval with Ter- 
tiary fossils, being found in one and the 
same formation. Now the mere accident of 
tliese tAYO sets of fossils occurring apart from 
each other- would not make the Mesozoic fos- 
sils any older nor the Tertiary fossils any 
younger. Nevertheless, had they been found 
apart, it is absolutely certain that geologists 
would have assured us that an enormous time- 
hiatus amounting to millions of years had 
elapsed between the appearance of these two 
groups of actually contemporaneous fossils. 
It is this dogmatic state of mind that 
makes one despair of ever getting at the 
objective truth which underlies the observa- 
tions and interpretations of evolutionists. 
They have fixed preconceptions which they 
refuse to lay aside, when they approach the 
facts. Father Richarz is himself a good 
example of this hopelessly biased attitude. 
With his faith entirely undisturbed by the 
apparent conformity observed along the 
' ' thrust plane ' ' in the Bow Eiver Gap, he 
makes the folloAving act of hope: "I am 
fonvinced that even here the conformity is 
not complete, and a detailed study would 



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1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



103 



Praise from the 

Vatican's Organist 

"I wish to congratulate you on the magnificent organ 
in St. John Cantius Church in Chicago," writes Prof. Renzi, 
the official organist at the Vatican. "The tonal qualities are 
marvelous, the action answers every need of modern tech- 
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service in furnishing organs of such quality and durability," 
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ST. LOUIS, MO. 



find unconformable positions." Now, any- 
one who approaches facts in that frame of 
mind is not unlikely to find exactly what he 
expects. If an evolutionist like Father 
Eicharz went to the Bow Eiver Gap, he would 
see only the unconformities and other indica- 
tions of a " thrust fault. " If an anti- 
evolutionist like Price made the same journey, 
his sole interest would be iu the conformities 
and other evidence militating against the as- 
sumption of an overthrust. What the im- 
partial observer wants to know, however, is 
which of the two sets of facts is typical, and, 
supposing Father Eicharz to be victorious, 
whether the mere fact of an evident discon- 
formity is a sufficient demonstration of an 
overthrust, that is, apart from the fossil 
evidence. 

It is unsafe to trust a biased observer. 
Such distrust, however, implies no dishonesty 
in the one distrusted. It is based on psycho- 
logical, and not at all on moral grounds. 
Father Gruender, S. J., in his recent book 
"Experimental Psychology," speaks of a 
phenomenon known to psychologists as ex- 
pectant attention. "We said," he tells us, 
"that cprtain objects 'are on the waiting 
list.' This is more than a mere figure of 
speech. For our expectations, previous knowl- 
edge of all kinds, and acquired mental ten- 
dencies are most important factors in deter- 
mining whether a certain object will pass 
unnoticed or actuallv reach the focus of at- 



tention. Hence we speak of expectant at- 
tention" (p. 226). On page 232, he con- 
tinues: "Errors also of the gravest sort may 
be due to expectant attention if they become 
habitual and take complete possession of the 
mind. We all know what bias can do. It 
blinds its victims to everything that does 
not agree with their bias, and makes them 
see things which exist only in their prepos- 
sessed minds. This is true not only in the 
realm of religion and politics, but also in 
the domain of experimental science. The 
same facts may be investigated by two ob- 
servers, the one with unwarranted assump- 
tions in his mind, the other Avithout such as- 
sumptions and ready to let the facts speak 
for themselves. The two will differ not only 
in the interpretation of what they have ob- 
served, but in all probability even in the 
phenomenal description of the facts them- 
selves. Take, for instance, the assumption of 
evolution. We do not speak here of that 
form the theory of evolution which is 
kept within the limits of a strictly scientific 
hvpothesis, but of that sweeping meta- 
phvsical doa'ma of evolution which mibst 'he- 
true, whatever else may he true" (pp. 232, 
233; italics his). 

It Avas, likewise, this selfsame phenomenon 
of expectant attention which caused Father 
Eicharz to make so many mistakes in trying 
to correct my presupposed ones. His whole 
attitude was one of contempt, as. evinced 



104 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



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by the excerpt from his letter printed in the 
October 1st number of the F. R. Hence it 
is not surprising that he succeeded in finding 
more evidences of stupidity in my book than 
were actually there. Some of these mistakes 
of Father Eieliarz have been previously 
pointed out by Father Hornsby, e. g., his 
denial of the existence of Proterozoic protozoa 
and his contradiction of Schuchert's state- 
ment that "most of the invertebrate classes 
of organisms were in existence in Proterozoic 
time" r Textbook, II, p. 177). 

"Another mistake" of Father Eicharz is 
his confusion of Ajnmonites with Ammonoids. 
On page 86 of my book, I wrote: "Such 
facts must give us pause in attaching undue 
importance to phenomena like the occurrence 
of a gradual complication of sutures in the 
Chalk Ammonites, particularly as a parallel 
series of perfectly similar sutures occur 'by 
convergence' in the fossil Ceratites which 
have no genetic connection with the Am- 
monites." To this statement Father Eicharz 
took the following exception : ' ' By the way, 
Ceratites can not be opposed to Ammonites, 
because they form a distinct genus of this 
large family. Therefore, it is meaningless 
to assert that 'fossil Ceratites have no 
genetic connection with Ammonites' 
(O 'Toole, p. 86); they are themselves Am- 
monites. ' ' Here Father Eicharz has obviously 
confounded Ammonites (a generic term) with 
Ammonoids (the name of the suborder, under 



which the Ceratites and Ammonites occur as 
distinct genera). According to Henry Woods 
the classification is as follows: Phylum: Mol- 
lusea ; Class : Cephalopoda ; Order : Tetra- 
branchia; Suborder: Ammonoidea ; Genera: 
Prolecanites, Ceratites, Ammonites, etc. In 
his latest edition Woods splits up the genus 
Ammonites^ into smaller generic groups, e. g., 
the Hamites, Baculites, etc. Clearly, there- 
fore, the Ceratites can be opposed to Am- 
monites. Fatlier Eicharz might have spared 
himself the humiliation of this blunder, had 
he consulted the reference which I gave at 
the end of the offending paragraph. In fact 
my statement was only a paraphrase of the 
words of Henry Woods, the Cambridge palae- 
ontologist. On page 16 of the 1919 (5th) 
edition of his "Palaeontology" we read: 
' ' Then again sutures similar to those of 
Ceratitps from the Trias are developed in 
some Chalk Ammonites which have no genetic 
connection with Ceratites. ' ' 

In the second part of his article. Father 
Eicharz introduces his ' ' explanation ' ' of non- 
evident discouformities with the following 
words: "In such rare cases geologists as- 
sume a time interval, etc.", thereby flatly 
contradicting the words of Schuchert who 
says: "But such disconformities are by no 
means rare, in fact are very common through- 
out the wide central basin area of North 
America" (cf. op. cit., II, pp. 586-588). 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



105 



Another misleading statement of Father 
Eicharz is his explanation that, in objecting 
to the dogma of the universality of fos- 
siliferous stratification, Thomas Huxley 
wrote as a philosopher, and not, apparently, 
in the sacrosanct capacity of a scientist. As 
a matter of fact, Huxley long held the post of 
naturalist to the Geological Survey. Hence, 
unless Father Eicharz wishes to contend that, 
on that particular occasion, Huxley was not 
speaking ex cathedra, he will have to admit 
that he wrote as a scientist, a fact which, 
in the eyes of Father Eicharz, must needs 
entitle his statement to a very respectful 
hearing. 

Father Eicharz is very eclectic in his at- 
tempted refutation of this objection, which 
orip'inated with Spencer and Huxley, and 
which has been recently restated by Price. 
In fact liis only attempt at rebuttal is the 
extremely unfortunate statement which fol- 
lows: "It is preposterous to suppose, as Mr. 
Price does, that at the same long jjeriod in 
tlie same ocean, trilobites Avere living in one 
place and ammonites in another, Avithout miy 
mixture." Father Eicharz seems to have 
no conception of what is meant by ecology 
and the laws of the geographical distribution 
of animal life. If he did, he would surely 
know that the Nautilus, which is the sole 
modern representative of the order of Tetra- 
fcranchiate cephalopods, to which the Am- 
monites belonged, lives "exclusively on or 
near the bottom in relatively deep water ' ' 
(Encycl. Am., vol. 19, p. 783), Avhereas the 
Triloijites "appear to have lived on muddy 
bottoms in shallow water" (Encycl. Am., vol. 
27, p. 65). Such being the difference in 
their respective habitats, it is not at all sur- 
prising that, even supposing them to have 
lived ■ contemporaneously in the same seas, 



tliey are always found in separate forma- 
tions and never co -mingled in a single forma- 
tion like the Mesozoic plants and the Ter- 
tiary fauna in the Laramie. This ineffective 
ci'iticism of Father Eicharz serves only to 
emphasize an insuperable difficulty encounter- 
ed by those who desire to effect a chronolog- 
ical correlation of Avidely-separated forma- 
tions by means of fossils, the difficulty, name- 
ly, of distinguishing between geographical 
and chronological distribution. 

There are several other minor ejrors in 
i'ather Eicharz 's article, e. g., when he 
ascribes to me personally an opinion which I 
quoted from the geologist Dana concerning 
the abruptness of the climatic change which 
led to the extinction of the Siberian 
elephants (cfr. "The Case," etc., p. 111). 
They are, hoAvever, relatively unimportant, 
and I shall content myself with singling out 
but one for final consideration. Confronting 
the fact of the indubitable persistence of un- 
changed forms from the earliest geological 
epochs down to the present time, Father 
Eicharz has nothing more to say than that 
' ' it merely shows how little we know about 
the process of evolution." No, it shows more 
than that, namely, that, Avithout auA^ as- 
signable reason, certain forms of life have 
been exempt from Avhat is alleged to be a uni- 
A'ersal process of nature, i. e., evolution. Why 
should Amphioxus develop into mammals and 
Lingula renuiiu unchanged? It is A^ain for 
Father Eicharz to appeal to the supernatural- 
ism of an orthogenetic spiritus rector, which 
he very falsely identifies Avith the vital prin- 
ciple of the Scholastics. Perhaps, he Avill ac- 
cept my authority Avhen I tell him that the 
vital principle of the Scholastics can never 
function as an agent of evolution for the 
simple reason that it belongs to the category 



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106 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



of formal, and not of efficient, causes. If he 
doubts my assurance, I can only refer him to 
the arguments given in my chapters on the 
Origin of Life and the Origin of the Human 
Soul, as also to that foundational work, the 
De Aiiima of Aristotle. 

And now, to preclude further misunder- 
standings, let me make my own position clear. 
If I am not an evolutionist, neither am I an 
anti-evolutionist. Up to the time of the 
Great War, I was more or less of a Was- 
uiannite, and I can still remember how keenly 
I resented Father FitzSimons's "popular" 
refutation of Modern Biology, and how much 
I rejoiced in the concise and masterly reply 
of the great Jesuit scientist. Later on, how- 
ever, as a result of experience in biological 
laboratories, as well as some training in 
geology and chemistry, I entered upon a 
period of disillusionment, which ended in com- 
plete scepticism with reference to the demon- 
strative value of the current "proofs" for 
evolution. I never assumed, however, the at- 
titude of positive antagonism towards the 
theory, and always admitted the possibility, 
at least, of its being o):)jectively true. My 
sole contention is that the arguments for it 
are not conclusive. This attitude is set forth 
vidth sufficient clarity in my book. I am a 
little surprised, therefore, to see my position 
entirely misunderstood by Father Eicharz. The 
author who criticized me in the Month did 
me more justice. I can only conclude, there- 
fore, that men like Father Eicharz did not 
read the preface of my book and Avere, con- 
sequently, misled by its title. In that fore- 
word I explained that I intended to play 
the Devil 's Advocate with reference to the 
theory of evolution, for the simple reason 
that very few seemed ready to undertake 
this very necessary task. The arrogance of 
evolutionary dogmatists had reached the point 
at which it became imperative to curb it, 
not only for the sake of religion, but also 
for the sake of genuine, as opposed to sham, 
science. 

Father Eicharz seems to delight in coupling 
my name Avith that of Price, as though I were 
one with him not only in his anti-evolution- 
ism, but likeAvise in his fundamentalism. If 
my critic wishes to know what I really think 
of fundamentalism, he has only to read the 
conclusion of the paper Avhich I read at the 
meeting of the National Catholic Educa- 
tional Association in -lune, 1924. It is true 
tliat I defended Price against the intolerant 
snobbery and abuse which greeted his at- 
tack upon the "Eock Castle" of Evolution. 
But, if I set forth his arguments with sym- 
pathy and all possible precision, I did' as 
nmch for the evolutionists in the first part 
of my chapter on Fossil Pedigrees. In fact 
so successful was I in this latter attempt that 
I earned the solitary expression of approval 
which Father Eicharz grudgingly conceded 
in the whole course of his article. My at- 
titude towards Price, therefore, Avas thorough- 
ly objective. I gave his arguments for Avhat 



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This is the unique merit of De Eoo 's 
work. 

Five Volumes Octavo, Cloth BindinsTi 
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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



107 



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they were worth, leaving the reader to judge 
for himself. In my opinion, however. Father 
EieJiarz has not succeeded in meeting a single 
one of these arguments. Hence, while I am 
quite willing to admit that Price has intruded 
a deplorable amount of foolish fundamental- 
ism into what ought to be an exclusively 
scientific work, I think that his basic argu- 
ments have not been damaged by Father 
Rieharz' criticism. Nevertheless, he has 
been guilty of certain exaggerations and in- 
accuracies due to an excessive bias against 
the theory of evolution. When, hoAvever, his 
arguments are pruned of these imperfections, 
it seems to me that they stand, and that 
they cannot be invalidated by the methods 
A\hich Father Eicharz has seen fit to employ. 

But when all is said and done, my main 
motive for quoting Price was to shock such 
men as Father Eicharz out of their com- 
■[jlacency and conventionalism, with a view 
to forcing them to tliink. That I succeeded 
in this was evident from Father Eicharz' 
gallant struggles to defend the faith that was 
in him. Who knows but that I may have 
sown in his mind a tiny seed of scepticism, 
Avhich mav one day flower and bear fruit by 
producing a genuine Catholic scientist, who 
will not parrot the speculations of infidels, 
but give us God's own truth about the Eock 
Book of the Universe? 

Thanking you for the courtesy of your 
columns, I am, with genuine esteem, 
Sincerely yours, 

Barry O 'Toole, 
Sector of the Catholic University of Peking. 

Excerpts from Letters 

I wish that you may keep up your courage 
also during the new year and persevere in the 
good work you are doing through the F. E. — 
(V. Bev.) F. J. Brune, Alton, la. 

Get the Franciscan Herald at the rack; 
and don't forget your Fortnightly, the 
review for those who love plain speaking 
and high thinking. — WeeJcly Calendar of St. 
Joseph's Church, in charge of Franciscan 
Fathers, Los Angeles, Cal. 

The F. E. conies to me regularly and is 
worth its weight in gold. I'll be with you 
till the curtain falls and I join the choir 
invisible. — (Bev.) A. Buckler, Santa Barbara, 
Cal. 



One of the buildings of the University 
of Upsala bears this inscription: "Tanka 
fritt ar stort, men tanka ratt ar storre — ■ 
Free thought is great, but right thought is 
greater. " 

It is a great help forward on the path of 
virtue to be able to walk in the footsteps 
of those of our name who have shown us the 
way as torch-bearers or pioneers. — Baunard, 
"Ozanam in His Correspondence," p. 3. 



108 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Liturgical Movement 

The liturgical movcnicnt is growing apace. 
Nor is it without marvels of its own. From 
distant Ireland (M. H, Gill & Son, Dublin) 
comes ' ' The Voice of the Church, a Prayer 
]\ianual, Compiled exclusively from Prayers 
contained in the Liturgical Books," the 
initiative of which was independent of all 
knowledge of the actual liturgical movements 
on the Continent. Now a pamphlet appears 
in our own midst, printed in German, which 
embodies on the other hand some of the 
principal ideas that the European liturgical 
movement, especially that of Germany and 
Austria, has produced. The "Liturgische Be- 
wegung, ' ' by the Eev. Hermann Joseph Un- 
traut, of the Diocese of La Crosse ("Im 
Selbstverlag des Verfassers"), comprises 
thirty-four short essays on about 110 pages. 
These essays are reprints of newspaper 
articles and are not progressively related; but, 
for that, they may serve the purposes of 
snatch-time reading all the better. 

"The liturgical movement," Father ITn- 
traut well says, "aims above all to promote 
a general knowledge and understanding of 
the divine service of the Church; and in 
particular to spread an arnireciation of its 
principal liturgy, the Sacrifice of the Mass, 
in its essence and meaning, its actions and 
ceremonies, among both young and old" (p. 
5). As a refrain running through almost 
all of the articles we read the signiticant 
words of Pius X : " You must not pray in the 
Mass, but pray the Mass." The Mass is 
indeed the climax and core of the liturgy, 
it is there we most intimately find Christ, the 
central Figure of the entire liturgical wor- 
ship. "Li the iiumense garden of the litur- 
gy Christ is the intersection point of the 
several paths: all lead to Him. Thus the 
radiating figure of Christ glorifies the entire 
liturgy ; He is the great " High Priest for 
this earth, its Advocate, its Intercessor. He 
is the connecting Link, the great Mediator 
between God and man; through Him Ave ask 
and obtain everything" (p. SI.) 

But the author has little hope for our own 
day and country! A deaf ear attends the 
■^oice of the Holy Spirit; Ave are headed else- 
Avhere, and many are the strictures the reader 
must be Avilling to apply to himself, if he 
Avishes to drink in the undoubted Avisdom con- 
tained in the pages of this brochure, — stric- 
tures, too, that do not all breathe the patient 
hopefulness Avhich the liturgy should inspire. 
"With giant strides AA'e are approaching the 
new paganism .... the spirit of the times does 

not halt before the gates of convents We 

need not be astonished if the 'liturgical move- 
ment' is hardly knoAvii in this country. The 
groAving religious insipidity, ever on the in- 
crease here, the seeking after pleasure, the 
chase after the dollar, and the ever-expandiiig 
worldly spirit, which also knocks at the gates 



of convents and has in many instances al- 
ready gained admittance, does not Avish to 
hear of the programme of Pius X : * To renSAv 
all in Christ,' ami therefore neither of a 
liturgical moA'ement" (pp. 47, et passim). 
Fortunately, hoAvever, there are many con- 
A'ents and monasteries, and parishes as Avell, 
Avhere the liturgical movement has taken root. 
For almost tAvo years plans have been 
maturing to launch a liturgical movement in 
eatenso in this country, Avith its central office. 
The Liturgical Press, at St. John's Abbey, 
Collegeville, Minnesota. In the course of this 
year a liturgical revicAv, Orate Fratres, will 
appear, on Avhose editorial board AA'ill be a 
dozen persons in different parts of the coun- 
try Avho have been studying the European 
moA'ements for some time. A ' ' Popular 
Liturgical Library," to comprise three series 
cf booklets, is also beyond the stage of mere 
planning. Tavo of its coming publications 
are noAv in press, and a third is ready for 
the printer, Avhile eleven others are in actual 
preparation, several of them to appear this 
summer. (Printed announcements of these 
activities are uoav in preparation and Avill 
be sent to all Avho are sufficiently interested 
to send name and address to the above 
Liturgical Press.) A^iigil Michel, 0. S. B. 

Literary Briefs 

— We have had to Avait long for Volume II 
of the ' ' Jahrbuch von St. Gabriel, ' ' published 
by the Fathers of the Divine Word at their 
seminary of St. Gabriel near Vienna, but 
are repaid for our patience by the richness 
of its contents. The volume contains papers 
on the theory of hypothetical judgments, the 
unicity of God according to Scheler and St. 
Thomas, the blessing which support of the 
heathen missions brings upon religion at 
home, the Kephas f>roblem (Gal. ii, 11-14), 
the religion of the ancient Grecians in its 
dependence on matriarchal culture circles 
(by Dr. Kreichgauer), Buddhism and Chris- 
tianity (by Dr. Koppers), the position of 
the genitive case in its significance for the 
structure of language (by Dr. Wm. Schmidt), 
and the conception of the soul and of sac- 
rifice among the Africans. These papers 
are not of equal merit, but all of them be- 
token scholarly research. Copies of the 
"Jahrbuch" can be ordered through the 
S. V. D. Mission Press at Techny. 111. 

— We have had of late quite a number of 
biographies of saints of "the devout fem- 
inine sex," many of Avhich, abounding in 
lackadaisical effusions, have no value for 
men Avho must make their Avay through a world 
full of fierce temptation and dangerous 
pitfalls. It is refreshing then to come 
across a modern life of a manly saint, a 
good and humble lay-brother of the Society 
of Jesus, Avho once Avas a man of business, 
but followed the call to the higher life. Of 
course, the Avorld Avill find the high example 
of constant virtue Avhich this holy man gave 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BErIE^Y 



109 



in the line of mortification and solid humili- 
ty, rather distasteful, but it is after all such 
men who are the salvation of a dechristiauized 
world. Some peculiar manifestations of the 
saint 's piety will be accounted for quite read- 
ily, when we remember that he hailed from 
the sunny clime of Old Castile. (''Der heilige 
Alfons Eodriguez, " by Matthias Dietz, S. 
J.; Herder.) 

— Herder & Co., of Freiburg i. B., have re- 
jirinted in the form of a separate booklet, from 
volumes II to V of Pastor's "Geschichte 
der Papste, ' ' the numerous passages refer- 
ring to ' ' Die Fresken der Sixtinischen Kapelle 
and Rafifaels Fresken in den Stanzen und 
den Loggien des Vatikans. ' ' The booklet 
is Ijeautifully printed and illustrated Avith 
five plates. 

— ' ' Homiletie Sermonettes, ' ' by the Eev. 
F. A. Renter (B. Herder Book Co.) is a 
volume of fifty-three little seriuons, each 
ending with an example from the life of ;i 
saint. It was prepared for children, but 
IS really also intended for fathers and mothers 
;ind for all who are interested in the Sun- 
day CTOspels and in the practical lessons to 
lie deduced from them. The points of il- 
lustration chosen from the lives of saints are 
strikingly apt and add to the instructive • 
\alue of the well written sermonettes. 

— In "The Mystery of Love" (Benziger 
Eros.) the Most "Rev. H. M. Lepicier, O. S. 
M., has condensed into thirty considerations 
the Catholic teaching on the Holy Eucharist. 
Any ordinarily cultured mind can follow the 
considerations with ease and profit. Subtle 
nuestions are left to the classroom, w'hile 
each series of reflections is so presented as 
to arouse and warm the affections. The 
author draws his illustrations from the 
ndracles which histoiy records concerning the 
Real Presence. 

— ' ' Darkness and Light, ' ' by the Rev. 
Henry Browne, S. J., is "an essay in the 
theory of divine contemplation." The 
author hopes to do a service to the cause of 
mystical prayer by pointing back to the old 
beaten patli, from Avhicli not a few modern 
^vriters have, perhaps unconsciously, strayed. 
One rises from the perusal of this book with 
the conviction that in its essence mystical 
prayer not merely confers, but almost con- 
stitutes sanctity, which is nothing more or 
less than some assimilation of the rational 
creature to God by knowledge, love, and 
service. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

—"The Sanctuary of Strength," by the 
Rev. Robert Eaton, of the Birmingham Ora- 
t(>ry, is a collection of "short chapters on 
the spiritual life, ' ' written in answer to a 
request to proA-ide suitable spiritual reading 
for those who make short retreats in the 
various houses of retreats now so common. 
A valuable feature of this book is the apt 
and lavish use made of Holy Scripture. The 



author shows how the Old and the New 
Testament "call aloud" to each other, like 
antiphonal choirs. (Sands it Co. and B. Her- 
der Book Co.) 

— Marietti (Turin) has added to his edi- 
tion of the works of St. Thomas the ' ' Com- 
mentarium in Aristotelis de Anima. " The 
editor, Fr. Angelo' M. Piorotta, 0. P., explains 
in the preface the rules that have guided 
him. The main object was to make this im- 
portant commentary of the Angelic Doctor 
accessible for study purposes. The text of 
the Stagirite is quoted in the old Latin ver- 
sion of G. de Moerbeke, O. P. The com- 
mentary itself is broken up into short sec- 
tions which are numbered consecutively for 
the sake of greater perspicuity. The volume 
is provided with a serviceable * ' Index Rerum 
et Terminorum. ' ' 

—The venerable Fr. Walter Elliott, C. S. 
P., has published "A Retreat for Nuns," 
Avhich will undoubtedly prove of use to those 
concerned. Fr. Elliott is known as a versa- 
tile retreat-master, and this volume is the 
fruit of ripe experience. A novel feature of 
it is the liberal use made of devout poems, 
which the author says he has found very use- 
ful in his own personal retreats, "inspiring 
sentiments and suggesting expressions highly 
appropriate and edifying." (The Apostolic 
Mission House, Brookland, D. C). 

— "Catholic Customs and Symbols," by the 
Rt. Rev. Hugh T. Henry (Benziger Bros.), 
'leals in an informal way Avith "varied forms 
and figure.s of Catholic usage, ceremony, and 
]iractice." Conducting the reader through an 



^T^IX 



MID 

Eine mariologische Frage 

Dogmatisch-kritische Studie von Ferdinand 
Heinrich Schiith S. J. 

364 Seiten. — Gebunden $1.75. 

Seit den Tagen des tiefschiirfenden Mario- 
logen Scheeben ist wohl kein Buch in deutscher 
Sprache erschienen, das so grlindlich und 
eingehend die grosse Frage der Stellung 
Marias im Erlosungsplan, ihre Mitwirkung 
beini Erlosungswerk and ihre Gnadenmittler- 
sehaft behandelt. Das Buch ist zugleich 
aktuell, weil ja die Lehre der Gnadenvermitt- 
lung Marias vielleicht in Balde Gegenstand 
einer dogmatischen Entscheidung sein wird. 
Nach dem Urteil berufener Fachkritiker ist 
dieses Werk eine wertvolle Bereicherung der 
Mariologie. 

Der bekannte Theologe Arndt urteilt : „Ein 
Werk, geschrieben mit ebensoviel Geistes- 
scharfe wie Herzenswarme; es erhebt das 
Banner des Glaubens, um die erhabenen 
Vorziige der Mutter Gottes und unserer Mutter 
unanf echtbar f estzustellen ..." 

Zu beziehen durch 

Rev. J. Schueth, Schnellville, Ind. 



110 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



imaginary cathedral, the author talks of 
ecclesiastical art, delves into the origin nnd 
meaning of different familiar ceremonies and 
devotions, — the Mass, benediction, the Eosary, 
litanies, vigils, and feasts, — and discusses the 
syml^olism of numbers, the Gregorian Calen- 
dar, and other allied subjects. At the end 
there is a useful glossary. The book makes 
interesting and instructive reading and can 
therefore be waruily recouuneuded. 

— Volume XIII of Msgr. Horace K. 
Mann 's ' ' Lives of the Popes in the Mid- 
dle Ages" (Kegan Paul and B. Herder Book 
Co.) has appeared, after an interval of ten 
years. It contains the lives of Honoring III 
and Gregory IX, with :\ few pages on the 
seventeen days' rule of the nged Celestine 
IV. This was a supremely great period, when 
the papacy was at the height of temporal 
splendor and influence. Msgr. Mann's ex- 
tremely unfavorable opinion of the character 
find motives of Emperor Frederick II is, we 
fear, affected by the anti-German prejudice 
that dictated the foot-notes (written during 
the excitement of the World War) on pages 
222 and 307 of this volume. They should 
have been cancelled in the revision of the 
manuscript for the printer. It is impossible 
to imagine a really great historian, like L. 
von Pastor, for instance, going out of his 
Vi-ay to compare "the conduct of the Kaiser 
of the twentieth century with that of the 
thirteenth. ' ' For the rest, the author, while 
not a brilliant stylist, Avrites entertainingly 
and commands confidence by his citations 
from the original sources and his c-areful 
criticism of their value. 

— Father Joseph G. Kempf, of the Diocese 
of Indianapolis, has rendered into readable 
English Fr. A. Vermeersch's S. J. Latin 
treatise on "Religious and Ecclesiastical 
Vocation," which deals with this important 
subject in the light of the controversy pro- 
voked some years ago by Canon Joseph 
Lahitton's book, "La Vocation Sacerdotale. " 
The book is a real enrichment of our English 
theological literature and should have a wide 
sale. (Herder). 

— Canon A. De Smets' "Betrothment and 
Marriage" in its second edition has been 
brought into complete conformity with the 
New Code and greatly enlarged by the author. 
The work thus retains its usefulness, and we 
rei:)eat our previous recommendation of it. 
(B. Herder Book Co.) 



New Books Received 

SJiin-to, the Way of the Gods in Japan. Ac- 
cording to the Printed and Unprinted Re- 
ports of the Japanese Jesuit Missionaries 
in the 16th and 17th Centuries. By 
George Schurhammer, S. J. With 102 il- 
lustrations and 12 Colored Plates, iv & 210 
pp. ' 9J/l>xllVi; in. Bonn a. Rh. : Kurt 
Schroeder. 1923. 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

(Terms: Cash with Order; Postage Pre- 
paid to any Part of the U. S.) 



Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. With 
Introduction and Notes by F. A. Purcell 
and L. M. Somers. Chicago, 1915. 50 cts. 

Browne, Hy. (S. J.) Darkness or Light. 
An Essay in the Theory of Divine Con- 
templation. St. Louis, 1925. $1.50. 

Garesche, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
zation in Parishes. N. Y. 1921. $1.50. 

Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
Empire. Denver, 1925. $1.25. 

Alphonsus, St. Theologia Moralis. Ed. M. 
Haringer. 8 vols. Ratisbon, 1879 sqq. 
$4.50. 

Poulain, Aug. (S. J.). Handbueh der 
Mystik. 2te u. 3te gekiirzte Auflage. 
Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2. 

S. M. C, Parables for Grown-up Children. 
With a Foreword by Fr. Edwin Essex, 
0. P. London, 1925. 70 cts. 

McClorey, J. A, (S. J.) Six Fundamentals 
of Religion. (Sermons). St. Louis, 1926. 
$1. 

Schurhammer, G. (S. J.) Der hi. Franz 

Xaver, der Apostel von Indien und 
Japan. Mit 9 Bildern u. 1 Kartchen. 
Freiburg, 1925. $1.50. 

Muckermann, H. (S. J.) Ehe u. Familie im 
Gottesreich. Freiburg, 1925. 60 cts. 

Peers, A. Thoughts of Bl. Ramon LuU foi 
Every Day. London, 1925. 60 cts. 

Tuustall, C. Certain Godly and Devout 
Prayers. Tr. by Thos. Paynell. Ed. by 
Dom. Roger Hudleston, O. S. B. London, 
1925. 70 cts. 

The Little Office of the Bl. Virgin Mary 
and the Office of the Dead with the 
Penitential Psalms and the Litany of 
the Saints from the Roman Breviary. 
First ed. according to the 3rd Typical 
Vatican Edition. Latin text vrith Eng- 
lish rubrics and notations. Ratisbon, 
1925. $1.50. 

Detweiler, F. G. The Negro Press in the 
U. S. Chicago, 1922. $1. 

Malley, Austin. The Cure of Alcholism. 
St. Louis, 1913. $1. 

Twelve and After. A Book of Teachers' 
Material for the Religious Instruction of 
Older Children by the Editor of The 
Sower. London, 1925. $1.35. 

Seisenberger, M. A Practical Handbook 

for the Study of the Bible and of 
Bible Literature. Tr. by A. M. Buchan- 
an and Edited bv Rev. Thos. J. Gerrard. 
N. v., 1911. $2. 

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
5851 Etzel Ave. St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



111 



A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 

following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
who used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, iltvaA™""; 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



Easy Mass in Honor of the BI. Virgin Mary 
of PerdoJenti. By E. Bottigliero. 24 pp. 
Fischer & Bro. Score, 60 cts.; voice part, 
15 ets. 

Missa Brevis in Honorein S. Joseplii. For 
Mixed Voices with Organ Accompaniment. 
Composed bv Joseph J. McGrath. 44 pp. 
Fischer & Bro. Score, SO cts. ; voice parts. 
$1.20. 

Sails on the Horizon. [Poems] by Charles J. 
Quirk. S. J. 44 pp. 12mo. Boston: The 
Stratford Co. $1. 

Encyclica''. Letter of .... Pius XI on the 
Establishment of the Feast of Our Lord 
Jesus Christ as King. With the FormuLT 
of Consecration of the Human Race to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus Prescribed by His 
Holiness. 15 pp. 12mo. The Home Press, 
119 E. 57 Str.. Xew York. (Pamphlet"). 

Has the Immigrant Kept the Faith? A Study 
of Immigration and Catholic Growth in the 
United States. 1790—1920. By Gerald 
Shaughnessv, S. M. 289 pp. Svo. The 
^Facmillan Co. $2.50. 

Das erste Allaemeine Konzil zu Nizaa 325 
und seine Bed&ivtnng. Zur 1600.jahrigen 
Gedaehtnisfeier. Von Dr. Karl Bihlmeyer. 
22 ]ip. large Svo. Eeprint from the .Tahr- 
])uch des ^'erbandes kath. Akademiker, 1925. 

The Evil of Mixed Marriages. 8 pp. Svo. 
Free Leaflet Xo. 28 of the Central Verein, 
3835 Westminster PI., St. Louis, Mo. 

Golden .Jiihilee of the Young Ladies' Sodality 
of St. Augustine's Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
1875—1925. 40 pp. Svo. Published bv 
Rev. Fr. Cyprian Gehrliiig, O. M. Cap. 
(Pamphlet). 

7'he Lion's Cuh. A Drama in Four Acts by 
]\Iilton !McGovern [Rev. Virgil McGovern, 
O. F. M.]. 88 pp. Svo. Published bv the 
Author, St. Bonaventure P. 0., X. Y. 
(Wrapper.) 

Catholieism. Capitalism or Communism. By 
tlie Rev. .Jeremiah C. Harrington. With a 
Preface bv the Rev. John A. Rvan, D. D. 
445 pp. Svo. St. Paul, Minn.: The E. M. 
Lohmann Co. $2.50 net. 

Ttie Dignity of Partnership. A Plea for 
Greater Respect to the Human Element in 
Industry. By P. H. Callahan. Published 
by the Author, Louisville, Ky. (Wrapper). 

Erlosung. Religios-wissenschaftliche Vor- 
trage von Dr. P. Erhard Schlund, O. F. M., 
und Dr. Polykarp SchmoU, O. F. M. 63 pp. 
12mo. Munich and Kempten: Kosel & 
Pustet. 

Great Controversies. A Series of Lectures 
Given Before College Graduates, Answering 
Modern Intellectual Arguments against the 
Catholic Church by Rev. Matthew J. W. 
Smith, Editor of the Denver Catholic 
Register, vi & 190 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. $1.50 net. 

Papst und Kurie in ihrer Politil" nach dem 
WeWkriege. Von Friedrich Ritter von 
Lama. VI. Heft. pp. 281—360. Illertissen, 
Bavaria : Martinusbuchhandluno-. 



112 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Marrh 1 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



Tlie anecdote related abdut Leo XTTI in 
Xo. 3 of the F. K., writes tlie JJev. AV. 
Haekner. of Dod,yeville, Wis., reminds rue of 
nnotlier Avliieli I lieard from a priest in Neu- 
l->urg- a. D. Wlien tlie late Fatlier Peter 
Hotzel, O. F. M., was appointed bishop of 
Anjjsburo-, under the malodorous Lutz rei;ime, 
people naturally wondered for \vhat reason the 
ixovernnient had pro])ose(l this doug'hty 
religious for a l)isho]irii-. 1'he true reason 
was, as leaked out later, because a book 
written by Fr. Hotzel had been put on the 
Index and tlie government figured that a man 
who had been thus humiliated would not l)e 
over friendly to\vards Rome. The Holy See 
confirmed the appointment, and when Bishop 
Hotzel made his first nd Umina visit, he prob- 
ably did so with a certain malaise. But 
Tieo XIII ]nit him at his ease by a hunmroTis 
remark when lie a])peared before his first 
audience. " Pefre, Petre," he said, " ror/avi 
pro tc. vf rion ileficiat firlci tun!'' 



"Married. — ]\Iiss >Sylvan Ehodes and James 
Collins, last Saturday, at the Baptist par 
sonage. The bride is a very ordinary town 
girl, Avho doesn't know any more about cook- 
ing than a jack rabbit, and never helped her 
mother three days in her life. She is not a 
beauty by anv means, and has a gait like a 
duck. The gro(mi is an uii-to-date loafer. 
He has been living off the old fidks at home 
all his life and is not worth shucks. It Avill 
be a hard life. ' ' 

This is submitted as a speciijieii of what 
many marriage notices ought to be, if the 
paper confined itself to "the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing Init the truth. ' ' Xo won- 
der many such marriages turn out badly. — 
Catholic Citizen. 



It is related that a child once innocently 
asked Bishop Wilberforce why he \vas named 
"Soapy Sam." With his usual wit he replied 
genially: "It is because I do so much dirtv 
work and keeii my hands clean." Many 
good stories are told of his brilliant repar- 
tees, and some equally goo<l against him. 
One day as he sat in a railway carriage 
■^^•aiting for tlie train to start, two working- 
men wdio passed along the platform noticed 
him. One said to the other: "Look at 'Soapy 
Sam.' Perhaps he would tell us the road to 
Heaven." The Bishop put his liead out of 
the Avindow, and called out: "Turn to the 
right and keep straight on." One day iu 
London he came on a man who was trying 
to induce a horse to ])u]l a heavy cart by 
pouring forth at the bewildered animal a 
torrent of curses. "My good man,'' said 
the Bishop, reprovingly, ' ' where did you 
learn such language?" The man rejdied with 
a grin: "You haven't a hojie, guv 'nor; it's 
a o-ift." 




J. SELLMANN 

Tailor 



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Saint Louis, Missouri 

Illijuiis Licensed Engineer 



1926 



THE FOBTXIGHTLY REyIE^Y 



113 



PUBLIZISTIK IM KAMPFE GEGEN DIE 
INTERNATIONALE PLUTOKRATIE 

Die uaeli vier Wuclien Bestand bereits 
liber eine Auflage von 8500 verfiigende 
Woclieiischrift Dr. Joseph Eberles, 
' ' Schonere Zukunf t, ' ' wird im Ealimeu des 
allgeiueinen Kultur- imd Sozialprogramms, 
fiir das Minister, Bisehdfe, Professoren, 
fiihrende Sehriftsteller mitarbeiten, in der 
naehsten Zeit eine gCAvisse Haiiptauf- 
nierksamkeit der internationalen Pluto- 
kratie seheuken. Die soziale Frage muss 
lieute in einer katholischen Kevue eine uni 
so eingehendere Behandlung] finden, je 
brenuender die sozialen Probleme, je 
grosser die sozialen Krisen der GegenAvart 
sind. Daher -wird in ' ' -Schonere Zukuuft ' ' 
einerseits den Entwit-khmgen des Sozialis- 
inus und Kounnunismus — namentlieh in 
einer Aufsatzserie von „Kassandra" — 
l)esondere Beachtung geschenkt, im iibrigtin 
aber die Hauptanfnierksamkeit gerichtet 
auf das Treiben der modernen internatio- 
nalen Plutokratie, die heute die Gescliicke 
der Welt in der Hand halt, die nielit nur 
die Wirtsehaft dirigiert, sondern aiu-h 
weitgehendsten Einfluss auf die Politik, 
das 8taaisleben, auf Presse, Theater, Kino, 
Geistesleben, usw. ausiibt, Diese Pluto- 
kratie soli ]iiit einer Ausfiihrliehkcit und 
Anschaulichkcit gesdiildert -werden, -\vie 
es bislier jkh-Ii kcine andre katholische 
Zeitschrift 1at. \\(.'il niii- so der ent- 
spreehende' Abwehrwille der christliehen 
Vfilker geweckt und der AVille zur 
Eeehristianisierung der A^olkswirtschaft 
geweckt werden kann. Es soil dies vor 
alleni geseliehen durcli Aufsiitze aus 
antoritativen Federn u. a. liber wicMige 
Biieher aus neuerer und neuester Zeit: 
Kuhland, " Krankheitslehre des sozialen 
Korpers;" Werner Sombart, "Der Bour- 
gois, " "Die Juden und das Wirtschafts- 
lelieii ; ' ' usw. 

Das Arbeiten der internationalen Pluto- 
kratie, der goldenen Internationale, lasst 
sich nicht beleuehten ohne grundsatz- 
liehe Stellungnahnie zum Problem Ju- 
dentum. Dementspreeliend folgen auch 
Aufsatze liber den grundsatzUchen Stand- 
punM der KathoUlcen z'ur Judenfrage, die 
ebenso fern dein iililiehen Antisemitismus 
wie anderseits dein iihlichen Uebergehen 
der Judenfrage, u. a. die Auffassung 
fiihrender Katholiken wie Hettinger, 
\'ogelsang, Albert M. Weiss, Alois Liech- 
tenstein, Kralik, Bischof Ottokar Proch- 
aszka, Pralat Jouin, Msgr. Benigni usw. 
beriicksichtigen. 

(Preis pro Yierteljahr $1.25) 

"Schonere Zukunft," Wien XIX, 

Nuss^valdgasse 14, 

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A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 

follo-\ving reference to TJie Echo : 

"The Echo . . . . is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
who used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, cleveiand" "o' 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



114 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY UEylE^Y 



March 15 



WHAT FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS WILL DO 

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Every Invcsstor has always received every dollar of Principal and Interest on loans bought through our 
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DESCRIPTIVE BOOKI.ET ON REQUEST 

CHOUTEAU TRUST COMPANY 

CHOUTEAU, HEMP AND VANDEVENTER AVENUES 



L. ■%%'. HEMP. PRESIDENT 



S. L. ST. .JEAN, SECRETARV-TREASfRER 



J. >V. >V'ESTON, ViCE-PRES. 




(if till' Saint ill 
(rraviiKKir Friars 



ST. ANTHONY STILL CONTINUES TO WORK WONDERS FOR 

HIS CLIENTS. 

' ' Tlie sea olieys and fetters break. 

And lifeless liiuTis tliou dost restore, 
AVhilst treasures lost are found agairr, 
When j^ouny or old thine aid implore. 
These -words, composed by St. Bonaveuture, a 
contemporary of St. .Vnthouy of Padua, have lieeii 
echoed Ijy millions of Catlinlics during the past 
seven hniidre(l years out of the conviction coii- 
firiiied l.iy their own experience of the Woiider- 
Workiny Power of St. Anthony. 

It Avould be difficult to find a (.'atholic Chiircli in 
the Ignited States that does not cnntaiii a statue 
of St. Anthony. 

But the Best Kno«n Sliriue 
America is ]iroliably that of the 
(.)ii the ^luuiit of the Atonement. 

By ]iarticipatini; in the Perpetual Xcn-eiia to St. 
Anthony conducted by the Graymoor Fathers — a 
new Xovena beginning' every Tuesdav — thousands 
upon thousands of the clients of the Wonder-Work- 
er of Padua have obtained their petitions. 

The readers of The Fortnightly Eeview are 
invited to follow their examyile, and test for themselves the eiUcacy of this sjiecial 
No vena. 

Mrs. C. M. C, Washington, P. C. : "I am 
Bread in thanksgiving for many favors granted, 
that just seemed impossible to sell.'' 

K. G., NeAv York: "Enclosed find a thank offering to St. Anthony f.ir his inter- 
cession in obtaining my restoration to health. T was ilespei-ately ill. Iniviiig been given ii]i 
by the doctors when I requested the aid of the Saint at his Gravmoor Shrine. " " 

Mrs. I. S., Iowa: "Some mouths ago I sent in a iietition that I might sell my 
place in a distant state, at the same time promising an offering. St. Anthony answered 
my prayers, and I gratefully enclose the promised donaticm." 

Mrs. -J. K., Florida:" The petition I asked for in the Xo\en.i, uanielv a safe triji 
to Florida, and a position for my husband, have been granted.'' 

A. P. E., Providence: "I Avish to thank St. Anthony for the manv favors received 
through his intercession and the prayers of the Friars. T h.ave secured the yiosition for 
which I have been praying for some months, ^^ly eyesight, in regard to which [ wrote 
you a short time ago, is also good again. ' ' 

Mrs. A. .1. W., Arizona: "Enclosed find offering for St. Antlmny's Bread, as my 
husband has found work with good pay. Manv thanks to St. Anth(my, and all who 
pray for us at Gra;\m:oor. " 

Send your Petitions to 

ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 



^■nding this donation for St. Anthony's 
One of them was the sale of a jiroperty 



The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, No. 6 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI March 15th, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



Tangram — the Latest Craze 

The cross-word puzzle has abated. 
The latest craze is the Tangram. A 
tangram is a square of colored paste- 
board or other material, cut into seven 
pieces — five triangles, a square, and a 
diamond-shaped figure. A certain ge- 
ometric interrelation gOA^erns the sizes 
of these pieces and makes possible the 
game. AVithout it the tangram would 
not possess the uncanny power which 
renders it possible for the player to 
make out of at figures of humans, 
beasts, birds, objects of e\ery sort. 
Most of the figures, it is true, are rather 
weird looking and sometimes they need 
to be labeled, but they do have a cer- 
tain witch-like resemblance to what 
tliej^ are meant to represent. And ac- 
cording to F. Gr. Hartswick in his re- 
centlj^ published "First Tangram 
Book" (N. Y.: Simon & Schuster), 
there is endless fascination in making 
the designs, for which the pieces some- 
times slip into place with magic ease 
and sometimes long flout the player's 
patience. He also tells us that the tan- 
gram originated with the Chinese; 
that in the Poe Cottage at Fordham 
tliere is a set of tangrams carved from 
ivory with which the poet was wont to 
amuse himself, and that in the Brook- 
lyn Museum there is an old book illumi- 
nated with tangram designs. 

Sabin's ''Bibliotheca Americana" 

The Bibliographical Society of Am- 
erica is inviting subscriptions for the 
unfinished portion of Joseph Sabin's 
"Dictionary of Books Relating to Am- 
erica, from its Discovery to the Present 
Time." This work, compiled by an 
English bookdealer who settled in New 
York, has been described as "the 
noblest contribution to the enrichment 



of bibliography" ever made in the U. 
S. It was the life-work of Joseph 
Sabin, and the vast labor and re- 
search which it entailed hastened his 
death, which took place in 1880. His 
vork Avas continued by Wilberforce 
Fames, but the "Dictionary" ceased 
publication early in 1892, 116 parts, or 
nineteen volumes, having been issued 
from 1868 to 1892, taking the alphabet 
up to and partl.v including the name of 
Smith, recording 82,711 items. The un- 
published portion, prepared for the 
press by Mr. Fames, will run to about 
thirt3'-four parts, or between five and 
six volumes, and the subscription rate is 
fixed at $4 per part. The Sabin Dic- 
tionar}' Committee is housed at 476 
Fifth Avenue, New York City, and 
everyone who has consulted this use- 
ful work will welcome the scheme to 
complete it. 

The proposal to print only the un- 
published portion of the "Dictionary" 
involves a difficulty. Those who have 
complete sets of the published portion 
will readily subscribe for the remain- 
der, but those less fortunate will hesi- 
tate to subscribe for the fag end of 
even so useful a work. With this "Dic- 
tionary," as with all other works is- 
sued in parts over a long period, it is 
an almost hopeless task to complete im- 
perfect sets. Complete sets are of the 
greatest rarity, and their value may be 
gathered from the fact that as far 
back as 1901 one brought $303. Since 
Sabin wrote, bibliography has made 
immense strides, and the Bibliograph- 
ical Society of America, in the circum- 
stances, might carefully consider the 
wisdom of reprinting the whole "Dic- 
tionary," thoroughly revised and 
brought up to at least the end of the 
nineteenth centurv. 



116 



THE FOBTNWIITLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Lutherans and Secret Societies 

About 200 men aud women of the 
Lutheran persuasion in North St. Louis 
have seceded from the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Missouri, accord- 
ing to the Post-Dispatch (Feb. 13), in 
order to form an independent congre- 
gation in Avhieh they will be left free to 
join secret societies. Significantly 
enough, the seceders held their first 
meeting in a Masonic hall. The Rev. 
-Alfred L. CTrewe, who resigned his pas- 
torate at Boonville, Mo., to head the se- 
ceding congTegation, said to a reporter 
that he had come to the conclusion that 
the rule of the Missouri Synod against 
secret societies "has made hypocrites 
of Lutherans'' and "it is more honest 
and upright to receive lodge members 
openly than to say that you do not re- 
ceive them, and yet extend to them the 
hand of fellowship, which is being done 
in not a few instances." 

The Lutheran laity has long chafed 
under the prohibition, and it is there- 
fore not surprising to learn that in the 
congregation from which the North St. 
Louis seceders mainly come, about 60 
per cent of the male members belong to 
secret societies. 

Of course, the official attitude of the 
Synod is correct, and as the problem in- 
volves more than a question of disci- 
pline, — as it plainly involves a question 
(u' doctrine, it is hard to see how the 
Synod can consistently give in to secret- 
ion, after fighting it as a great and 
serious evil for so many years. Yet, 
if the Synod does not yield, it will en- 
tl anger its own existence. One is 
anxious to see how the problem will 
])e solved. The Catholic Church in 
America also suffers from the inroads 
of secretism. 

"Lese Majeste" in America 

The offense of lese majeste in the 
American Republic is being rapidly de- 
veloped by our courts and its penalties 
cire being more and more clearl}' de- 
fined. Thus, in San Francisco on Jan- 
uary 7, William E. AVolfe w'as found 
guilty and sentenced to ten years in a 
federal prison for sending printed mat- 
ter "indirectly threatening the Pres- 
ident." It is, therefore, a crime not on- 



ly to threaten the President directly, 
but if a judge thinks that the prisoner 
had such an intention, he may be sent to 
jail. This makes the lese majeste laws 
of Cermany and Russia before the 
World War seem the work of pikers. 
In Manila, the dignity of our satrap, 
Leonard Wood, has been upheld by the 
sentencing to prison for two months of 
i) member of the Manila city council on 
the charge of having used ' ' insolent lan- 
guage ' ' toward the Governor General in 
political speeches. Speaking in the Tag- 
filog dialect, this man described Gen- 
eral Wood as "a big tree without a 
siiadow," a despoiler of Filipino liber- 
ties, an oppressor, and an autocrat. 
Representative Jones of Texas is old- 
fcisliioned enough to think that this is 
an outrage and to point out that in 
1920 much stronger language than that 
was used about the worth}^ General in 
such American newspapers as had 
takcu his true measure. Finally, it 
is now a crime to criticize the Amer- 
iian Legion. Thus. Arthur F. Lorenz, 
cx-editor of tlie Illinois Staats-Zeitung, 
lias been sentenced to six months in 
jail for criminal libel of the Legion in 
ueneral, no individuals being men- 
tioned. (Cfr. The Nation, No. 3,159). 

The Role of Woman in Society 

Recently, at an Liternational Coun- 
cil of AVomen held in Washington, a 
British delegate, Mrs. George Morgan, 
championed the cause of the "flapper." 
She declared to her colleagues that the 
crusaders of the lipstick, bob, and 
shingle had "blazed the trail of free- 
dom which ultimately would establish 
women upon an equal footing with 
men," which, from her point of view, 
Avas desirable. She declared that 
modern women were ridding themselves 
of obsolete shackles, and that, in the 
end, the}' would stand upon the equal 
moral standard. It did not occur to 
lier that there is a vast difference be- 
tween equality and imitation, between 
equality and what soine people loosely 
call "independence." For a woman to 
expose her body, to smoke and to drink 
intoxicants in public, are not evidences 
of "independence," but of degenera- 
tion. Instead of strengthening the high 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



117 



position which the principles of Chris- 
tianity obtained for women, such prac- 
tices lower them to the deplorable con- 
dition which they held under decaying 
paganism. That would probably be en- 
tirely satisfactory to the class of women 
who ape men ; but, happily, those views 
of the future of woman are not as 
universal as the flapper's advocate 
would like. 

A Catholic speaker at another na- 
tional gathering took a mqvj different 
point of view. Speaking of woman's 



franchise, she said : ' ' The role that 
woman enjoys in society cannot be 
changed merely because she enjoys the 
franchise. She has always been an 
apostle in developing and moulding the 
souls of her children and making the 
home a centre of Christian virtue. 
Why not introduce into our political 
life some of the charm and pleasure 
that goes with our social gatherings? 
Let us be the moral strength of social 
life, bringing into it the principles 
and virtues that belong to a Christian 
woman, ' ' 



The Prize-Hymn for the Chicago Eucharistic Congress 



At last the official hymn for the Chi- 
cago Eucharistic Congress has come to 
light. Chosen from among 3,000, it 
runs as follows : 

The Nation's Consecration 
I 

Christians, raise your hearts. 

Oh, magnify your birth ; 
God of one blood has made 

All those who dwell on earth. 

All praisa unto our Eucharistic King I 
All praise unto our Eucharistic Kiaig ! 

II 

Lord God of Hosts, behold, 

What Christ 's Blest Prayer has done : 
' ' My Father, may they be 

As We are, Father, One ' '. 

All praise unto our Eucharistic King ! 
All praise unto our Eucharistic King ! 

Ill 

Our lives we consecrate 

Each nation, race by race. 
Oh, may we meet again 

To sing before Thy Face: 

All praise' unto our Eucharistic King ! 
All praise unto our Eucharistic King! 

We expected something better in con- 
nection with the sublime Mystery of 
Love, in an atmosphere that should lift 
the veriest tyro above the commonplace. 
The theme is well chosen : Universal 
brotherhood in Christ, though why the 
poem should be entitled ''The Nation's 
Consecration," is hard to see. The 
author glories in the universal kinship 
and love of Catholic Christendom, as 



exemplified in the Eucharistic Con- 
gress ; and we are far enough removed 
from the late war to believe that a 
youthful and presumably pious nun is 
sincere in envisaging true Christian 
charity in a concourse of nations. The 
very object of the Eucharistic Con- 
gress is to emphasize the solidarity of 
the human family, in as much as all men 
have an equal right to become children 
of God through the "deifying" grace 
of the Redeemer, and thus to constitute 
one grand citizenry of Christ 's kingdom 
on earth and in Heaven. 

All this the author seems to visualize 
correctly enough, but she mars the 
simple grandeur of her theme by stilted 
English and awkward versification. 
"Magnify your birth," presumably 
means "praise," "be proud of," "ex- 
tol" your baptism. But how many of 
the two millions who are expected to 
join in the hymn will understand this 
appeal? 

"God of one blood has made, etc." 
Ignoring the false rhythm of this line, 
may we not justly ask what it means? 
All men are of one blood as children 
of Adam ; but what has that to do with 
the Holy Eucharist? As children of 
our first parents we belong to the 
''massa damnata" ; nothing to be proud 
of, no reason to "magiiify" our birth. 
We become a royal and priestly genera- 
tion only through regeneration in 
Christ. Not "all those who dwell on 
earth" have been so regenerated. There 



118 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



are millions right in our midst who 
know not Christ, who refuse to be His, 
Avho will stand aloof from our Euchar- 
istic celebration, nay, condemn it as 
"accursed idolatry." All these consti- 
tute the "world," of which the Lord 
himself says that it hates Him. We still 
have with us the children of Belial, the 
open and hidden enemies of Christ and 
His Church; with these we claim no 
' ' blood relationship ; ' ' with these we 
may not fraternize. Hence the clause, 
"all those who live on earth," is mis- 
leading and does not harmonize with 
the following stanza, in which the Lord 
God of Hosts is reminded that 
"Christ's blest prayer" has been ful- 
filled. That prayer is nowhere realized 
except in the unity of His Church, so 
splendidly demonstrated on occasions 
like the Holy Year or the Eucharistic 
Congress. 

Incidentally we may note that 
"Christ's blest prayer" is a fine ex- 
ample of cacophony, and that the 
doul)le invocation of the Father is not 
at all graceful and might have been 
avoided. 

"Each nation, race by race," is an- 
other stumbling block. Each and Ijy 
separate, denote distinction. AVhy refer 
to national or racial differences in an 
ode of love and unity? Shall there be 
made in this Catholic Congress a sharp 
distinction between American and Po- 
lisli, French and German Catholics? 
Well, let it be so ; let each nation and 
race contribute its best to the success 
of the Congress. Separated as to lan- 
guage and customs, yet one in faith and 
devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, let 
us: "consecrate our lives." To whom 
or what we should consecrate, the poet 
does not reveal, nor is it prima facie 
apparent before whose face we beg to 
meet and sing again. "Thy face." 
The only one to whom Thy might re- 
late grammatically, is the Lord God of 
Plosts in the preceding stanza, eight 
lines above. Fortunately, the Father 
and the Son are one ; then, too, the 
capital T will help the understanding. 
Besides, a theologian will easily see that 
l).v the coveted other meeting is meant 
our reunion in the Beatific Vision. 



Slovenliness of composition is mani- 
fested also in stanza II. Here the 
Father is asked to behold what His 
Son's prayer has accomplished. Now, 
then, what has Christ's blest prayer 
done .' The colon at the end of the 
second line makes us curious to learn ; 
Init instead of being enlightened on the 
result of the prayer, we are regaled 
with the prayer itself. Could there be 
anything more awkward? 

Add to all these shortcomings the 
continuous harsh thumpings of mas- 
culine endings in such short iambics, 
as well as the sudden change to five 
feet in the refrain (which might prove 
the despair of a composer), and you 
will admit that the official "prize- 
hymn" falls far short of such congre- 
gational songs as Father Faber's "0 
God, Who AVert My Childhood's Love," 
far short of the liturgical "Lauda 
Sion, " — far short in fact of all that one 
could justly style good poetry. 

If these strictures are unfair, it 
must be because we could not fathom 
the genius of the poem. In this latter 
case we would say : so much the worse 
for a "popular" hymn! How this 
hymn could receive the official approba- 
tion of a board of judges, among whom 
there is at least one recognized con- 
noisseur in matters literary, is a mys- 
tery. 

To us the hymn seems mediocre and 
unworthy of the occasion for which it 
is intended. Is it possible that among 
the thirty millions of English-speaking 
Catholics not one real poet could be 
found to rise to the exigency of this 
sublime festival? AVhere are our 
Fal)prs and Ryans? Is there not a 
single Cordula Peregrina among our 
pious Sisters who kneel before the 
Eucharistic God in loving contempla- 
tion day by day? "The Nation's Con- 
secration" lacks both the naive beauty 
of a popular religious song and the 
consummate art of refined poetry. It 
ought to be recast or else replaced by a 
hymn wholly worthy of the great Cath- 
olic demonstration to which thousands 
are looking forward with such eager 
expectancy. 



1926 THE FORTNIGHTLY EEYIEW 119 

The Catholic Foundation at the State University of lUinois 

A Rejoinder by the Rev. John McGuire, S. J. 



The Rev. John A. 'Brieu, Ph. D., in 
an attack on m^^ article which appear- 
ed in the second January number of 
the F. R., says (F. R., Feb. 15) that 
an article of mine against the Founda- 
tion was submitted for publication to 
the Columbia and was turned down. 
I never submitted directly or indirectly 
for publication an article of any kind 
to the Columbia, or to the Columbian 
in Chicago, as the editors of these 
papers can testify. Father O'Brien 
says in this connection that the Knights 
of Illinois are "passionately devoted" 
to the Foundation. Keep in mind that 
the article he is criticizing did not ap- 
pear until the middle of last January, 
and that he must have written his 
comments on it since that time. Now, 
at a meeting of the State officials of 
the K. of C, held in Chicago, Jan. 9th 
of this year, at which Father O'Brien 
v,as present, it was decided that the 
drive for the Foundation for $200,- 
000 should be held in abeyance, nor 
would it be continued until the Chap- 
lain had complied with certain concli- 
tions which he has not fulfilled. How 
could he say at the date of his writing 
(Feb. 15) with any show of truth that 
the K. of C. of Illinois are "passionate- 
ly devoted" to the Foundation? 

The claims of this new system of 
Catholic, education are shrinking to the 
modest measure of a supplement. The 
Foundation is to the State University, 
we are now told, what the Catholic 
Instruction League is to the public 
school. But the C. I. L. does not pre- 
tend to impart complete Catholic edu- 
cation, it does not encourage Catholic 
children to attend public schools, it 
uses its best endeavors to induce them 
to go to their own schools. 

The admirable qualities of the League 
are not found in the Foundation, rather 
it stresses their contraries. I am 
charged with misrepresenting the little 
quasi Foundation at Columbia, Mo., by 
asserting that about half the rooms 
prepared there by Catholic charity 



were vacant. The statement was true, 
as a letter quoted by my critic admits. 
The same letter sa^^s that a change 
for the better took place at Columbia 
later on, but this does not gainsay the 
fact in question. This new method of 
youthful training, propose'd by the 
Foundation, seems to have a logic of its 
own, as well as a special brand of 
Catholicity. The main issue of the 
article criticized was not whether 
Catholic students do now, or will in 
future, appreciate and utilize material 
advantages offered by the Foundation ; 
our contention was and still is with 
the Foundation itself, as a substitute 
for sound Catholic education. This 
novel scheme is, we stoutly maintain, 
un-Catholic and unphilosophic ; it can 
never amount to more than a mere 
makeshift for the training a Catholic 
student needs and the Church desires; 
it is exceedingly dangerous to religion 
and morality, and a menace to genuine 
Catholic training". 

The Chaplain resents the charge im- 
puted to him of urging Catholic stu- 
dents to attend the University of Il- 
linois. He challenges us to comb all 
his writings with a fine comb, and 
find one single sentence where he has 
invited or solicited, much less urged or 
lured. Catholic students to Illinois. We 
contend that his whole propaganda is 
an urge and a lure in that direction. 
You may call this urging and luring 
indirect, if you like, but they are not 
the less strong and efficacious. To urge, 
is defined by the Standard Dictionary 
thus : "To press upon attention ; pre- 
sent in an earnest manner. ' ' The same 
authority defines a lure as "anything 
that invites by the prospect of ad- 
vantage or pleasure." "Who kept 
the Catholic papers constaiitly sup- 
plied with information about the 
Catholic students at Illinois? Why 
have we seen photographs of parents 
visiting their children at Illinois ? Why 
were these pictures sent broadcast 
throuo'h the National Catholic Welfare 



120 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Council press agency? Who sent 
broadcast, and for what purpose, 
through the same press agency pic- 
tures of Catholic athletes at Illinois? 
Why state the fact in the Catholic 
Directory that credit is given to certain 
subjects taken by Catholic students of 
Illinois? For what purpose did the 

Chaplain send to Miss Irene D , 

15th St., Milwaukee, a copy of his 
' ' White Harvest, ' ' telling her by letter 
at the same time of a chapel and a 
religious center in prospect for Illinois ? 
This White Harvest, p. 5, says of the 
University of Illinois : ' ' The magni- 
tude of its enrollment, the eminence of 
its faculty, the vision of its leader, 
President Kinley [a man who recent- 
ly sneered at the idea of original sin in 
a public announcement], and its 
wealth of resources all point to its be- 
coming in the next decade or two, one 
of the outstanding universities of the 
world. Towards this great, powerful, 
and effective instrumentality for en- 
larging the intellectual, social, and 
moral life of the people of our Com- 
monwealth, no Catholic citizen can pos- 
sibly be apathetic. It is the great 
pivotal, crucial, strategic center of the 
educational life of the State. 

Let us apply the comb to his ' ' Ghost 
and its Flight." On p. 4 he says: 
"AVhere, I ask, is that scholarly 
leadership which will champion the 
cause of the Church and defend 
her in every crisis that may con- 
front her in the conflict with the 
powers of darkness, to be found, if 
not among her students, trained at the 
outstanding educational center of the 
State?" No notice is here taken of 
Catholic universities, despite the fact 
that we have in the country eighteen 
such institutions of good standing, six 
of which are in the immediate vicinity. 
Instead of an education that is accord- 
ing to the spirit, custom, and rulings 
of the Church, there is offered to the 
Catholic public a new mode of train- 
ing that is contrary to the natural law, 
that wall eat at the vitals of the Church, 
and cover her with weeds of mourning 
for her spiritually dead and dying 
children. 



We will glean a little more from the 
"White Harvest": "The Foundation 
removes the age-old objection that stu- 
dents could study everj'thing under 
the sun at a State university, save 
that which is the most important of all 
-—religion. It is epoch-making in the 
annals of Illinois. It "is so recent that 
not one per cent of the Catholics of 
Illinois are as yet aware of it. It is a 
magnificent adjustment to changed con- 
ditions. It means practically the es- 
fablishment of a Catholic college at the 
doors of the University — a college 
teaching the subjects in which the 
Church is most interested" (p. 9). 

What are the words just quoted but 
an urge and a lure ? Certain it is that 
the Chaplain urges to a university, and 
certain, also, that it is not a Catholic 
university, for he says not a word about 
such an institution. Is there any doubt 
that the urge is towards Illinois? An- 
other glance at the ' ' White Harvest ' ' : 
"More Catholic students have been 
placed in Catholic homes this year 
than ever before. By these means they 
are developed in a Catholic atmosphere, 
with its consequent safeguards and pro- 
tecting influence. The continuity of 
Catholic home-life is not therefore 
broken by their attendance at the Uni- 
versity" (p. 11). 

Xote well how these quotations stress 
the superior merits of Illinois, — a 
Catholic college at its doors, real Cath- 
olic home-life in its surroundings, and 
not a word in passing about Cath- 
olic seats of learning. Good Catholic 
parents may still hesitate about send- 
ing their girls to a State university, 
the,y think them safer under the watch- 
ful and motherly care of nuns. Parents, 
listen a moment, and you will change 
your mind about placing your daugh- 
ters in a Catholic institution. "An 
annual reception is tendered to the 
Catholic students ; each Catholic stu- 
dent girl is adopted by a lady of the 
League — 'adopted' in the sense that 
the Catholic woman t^kes a real, per- 
sonal interest in the student girl from 
the time of her arrival at the University 
in the fall, until she leaves for home in 
June. The Catholic Avoman invites the 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



121 



student to her home on suitable occa- 
sions, inquires about her progress in 
her studies and helps to tie her up 
more intimately with the Catholic life 
of the community. In short, she favors 
the student girl with that practical in- 
terest and intimate attention which on- 
ly a mother can bestow upon a girl" 

(p. 13). 

These several quotations do not lose 
their meaning out of their context or 
setting. They have an objective value 
which they lose only when words lose 
their meaning. 

The leading features of these excerpts 
from Father O'Brien's writings in sup- 
port of the Foundation are that they 
give fulsome praise to the University 
of Illinois ; that they promise students 
safety regarding their faith and mor- 
als ; that they say nothing about Cath- 
olic universities and the duty of Cath- 
olic students to attend them. They 
seem to remove every reasonable ob- 
'jection a Catholic student could have 
against taking a course at Illinois. 
These writings the Chaplain has circu- 
lated among the Catholic public, and 
he has sent them to private individuals 
and prospective students. There is no 
essential difference between communi- 
cating to others by private letters our 
views and sentiments, and sending them 
these same views and sentiments in 
pamphlets which we have written and 
which we still approve. We leave it 
to the reader to decide for himself 
whether or not Father O'Brien is urg- 
ing and luring Catholic students to the 
State University of Illinois. 

A clear distinction should be drawn 
between the chaplainc}^ and the Foun- 
dation. When this line of cleavage is 
left in shadow, small wonder that these 
two separate entities are regarded as 
a complete whole, and the approval of 
the one taken for a sanction of the 
other. When Catholic students have 
their own efficient schools, they should 
not be, except for grave reasons, in 
secular halls of learning. Despite this, 
many Catholics attend secular schools. 
The Church, though grieved at the fol- 
ly of this portion of her flock, does not 
neglect them. She orders pastors of 



souls to do what they can to save the 
faith and morals of these youths. For 
this purpose chaplains are appointed 
to look after the spiritual needs of 
Catholic students at secular universi- 
ties. This is the import of an extract 
from a letter of Pope Pius X, printed 
ou the cover of one of the Chaplain's 
booklets. That extract does not in any 
way sanction or recognize the Founda- 
tion. The chaplaincy at such institu- 
tions is a work of zeal and charity, 
and recommends itself to all. Not so 
the Foundation. It cannot be a substi- 
tute for complete Catholic education 
(and we may not run any risk, for 
salvation is here in question) ; — it is 
unable to counteract, to any consider- 
able extent, the moral contagion of a 
secular university, since it is powerless 
to curb the academic license of its pro- 
fessors : it promises what it cannot give, 
and all this will be evident to the stu- 
dent when it is too late. The chaplain- 
cy at Illinois is one thing, the Founda- 
tion quite another ; the former is 
praiseworthy, the latter merits its own 
condemnation. My critic craves only 
justice. Be it so. To hold the scales 
evenly I have, for the most part, proved 
my assertions by quoting Fr. O'Brien's 
own written words. If these do him 
an injustice, let him recall them. As a 
matter of fact, without admitting it, he 
has recalled them in his latest article. 

Prior to this, in all his printed ad- 
dresses and pronouncements during the 
past six years, he has consistently ad- 
vocated the foundation at a State uni- 
versity as a siihstitute for a Catholic 
university. 

In his plan, the State university plus 
a Catholic foundation would supplant 
the Catholic university. In fact, if this 
arrangement is made, to use his own 
words, "the Church will have gained, 
not lost." 

Now, the foundation is not to sup- 
plant the system of Catholic higher 
education, but to supplement it. Why 
should those who presented the Cath- 
olic Foundation in its true light, and 
brought about this change of front, be 
accused of "grossly misrepresenting" 
Dr. O'Brien? In the Feb. 15th article 



122 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



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in the F. R. he abandons the sinking 
fonndation and goes back to the chap- 
laincy, which no one ever called in 
qnestion. Let Fr. O'Brien suit his ac- 
tion to the words of his latest pro- 
nouncement and abandon the un-Cath- 
olic foundation project. 



Tanit — the Semitic Venus. The open 
space in front of the facade of the 
temple was dotted with nearly three 
hundred votive altars, and below and 



Notes aed Gleanings 



Two priests of the Diocese of Cleve- 
land were prize-winners in a recent 
circulation campaign conducted by the 
Plain Dealer. The Rev. Oldrich Zlamal 
of Cleveland was awarded one of three 
homes with a value of $12,500 each and 
the Rev. Patrick A. Logan of Lorain 
was given an automobile. The energy 
displayed by Catholics to increase the 
circulation of the secular press is de- 
plorable, especially in view of the char- 
acter of the average daily new^spaper 
and the meagre support given the 
Catholic press.— T/ie Echo, XII, 4. 



^TOR A BETTER 
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Address: 

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Rev. M. Helfen, Brooten, Minn. 



Recent discoveries on the site of an- 
cient Carthage have given further 
proof of the horrors of Semitic pagan- 
ism. Thus, for instance, at a recent 
meeting of the Academy of Science and 
Literature in Paris, the Abbe Chabot 
read a report on the excavations car- 
ried out on the site of the temple of 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



123 



around them were found many small 
urns, filled with the calcined bones of 
young children offered in sacrifice to 
Tanit. Livy tells how, at the siege of 
Carthage in the last Punic war, the de- 
fenders offered in sacrifice to the gods 
the children of all the leading citizens. 
This was long regarded as a "war 
atrocity" story of Roman origin. The 
latest discoveries show it was a hor- 
rible reality. 

The English Catholic Directory for 
1926 has a map showing the divisions 
of the Catholic dioceses and missions. 
The Tablet, commenting on the re- 
drawn and improved map, says : 
"There will be satisfaction, in the first 
place, that by restoring the map, the 
editor and publishers will have en- 
hanced the usefulness of the Directory 
for reference purposes ; and there will be 
the further satisfaction of noting how 
the outposts of faith are slowly but 
surely extending in man}* parts of the 
land. No longer a mere handful of the 
general population, the Catholics of 
England and Wales give a considerable 
account of themselves, in established 
centres, from such a bird's-ej^e survey 
as this map presents; but the survey 
will show the eye also that there are 
still several great areas of the country- 
side with only sparse religious provi- 
sion, and in this way it may prove a 
stimulus towards greater efforts in the 
generosity which has its fruit in 
Church extension." Let us hope that 
the publishers of our American Cath- 
olic Directory will follow the example 
of their British colleagues and restore 
the former valuable feature of an ec- 
clesiastical map of the U. S. 

The Month (No. 736), commenting 
on the Universal Christian Conference 
on Life and AVork recently held at 
Stockholm, in which many different 
"churches" (nearly all but the true 
one!) were represented, says: "Every- 
thing that tends to promote a common 
social conscience in mankind is to the 
good, and the world needs reminding 
that Christianity means conduct as well 
as belief. The earlier Protestants laid 
stress on the latter to the detriment 



of the former : their various descend- 
ants have reversed the emphasis, but 
Avithout a fixed framework of dogma 
morality must needs be feeble and fluc- 
tuating. These united Protestants, al- 
tlioug'h aided by numerous representa- 
tives of the Orthodox Churches, always 
ready to combine except wdth Catholics, 
could not agree even on so elementary 
a point of ethics as birth control. So 
the Stockholm Conference had to be 
content with the good which comes from 
any breakdown of insularity with its 
accompaniment of ignorance and mis- 
trust : nothing more solid . . . was at- 
tempted. 



It is often urged against large fam- 
ilies that many of the children die in 
infancy and hence are no gain to any- 
body, but merely a source of grief and 
a loss. But there is a higher aspect, 
of which Frederick Ozanam was aware 
when he wrote : ' ' On how many occa- 
sions have I not seen m}^ parents in 
tears ; when Heaven had left them but 
three children out of fourteen! But 
how often, too, have not those three 
survivors, in adversity and in trial, 
counted on the assistance of those 
brothers and sisters whom they had 
among the angels! Such are indeed 
also of the family, and are brought back 
to our minds in acts of unexpected as- 
sistance. Happy is the home that can 
count one half its members in Heaven, 
to help the rest along the narrow way 
which leads there ! ' ' (Baunard, ' ' Oza- 
nam in His Correspondence," p. 4) 

A new Catholic quarterly has made 
its appearance, in Boston, — the Apol- 
loviau, published by the Guild of St. 
Apollonia. The Apollonian has for 
its puii)ose to chronicle the activities 
of this well known association of 
Catholic dentists and to publish the 
papers read at its meetings. 

In a recently published book, ' ' In the 
Days of My Father, General Grant" 
(Harper), Jesse R. Grant gives some 
interesting reminiscences. It is re- 
markable that of all the great men 
v.hom Gen. Grant met in Europe on 
his trip around the world, Pope Leo 



124 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



XIII appears to have made the deepest 
impression on him. His son says in 
one place that "Pope Leo XIII, Sun 
Yat-sen, and father were the three 
great men" in his life. 



The members of the Society of Jesus 
often pray for "the conversion of the 
Northern nations/' and it is grateful to 
record that an association for that 
purpose exists in New York, known as 
St. Ansgar's Scandinavian Catholic 
League. It publishes a "Bulletin" 
which is now a yearly publication, re- 
cording the activities of the League 
during the year. The League also 
sends Catholic literature in the Scan- 
dinavian languages free of charge. The 
existence of this League is a sign of 
healthy progress in Catholic convert 
activity-. 



A dictionary is a good aid to spell- 
ing, if one knows enough about the 
word to find it. Two men got to ar- 
guing about the word economical, which 
they pronounced equenomical, so they 
started to look it up. At last one of 
them threw down the book in disgust 
and eased his mind by saying : "I 
always had great respect for Daniel 
Webster and wanted to see him presi- 
dent of these United States, but if he 
writ a big book like that and left out 
a common word like equenomical, I 
got no use for him." "Daniel didn't 
write the book," broke in the other. 
"It was Noah." "Not on your life," 
yelled the tirst, "I know what I'm 
talking about. Noah built the ark. ' ' 



Correspondence 



Bible Reading in the Public Schools of 
Nebraska 

To the Editor:— 

Mr. BeDedict Elder in his article, "The 
Bible in Public Schools, ' ' published in the 
F. E., Vol. 32, No. 6, page 120 (March 15, 
1925) makes a statement in regard to the 
legal status of Bible reading in the public 
schools of the State of Nebraska which is in- 
correct and misleading. He says : "In this 
case the Court said : ' We do not think it 
wise or necessary to prolong a discussion of 
what appears to us an almost self-evident 
fact, that exercises such as are complained 
of by the relator in this case (reading of selec- 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



125 



tions and extracts from the King James 
Bible) both constitute religious worship and 
are sectarian in their character within the 
meaning of the constitution. ' ' ' The ' ' Court ' ' 
here referred to was the Commissioner's 
opinion, concurred in by Justices Sedgwict 
and Holcomb, and filed Oct. 9, 1902. This 
opinion constitutes a reversal of the case 
of Freeman vs. Scheve et al., of school dis- 
trict No. 21, Gage Co., Nebraska, tried be- 
fore District Judge J. Letton of that county. 
This opinion of the Commissioners was in 
turn overruled on motion of rehearing in an 
opinion handed down Jan. 3d, 1903, by 
Supreme Justice C. J. Sullivan, which permits 
the reading of the Bible, as a textbook of 
non-sectarian, secular instruction only in 
the public schools of the State of Nebraska 
and is at present the law in this matter. Mr. 
Elder continues (quoting here correctly the 
decision handed down by Justice C. J. Sulli- 
van) : "The Court also noted a pregnant 
truth which in all of tlie decisions to the con- 
trary seems not to have been considered, name- 
ly,' that sectarian instruction might occur from 
frecjuent reading, even without note or com- 
ment, of ' ' judiciously ' ' selected passages. ' 
This is only a practical recognition of the 
force of frequent repetition, particularly as 
affecting the mind of youth. ' ' 

Mr. Elder here cites Judge Sullivan 's deei- 
son with approval; it deserves neither. On 
the contrary, it deserves the cJiaracterization 
of inconsistency. The Honorable Mr. 
C. J. Sullivan may be an eiuinent 
jurist, but he is a poor philosopher. Accord- 
ing to this decision, the Bible is placed in 
the school-rooms of the State of Nebraska 
as a text book of literature, history or 
science. Why, then, the discrimination 
against certain passages of this supposedly 
secular book of instruction? Why this re- 
striction placed upon teachers against what 
they deem striking passages? Why this pro- 
scription of lawful exercise of the teaching 
profession? Is the Judge prepared to proceed 
in like manner against Horace, Hamlet, etc.? 
It is regrettable that the Hon. Justice deemed 
it not expedient to append a syllabus of 
' ' judiciously selected passages ' ' to his de- 
cision. However, according to the principles 
of sound pedagogy, the exact opposite to 
the above ruling is to be observed in the 
class-room. The most telling passages of 
any book of secular knowledge are to be 
seleerted by competent teachers, repeated, 
memorized, and recited by the pupils. We 
recognize with the judge the well known 
fact that frequent repetition of certain Bible 
texts will, pedagogically and psychologically 
speaking, create emphasis and impression on 
youthful minds; — yet they are legally only 
selections of secular instruction and as such 
certainly not recognizable by judicial inhibi- 
tion. The Hon. C. J. Sullivan stultifies his 
logic and nullifies his decision. He begins as 
judge and reverses himself as schoolmaster. 



Furthermore this peculiar line of reasoning 
on the part of the Justice leads to absurd in- 
ferences. According to his decision, fre- 
quent reading of "judiciously" selected pas- 
sages or Bible texts renders them ipso facto 
sectarian. What would be secular instruc- 
tion at first reading, becomes sectarian by 
repetition. A strange metamorphosis indeed! 
Yet the Supreme Justice of the State of Ne- 
braska, in the introductory remarks to his de- 
cision is at pains to tell us that "they [the 
questions discussed] have received our most 
serious consideration"; and again: "We 
have again with great care gone over the 
arguments of counsel and have again critical- 
ly examined all of the adjudged cases bear- 
ing directly or indirectly upon the points in 
controversy. ' ' 

One prefers not to question the motives be- 
hind the decision of the Hon. C. J. Sullivan, 
but the fact is that, on the strength of it, 
the W. C. T. TJ. and kindred agencies of so- 
called moral uplift are introducing Bible 
reading under the compulsory attendance law 
into the schools of Nebraska, seemingly with- 
out much opposition; and who will maintain 
that these organizations and clubs are merely 
literary societies and that they force the 
reading of the Ten Commandments, of the 
Sermon on the Mount, etc., upon Catholic 
children just for the sake of the King's 
English ? 

That this distinction without a difference 
ti) children of immature years is coming into 
vogue is shown in a late case from the State 
of Colorado, where the presiding judge claim- 
ed originality for his decision and all the 
glory that goes with it. 
SheH)v, Nebr. Fr. A. Wagner 



The Case Against Evolution Dr. Richarz 

Replies to Dr. O'Toole 

To the Editor: — 

The impression made on me by Father 
O 'Toole's "defense" (F. R., XXXIII, 5, 
pp. 99-107) can best be expressed in the 
following quotation : 

''Polonius: What do you read, my Lord? 

Hamlet : Words, words, words. ' ' 
And these "words," although seasoned with a 
good deal of acrimoniousness, have not in 
the least impaired mv argument (F. E., 
XXXII, 23 and 24, XXXIII, 1), nor have 
they succeeded in proving a single error or 
mistake in my criticism. 

1) A digression in psychology. Father 
O 'Toole accuses me of "a hopelessly biased 
attitude, ' ' of the attitude of ' ' expectant 
attention, ' ' and of ' ' contempt. " " Hence 
it is not surprising that he succeeded in 
finding more evidences of stupidity in my 
book than were actually there." Now, the 
accusation of a biased attitude on my part 
is first a vicious circle: it supposes that, in 
finding fault with O 'Toole 's assertions I am 
in the wrong, which ought to be proven. 
Secondly, it is a dangerous weapon whieh. 



126 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



like a boomerang-, may fall back on liim -wlio 
hurls it. I need not rely on my own juilg- 
ment in this matter. Father 6 'Toole him- 
self calls attention to a critic in the Month. 
Avho, he says, did him ' ' more justice ' ' 
than I. This critic, James Broderick, writes 
(December issue, 1925, of the Month) : "The 
vice against -which a Catholic seems most 
called upon to protest in that book [he is 
speaking of McCann's 'God or Gorilla'], 
as also in some measure in Dr. Barry 
O 'Toole's sober and scholarly Avork, 'The 
Case against Evolution,' is a certain trick 
of giving the part of a quotation Avhieh suits 
the writer's purpose, and leaving out the 
rest. These anacoloutha are misleading, to 
say the least of them, and the men from 
Avliose books they are borrowed might even 
say that they are dishonest" (p. 492). Ex- 
amples are given on p. 494: " Bateson and 
]Morgan are quoted very often, and the readers 
ought to be told that in spite of the trench- 
ant things they say about Darwinism, they 
are both convinced evolutionists." Such ex- 
ceptions are all the more valuable, since 
Broderick is not sparing in his compliments 
for ' ' The Case against Evolution. ' ' 

2) Wrong quoiaiions. Father 'Toole 
writes : ' ' Take for example his complaint that 
on p. 289 and 290 I have given the minimum 
figures for the age of man." I never made 
such a complaint. I only called attention 
to wrong cjuotations. The figures ascribed 
to Obermaier were about 1/3 of the estimate 
of this authority, whereas O 'Toole multiplied 
l.iy three the figures given by de Geer, thus 
even increasing the age of man considerably. 
In the case of the Niagara Gorge, I objected 
to quoting the lowest figures. This is 
unscientific, not because the figures are 
low, but because they are unreliable. Xuw. 
if Father 'Toole would be as logical as 
lie requires of nie, he should at le.'!st 
have attempted to disprove my ex- 
ceptions. Being unable to do that — my in- 
formation was taken from the original pub- 
lications — he drags the question onto another 
track. And even Avorse are his insinuations 
-which are without any foundation: "Father 
Eicharz strives to convey the impression that 
this minimizing proves me to be * unscientific ' 
and reactionary, an enemy, in short, and not 
a friend, of science. . . . Father Eicharz 
then, assuming, that he did not unfairly fail 
to read what he criticized, lias done small 
credit to his own ability as a logician Ijy his 
total misconception and misrepresentation 
of my position" (p. lOi)). If one compares 
the above invective Avith Avhat I Avrote on 
page 9 and 10, F. R. of January first, one 
must conclude that Father O 'Toole himself 
"unfairly failed to read Avhat he criticized." 
Some readers may remember that, a year ago, 
in the Linser Qiiartnlschrift. I assumed even 
a loAver minimum age for mankind than 
Father O 'Toole, and nobody called me a re- 



JUST PUBLISHED 

That Fool Moffett 

By 
E. C. SCOTT 

Cloth, 8vo.; 360 pages; Art Jacket 
nat $2.00 

The characterization Avas his OAvn. 
Young- Vincent Moffett. just finishing- his 
medical course, Avas planning to take 
his place in the big house in the home 
town that for three generations had 
sheltered a Doctor Moffett — and to bring 
a bride thereto. The bride-to-be Avas 
lovely Rosemary Gilmore, his friend 
since childhood. Usually a most likable 
chap, but impetuous and hotheaded. Avhen 
in a mad moment he lost his head and 
flung aAvay his happiness — "What a fool 
— Avhat a fool I" he groaned in his loneli- 
ness. 

Even though he Avas a fool, the author 
evidently thinks a lot of Moffett— the 
outstanding- character in a group every 
MUe of Avhom the reader Avill folloAV Avitii 
keenest interest. There is Doctor Mof- 
fett, the someAvhat stern father, Avho 
is looking forward to the day Avhen his 
Ijoy Avho, in accordance Avith his dead 
mother's Avish has been attending the 
parish school, Avill go from the care of 
■'those Avomen," (the nuns) — '"Oh, good 
Avomen! None better, according to their 
lights" — to the college that had been 
his oAvn Alma Mater. Father Hull. Vin- 
cent's pastor, persuades the doctor 
to send the boy to Notre Dame prep., 
with his chum, Dan Gilmore. Then comes 
the doctor's sudden death, and the dis- 
covery of his AA'ill, directing- that Vincent 
be sent to a university noted for its 
"liberal" tendencies — a circumstance that 
changes the course of the boy's life. 

Space permits only the briefest mention 
of Essie, the pretty but captious little 
wife who, disinayed. says to herself after 
one of the quarrels she has precipitated: 
"AVhy, we are -^getting to be like the 
dreadful people AA'ho take their troubles 
to the police court!" Of her father, Jas- 
per Delavan, the klan "lecturer." Of 
Sara King, a splendid Avoman. Avho tries 
to steer Vince's matrimonial bark clear 
of the rocks. Of tl-ie other Gilmores — 
Dan. Avho becomes a ]iriest, and dear 
little Pate (Patience) Avho has "Avon home 
so easily and so soon!" Of the one to 
Avhom Vince's heart cries out in futile 
longing: "RosemarA- — Rosemary!" 

The story is told delightfully. What 
Avas said of a preA'ious book of ]\Irs. 
Scott's: "It is illuminated by artistrA', 
originalitj' and kinship A\-ith life" — is 
equally true of this one. The lesson it 
conA'eys conflicts sharplj- with the lament- 
able modern tendencA" to make life a 
round of i-)leasure, regardless of conse- 
quences. The spirit of self-sacrifice conies 
to rule, bringing Avith it happiness and 
peace. 



B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broad-way, St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BE VIEW 



127 



aetionary or an enemy of science on that 
account. 

3) Otertlirusts. "Father Richarz is no- 
where happier in his logic. He begins his 
discussion of overthrusts by an irrelevant 
introduction on ' overturned folds. ' ' ' Again 
a false imputation. My discussion "was not 
about * ' overturned folds, ' ' but about; gen- 
uine overthrusts illustrated by examples the 
world over; and this discussion is by no 
means ' ' irrelevant, ' ' but fundamental for 
the refutation of Price and his "parrots" 
(to apply a rather uncomplimentary epithet 
of O 'Toole's). I showed that the x^resence 
of fault planes and their dynamical 
origin by overthrusts can be conclusively 
demonstrated from stratigraphic evidence 
alone and that evidence is so convincing that 
one cannot but be enraged when Price at- 
tempts to overthrow a doctrine so solidly 
established. 

Father O 'Toole Avrites: "What the im- 
partial observer wants to know is ... . 
whether the mere fact of an evident dis- 
conformity is a sufficient demonstration of 
an overthrust. " Certainly, disconformity 
may occur without an overthrust and con- 
formity is no proof against an overthrust. 
The latter must be derived from strati- 
grai^hy, i. e., from the sequence of the strata 
of the entire area, as I set forth in the first 
part of my article. At the Boav River Gap, 
Alberta, limestones are on top, shales un- 
derneath. Now, it is an established fact 
tliat Avherever undisturbed ]3rofile sections can 
lie studied in the surroundings of this Gap 
the identical limestones are found nearly at 
the bottom of the sedimentary series developed 
in this part of the Eockies, whereas the 
shales are, in undisturbed profiles, on top, 
separated from the former by other forma- 
tions which may reach a thickness of three 
miles and more. (See Geological Map of the 
Cascade Coal Basin, Alberta ; Canada Geologi- 
cal Survey, 1907). Thus it is evident that the 
limestones are considerably older than the 
shales, even though neither of these forma- 
tions would contain any fossils, although, at 
the Bow Eiver Gap, the former are on top, the 
latter underneath. That is the essential point 
which is constantly ignored or obscured by 
Price and his followers, by drawing atten- 
tion to the apparent conformity, which, how- 
ever, has no bearing on the problem in ques- 
tion. 

It is, therefore, not "a hopelessly biased 
attitude, ' ' no fixed preconception which in- 
spired the conviction of the reality of an over- 
thrust to account for the inverse order of the 
formations at this place, as in the adjoining 
parts of the Eockies; it is a scientific per- 
suasion, based on logical conclusions from 
undeniable facts. And this "faith is en- 
tirely undisturbed by the apparent conform- 
ity observed along the 'thrust plane' in the 
Bow Eiver Gap, ' ' because this ' ' faith ' ' is 
built on other considerations and observations 



which stand firm in spite of the conformity. 
On the other hand, it is a blunder against 
logic and scientific method to take a single 
observation of seeming or real conformity, 
apart from all other well established facts, 
and to erect on it a doctrine never heard of, 
the humbug of the ' ' wrong sequence ' ' of 
fossils. 

4) Froterosoic organisms. Father O 'Toole 
writes on page 117 of his book: "All the 
great invertebrate types . . . are found in 
rocks of the Proterozoic group. ' ' I ob- 
jected to such a general statement. But 
Father Hornsby, S. J., cites from the Text- 
Book of Schuchert, ed. 1924: "Most of the 
invertelDrate classes of organisms were in 
existence in Proterozoic time." (F. E., Feb- 
ruary 1, p. 57). If Father Hornsby Avould 
have read the entire chapter in Schuchert 
dealing with the organisms in question, and 
not only the quoted conclusion, he would 
have found that this final conclusion is not 
derived from facts, but based on evolutionary 
considerations. As a matter of fact, Schu- 
chert mentions only three classes out of seven 
in the preceding pages. And of these three 
classes two are doubtful, according to other 
geologists, who express misgivings as to the 
organic nature of Protozoa and sponge 
spicules reported from Proterozoic time. I 
followed these geologists, opposing these un- 
certainties to the positive assertion of 
O 'Toole. Whether the geologists are right 
or wrong in doubting the occurrence of the 
said fossils, cannot be decided by quotations 
from textbooks. 

5) Ceratites ai'r Ammonites. Xow follows 
a masterpiece of tergiversation on the part 
of Father Cfoole. I objected, as meaning- 
less, to his remark that the "fossil Ceratites 
have no genetic connection with Ammonites, ' ' 
since Ceratites are Ammonites. In his de- 
fense O 'Toole gives the correct quotation 
from his source (H. Woods, Paleontology, 
5th ed., 1919, p. 16), in which the designa- 
tion Ammonites is replaced by Ceratites. 
Thus the meaning of Woods comes out all 
right: The Ceratite-like forms of the Cre- 
taceous period have no genetic connection 
with the Triassic Ceratites. But instead of 
conceding his error, O 'Toole hurls the mis- 
take at my head and says I confused Ammon- 
ites with Ammonoidea. And the proof of 
my "humiliating blunder"? Father O 'Toole 
goes hunting for a classification of Cephalo- 
pods suiting his purpose in order to set me 
in the wrong. He Avrites : ' ' According to 
Henry Woods the classification is as follows : 
Phylum: Mollusca; Class: Cephalopoda; 
Order: Tetrabranchia; Suborder: Am- 
monoidea ; Genera : Prolecanites, Ceratites, 
Ammonites, etc. ' ' There you are ! I am 
the blunderer! But alas! O 'Toole does not 
say -from which edition of Woods he took 
this classification. In his "Case against 
Evolution" (p. 86) he referred to the fifth 



128 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



WiDMER Engineering Company 



LOUIS PREUSS 

ASSOCIATED 

ARCHITECTS 



LACLEDE GAS BUILDING 
ST. LOUIS - MO. 



edition, 1919. But in this edition the classi- 
fication: Ammonoidea; Genera: Prolecanites, 
Ceratites, Ammonites, etc., is not to be found. 
All genera are summarized under Ammonoidea. 
The same is the case in the third edition^ 
1902. Furthermore, O 'Toole adds: "In his 
latest edition Woods splits up the genus 
Ammonites into smaller generic groups, e. g., 
the Hamites, Baculites, etc. ' ' That is an 
outright untruth. Woods knows no genus 
"Ammonites," but he lias a footnote after 
Ceratites: "This and the following genera . . . 
were formerly regarded as constituting a 
single genus Ammonites" (5th ed., p. 289). 
The same footnote appeared already in the 
third edition, 1902, p. 255. There was no 
reason to go baclc for information to the 
last century since Fr. O 'Toole had the 
edition of 1919 at his disposal. Ammon- 
ites has long since become a popular name 
for the scientific suborder Ammonoidea, al- 
though thirty or forty years ago it was 
used as a generic term comprising all, or 
most of the various genera known to-day. 
When I was a student some thirty years ago, 
"Ammonites nodosus" was one of the fore- 
most forms of the genus now called Ceratites. 
6.) Deceptive conformities. I wrote in 
my article that only in rare cases formations 
separated by a long time interval are seem- 
ingly conformable one above the other. I 
maintain this statement, although ajiparently 



' ' flatly contradicting ' ' Sehuchert. The in- 
terior basin of America, of which Sehuchert 
speaks, is not the world. And compared with 
other parts of America and with the whole 
world, the conditions observed in the interior 
of America are rare exceptions. Moreover, 
these conformities are explained satisfaetorily 
by Sehuchert by pointing to the exceptional 
conditions of the periodical sea invasions in- 
to the interior (this explanation Avas not given 
by O 'Toole). Furthermore, besides conformi- 
ties there are sufficient instances of discon- 
formities, also in the interior, and these dem- 
onstrate an interruption of sedimentation. 
The rule is that all facts must be taken into 
account and comjiared with observations from 
all over the world. To take some geological 
observations separately, disregarding the sur- 
roundings and the general principles derived 
from the study of the entire earth, is as 
bad as to take quotations out of their con- 
text. It may also be of interest that Sehu- 
chert, in the latest edition of his Text-Book 
(1924), omits the most puzzling instance, that 
of the Bear Grass quarries at Louisville, Ky., 
cited by O 'Toole on p. 106. 

7.) Huxley's opposition. It is small 
wonder that Huxley objected to the view 
of the geologists of his day that strata with 
similar fossils, found in far distant coun- 
tries, were synchronous. Such an opinion 
was obviously a speculation which could not 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



129 



be verified at that time. Hence I said, 
Huxley objected as a philosopher. But his 
view is without value to-day when so many 
scientific proofs to the contrary are available. 
S.) Science from an encyclo'pedia. To sup- 
port Price 's idiotic assertion that all those 
animals which according to the paleontologic 
system were living successively on earth, could 
have been contemporaneous, Father O 'Toole 
resorts to an encyclopedia, — a most reliable 
source of scientific information! By chance, 
the data he gives from the Encycl. Am. are 
as misleading as. possible. Nautilus, accord- 
ing to A. Willey's observations (Contribu- 
tions to the History of the Pearly Nautilus, 
Zoological Results, pt. VI, 1902), lives in 
shallow water within the 100 fathom-line, 
often in less than 300 feet, and has even been 
found at a depth of 15 feet. The statement: 
' ' Trilobites appear to have lived on muddy 
grounds" is an unjustified generalisation. 
There were Trilobites e\erywhere in the ocean 
(see the standard work, Grundziige der 
Palaontologie by Zittel, or its translation by 
Eastman, and Carl Diener, Biostratigraphie, 
Leipzig and Vienna', 1925). Thus the Trilo- 
bites would certainly have mixed with 
Nautilus and Ammonites, if they had lived 
together in the oceans for such a long time 
as Price supposes. 

9.) The vital 'principle. Fr. O 'Toole as- 
serts : ' ' Without any assignable reason, cer- 
tain forms have been exempt from what is 
alleged to be a universal process of nature, 
i. e., evolution. ' ' If there is no reason as- 
signable, it does not follow that no reason 
exists. Our ignorance in this matter is but 
another illustration how far we still are from 
understanding the universe. Furthermore, 
Father O 'Toole invites me to accept, upon his 
authority, the impossibility that something 
like the vital principle of the Scholastics could 
serve as a principle of evolution, on the 
ground that this vital principle belongs to 
the ^'causae formales," whereas' evolution 
calls for an active principle, a ' * causa 
efficiens. ' ' In spite of his authority, I am 
still inclined to believe that something like 
the vital principle might be able to play a 
part in evolution. For I do not see any 
contradiction in holding that a vital principle 
should have two functions, namely, to be 
static, a principle of being, a causa formalis, 
and to be dynamic, a principle of action, a 
causa efficiens. Or is the vital principle 
of the Scholastics, e. g., the soul, only static 
and not also dynamic? And does it not 
develop the individual from the first em- 
bryonic beginnings? And is it not remark- 
able that nowadays scientists who are in 
no way Scholastics are forced to acknowledge, 
or at least to suspect, such a force existing 
beyond the reach of their scalpel? 

10.) Conclusion. Father O 'Toole com- 
plains that I ' ' entirely misunderstood his 
position, ' ' i. e., his attitude towards evolu- 



tion. I understood it very well and I cer- 
tainly would have emphasized this position, 
had it been my intention to write a formal 
review of his book. But as a geologist I 
was concerned only with his treatment of 
geological problems. Now, whatever the at- 
titude of Father O 'Toole may be theoretical- 
ly, de facto he deliberately attacks the very 
foundations of this theory in his chapter on 
"Fossil Pedigrees," as an outright anti- 
evolutionist would do it. It was my intention 
to uncover the fallacies in his argumentation, 
which must have escaped him, before they 
could do great harm in our own circles and 
among our enemies. It was my intention to 
show to judicious and unbiased men that 
evolution, as far as geology and paleontology 
are concerned, stands on solid ground, and 
that Price and O 'Toole are fighting against 
rocks, or rather against windmills. 

Father 'Toole should not be surprised 
that I coupled his name with that of Price. 
It is his own fault. I never took Father 
O 'Toole for a Fundameutalist, but the effect 
of the incriminated part of his book, I am 
very much afraid, will be precisely what James 
Broderick warned against Avhen speaking of 
Father Simon Fitz-Sinions: "It is a pity 
that injudicious Catholics should cause it 
to be thought by the world at large, that 
the Church is committed to the Fundamental- 
ist style of exegesis." {Month, 1925, p. 494). 
It was my outspoken intention to prevent 
these dangers as much as possible and to 
warn our friends against the other danger 
of following a charlatan like Price and 
attempting with his foolish "arguments" to 
defend our faith in questions which are 
purely scientific. Father O'Too'le would 
2iever commit such a folly, I am sure, but 
others are prone to succumb to the tempta- 
tion; exempla docent! Father 'Toole him- 
self admits that "Price has intruded a de- 
plorable amount of foolish Fundamentalism 
into what ought to be an exclusively scientific 
work" and that "he has been guilty of 
certain exaggerations and inaccuracies due 
to an excessive bias against the theory of 
evolution." In spite of these admissions 
Father O 'Toole maintains that "pruned of 
these imperfections, it seems to me that they 
stand, and that they cannot be invalidated 
by the methods which Father Eicharz has 
seen fit to employ ; " " Father Eicharz has 
not succeeded in meeting a single one of these 
arguments," and "I think that [Price's] 
basic arguments have not been damaged by 
Father Eicharz. ' ' However, it is not a 
question of what Fr. O 'Toole "thinks", or 
what ' ' seems ' ' to him to be true or probable. 
What the impartial reader wants to know, 
is the A^erdict of experts. In my article I 
attempted to voice this verdict objectively. 
As a matter of fact, the entire phalanx of 
geologists stands against the "basic argu- 
ments" of Price, and it would be absurd 
to accuse them, one and all, on the authority 



130 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEYIEW 



March 15 



of Price, of prejudice or lack of soimd judg- 
ment. And a great number of these geologists 
would emphatically protest against the epithet 
"infidels." Such a consensus communis is, of 
course, no dogma, but a prudent man Avill 
hesitate to oppose it unless he has at liis 
disposal a first-hand and thorough knowledge 
of all the facts involved and of the special 
literature of the subject. 

Stephen Bicharz, S. Y. D., Ph. D. 
Teehny. III. 

(This controversy uiay now cease. — Editor.) 



A Problem in Connection with Holy Orders 

To the I']ditor: — 

Apropos of Father Rothensteiner 's interest* 
ing article on "A Problem in Connection with 
Holv Orders" ( F. R., XXXIII, 1, p. IG), 
it has occurred to me that the Abbot of St. 
Osith may really have l)een a consecrated 
bisho]). How so? It is well known that the 
Sax<in.s who immigrated to England were 
converted to the Catholic faith through St. 
Austin, O. S. B., and his companions, who 
established abbeys at Canterbury, Rochester, 
and other places. The abbots were the first 
Idshops and the abbey churches the first 
cathedrals. LiturgicaUy the abbatial bene- 
diction icas at the same time nn episcopal 
eonsecratinn, and vice versa. Later, how- 
ever, the dioceses became independent of the 
Benedictine Order and many an aljljot Avas 
rio longer officiating bishop and his abbey 
churcli no longer the diocesan cathedral. Biit 
the rite of consecration may have remained 
unchanged, i. e., the new abbot was conse- 
crated in the same manner as before, abbot 
and bishop ho}ioris causa. Rome mav have 
permitted this custom, even as it now per- 
Uiits eminent priests to be consecrated epis- 
copi honorarii. Perhaps this relation existed 
between St. Osith and London. The abbots 
nuiy originally have lieen bishops with 
episcopal jurisdiction; the jurisdiction may 
have been withdrawn and the honorary con- 
secration remained. It is remarkable that 
the Bishop of London protested merely 
against the jurisdiction of the Abbot of St. 
Osith who had conferred Holy Orders on his 
subjects with the permission of the HoJv 
See. He would have had a much stronger 
case had he been able to show that the Abbot 
lacked episcopal consecration. Did he per- 
haps know, and Ronu.', too, that in tlie 
case of the alibots of St. Osith, and possibly 
also in other cases in England, the abbatial 
benediction and episcopal consecration co- 
incided ah uf!U antiquo? Possibly a careful 
study of the liturgy would clear up this point. 
St. Joseph's Hospital (Rev.) W. Hackner 

Dodgeville, Wis. 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



131 



Frequent and Daily Communion 

To the Editor: — 

I do not understand whv your sacerdotal 
correspondent (F. E., XXXIII, 3, p. 54) 
should still continue to take exception to 
my articles appearing in Emmanuel. One would 
be inclined to think that he was opposed to 
the idea of a priest fostering devotion to 
daily communion. Let me state most em- 
phatically that I do recognize the distinction 
between frequent and daily communion. Any 
priest who has had the advantage of a 
course in theology knows the difference be- 
tween "daily" and "frequent" as applied 
to Holy Communion. Certainly one is war- 
ranted in asserting that, under certain re- 
spects, daily communion as compared to fre- 
quent communion is a salutary practice, and 
that frequent communion, prescinding from 
the number of times to be interpreted by 
the term ' ' frequent, ' ' connotes a greater 
idea of necessity. 

'My critic refers me to the theologians. 
Tender the heading, ' ' De Obligatione Sus- 
■cipiendi Eucharistiam, ' ' theologians speak 
of the divine and ecclesiastical precepts about 
the reception of the body and blood of Christ. 
B}^ divine precept we are obliged to receive 
the Holy Viaticum at the hour of death ; 
by ecclesiastical law Holy Communion must 
be received once a year during the paschal 
season. Theologians admit that po' accidens 
there may exist a grave obligation to re- 
ceive communion more frec^uently than once a 
year, in the case, say, of a prolonged temp- 
tation which could not be overcome except 
by Holy Conmiunion. Even here many the- 
ologians do not insist upon the strict obli- 
gation of communion as a remedy necessitate 
■medii, since other means, such as prayer, 
flight from the occasion of sin, mortification, 
may be able to repel the temptation. 

Holy Mother Church is the authorized in- 
terpreter of the teaching and will of her 
Divine Founder. If the Church considered 
communion more than once a year to be of 
strict necessity, she would have taught this 
explicitly; but nowhere in her ordinary law, 
iiot in the decree ' ' Sacra Tridentina Syn- 
odus, " nor in the Code, does she declare that 
communion more than once a year is of 
absolute necessity. 

I still maintain that the object of the 
decree on the Daily Reception of the Holy 
Eucharist is to' foster devotion to frequent 
communion, be this term accepted in its full- 
est possible signification of daily communion 
or in its relative interpretation of as many 
communions as are possible under existing 
circumstances of distance from church, health, 
household or working- duties, time of Mass, 
and so on. Most assuredly, the idea of the 
moral necessity of freciuent communion should 
be impressed upon those who are in greater 
need of the powerful antidote to sin found 



in the very body and blood of Christ. Un- 
doubtedly, we priests should preach the ad- 
vantages that come from more frequent com- 
munions, but to teach that there is an obli- 
gation of necessity recjuiring more than one 
communion a year, is, I maintain, not taught 
either by the Church or by her theologians. 

In conclusion, I do assert that, by reason 
of the instructions contained in the decree 
' * Sacra Tridentina Synodus, ' ' and of the 
rulings of the Code, all priests having care 
of souls are obliged in conscience to do all 
in their power to preach frequent and, Avhere 
possible, daily communion. If my critic is 
so attached to the "necessity" idea as op- 
posed to; "salutary practice" in regard to 
Holy Communion, let him understand that 
he is obliged by necessity of filial obedience 
to Holy Mother Church to do all in his power 
to obtain as many communions as possible 
from his parishioners and penitents. The 
wording of the Decree in canon 6 and the 
Code under canon 863 renders this deduction 
very obvious. The decree states: "But since 
it is plain that, by the frequent or daily 
reception of the Holy Eucharist, union with 
Christ is fostered, the spiritual life more 
abundantly sustained, the soul more richly en- 
dowed with virtues, and an even surer pledge 
of everlasting happiness bestowed on the 
recipient, therefore parish priests, confessors 
and preachers — in accordance with the ap- 
proved teaching of the Eoman Catechism — 
are frequently and with great zeal, to exhort 
the faithful to this devout and salutary 
practice." The Code reads: "The faithful 
should be admonished according to the de- 
crees of the Holy See to receive the Euehar- 
istic bread frequently, and even daily, and 
that those who assist at Holy Mass should 
not only communicate spiritually, but be 
prepared to receive in reality our Lord in 
the holy Eucharist. ' ' 

(Eev.) C. F. Curran 

St. Mary's Catliodral, Halifax, N. S. 



As to the military or unmilitary character 
of the Boy Scouts, it may be of interest to 
know that l^y the Versailles Treaty, Germany 
is forbidden to have that institution (see 
Monatsdldtter der Ohlaten der Uniefl. Jung- 
frail Maria, Nov., 1925, p. 286, in an article 
where an international deputation of Catholic 
Boy Scouts is reported to have visited Eome 
in the beginning of September; Geriuuny 
was not represented for the reason given 
above). Those who are responsible for the 
Treaty of Versailles ought to know something 
about the Boy Scouts, and their opinion is 
different from that of the Eev. Jos. A. New- 
man (F. E., XXXIII, 2, p. 33).— L. H. 



132 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Another Nagro Priest 

To the Editor: — 

I note on page 78 of tlie Feb. 15th issue 
of the F. R. that you know of only four 
Negro priests in the U. S. 

On February 7, 1926, probably after 
you went to press, Mr. Norman Du Kette, 
formerly of Washington, D. C, was or 
dained a priest for the diocese of Detroit 
by the Rt. Rev. Joseph C. Plagcns, aux- 
iliary bishop of Detroit. Father Du Kette 
completed his course at St. Paul, Minn. His 
color is very black. 

I am sure you will be glad to acknowledge 
this increase in the ranks of the Colored 
clergy. You have the right idea. Do not 
let prejudice stop you. What we need, 
and at once, are Negro priests for Catholic 
Negroes. The Church has always favored a 
native clergy. (Rev.) Johii C. Sullivan 
Detroit, Mich. 

A Correction 

To the Editor: — 

On consulting my notes, I find that mv 
recent reply to Father Richarz (No. 5, F. 
R.) contained an inaccuracy, Avhich I herewith 
beg leave to rectify. 

In the aforesaid reply, I either stated or 
intimated, if my memory serves me aright, 
that it was the palaeontologists (palae- 
ozoologists), as distinguished from the palaeo- 
botanists, who favored an allocation of the 
Laramie Beds to the Tertiarv system The 
reverse, however, seems to be true; for the 
palaeontologist Nicholson assigns the beds 
in question to either the Cretaceous or to a 
* ' transition-period. ' ' 

In any case, the fact remains that Laramie 
beds have been a constant bone of contention 
between these two factions. In the third 
edition of "A Manual of Palaeontology" by 
Nicholson and Lydekker we read: "The 'Lar- 
amie Beds 'are admittedly of purely inland ori- 
gin, and were probably laid down in a vast 
brackish-water lake. The invertebrate fossils 
which they contain consist almost wholly of 
brackish-water, fresh-water, and terrestrial 
Mollusca, and the characters of these are 
such that they do not afford a decisive test 
of the age _of the fossils. The remaining 
fossils are mostly those of land-plants or 
of terrestrial Vertebrates, and the evidence 
as to age yielded by these is discrepant, the 
vegetable remains being of distinctly Ter- 
tiary type, while the Vertebrates belong to 
the characteristic Mesozoie group of the 
Dinosaurian reptiles" (p. 46). 

Asking you to kindly publish this correc- 
tion, I am 1_ Barry O 'Toole 

I sincerely wish you the best of success 
and God's blessing upon your good and 
valuable work. Certainly the Catholic clergy 
and the Catholic laity of intelligent calibre 
do appreciate your work, though many of us 
are negligent in expressing our appreciation 
of it through word and support. — (Rev.) Fr. 
Matthew, O. S. B., Carmel, Sasl:., Canada. 



M 1 D I ^ T li I 31 

Eine mariologische Frage 

Dogmatisch-kritische Studie von Ferdinand 
Heinrich Schiith S. J. 

364 Seiten. — Gebunden $1.75. 

Seit den Tagen des tiefschlirfenden Mario- 
logen Scheeben ist wohl kein Buch in deutscher 
Sprache erschienen, das so griindlich und 
eingehend die grosse Frage der Stellung 
Marias im Erlosungsplan, ihre Mitwirkung 
beim Erlosungswerk and ihre Gnadenmittler- 
schaft behandelt. Das Buch ist zugleich 
aktuell, well ja die Lehre der Gnadenvermitt- 
lung Marias vielleieht in Balde Gegenstand 
einer dogmatischen Entscheidung sein wird. 
Nach dem Urteil berufener Fachkritiker ist 
dieses Werk eine Avertvolle Bereicherung der 
Mariologie. 

Der bekannte Theologe Arndt urteilt: „Ein 
Werk, geschrieben mit ebensoviel Geistes- 
scharfe wie Herzenswiirme; es erhebt das 
Banner des Glaubens, um die erhabenen 
Vorziige der Mutter Gottes und unserer Mutter 
unanfechtbar festzustellen ..." 

Zu beziehen durch 

Rev. J. Schueth, Schnellville, Ind. 



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1926 



TRE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



133 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Constitution and Religious Liberty 

Every tlioughtful reader lias no douljt ob- 
served that some writers have au instiuct 
for details, while others overlook details 
and see only the broad outline. Occasion- 
ally, one meets with a writer who shows a 
combination of the two, and the resultant 
picture is a full-length portrait of the sub- 
ject. 

Such is the work of Mr. Breckenridge 
Long," who traces the growth of our organic 
law from the earliest political document in our 
country, the Plymouth Covenant of 1620, 
through all the systems of government in 
early America down to and including tlie 
constitution of 17S7 (not ijicluding the tirst 
ten amendments Avhirh wo are accustomed 
to think of as being a part of the original 
draft), showing the many plans for union 
that from time to time were under discussion 
from about 1(543 on to the Articles of Con- 
federation, the inadequacy of which lirought 
about the Federal Convention. The work 
reveals a wide range of readuig and is marked 
by a treatment that gives the impression of a 
scholarly man of affairs, seeking, in the 
face of more or less radical threats of en- 
croachment, to establish our Constitution on 
an impressive historical basis. The work 
is well done, leaving one with the settled 
conviction that our Constitution is of grad- 
ual growth, a product which no man or group 
or school or party can claim all the credit 
for. 

As a political or social study, however, 
the portrait ]\Ir. Long has so deftly sketched 
is not revealing. It is a portrait merely, 
without setting, background or perspective 
— and with very little color. It is an inter- 
esting and instructive historical narrative, 
liut there is much more to life in society, and 
hence much more to the genesis of a nation's 
organic law, than the fullest history could 
set forth. 

In the matter of religious liberty, for ex- 
ample, no adequate treatment is given. Eoger 
Williams' enterprise is barely mentioned and 
Jefferson's Virginia Statute is not mentioned 
at all, while the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution, like all subsequent amendments, 
is i^urposely excluded from the work. 

Mr. Long does give full credit to Lord 
Baltimore for having founded religious lib- 
erty in our country and says that it is 
' ' the first example in any government. ' ' While 
he notes that the liberty granted by Balti- 
more applied only to Christians, and that 
"this limitation would have a greater signif- 
icance to-day than it had in 1632" (it had 
no practical significance at that time), he 

""' ' The Genesis of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. ' ' By Brecken- 
ridge Long (The MacMillan Co.). 



says emphatically: "The fact remains that 
perfect liberty of 'Christian' worship was 
decreed in Maryland l">efore it was decreed 
anywhere else, — even before the colonists 
-whose object in emigrating had been freedom 
of worship, — and decreed, not bj^ a Protestant, 
nor in a Protestant colony, but by a Catholic 
nobleman in a colony in which the predom- 
inating membership Avas Catholic" (p. 95). 

Mr. Long notes also the downfaH of re- 
ligious liberty in Maryland, ' ' made possible 
by virtue of the asylum which that liberty 
gave to the Protestant plotters"' who brought 
about its downfall, but he does not go into 
details as to that, excusing himself liy saying: 
' ' This inquiry is concerned only with re- 
cording the evidence of constitutional de- 
velopment in America prior to 1787, particu- 
larly those appearing in constitutions and 
charters, as distinguished from legislative 
enactment, and must be content with drawing 
attention to the fact that Maryland was the 
first- of all colonial governments to establish 
.and proclaim that principle which, though not 
incorporated in the body of our constitution, 
is announced in the first line of the first 
amendment to it in the words, 'Congress 
sliall make no law respecting an establish- 
ment of religion or prohibiting the free ex- 
orcise thereof': and which is so fundamental 
'o our government. 

Some Avriters, in tracing the origin of re- 
ligious lil)erty in (uir country, have tried 
to make it appear that the Catholics of Mary- 
land were not actuated by true democratic 
motives, but by expediency, if indeed they 
were not compelled to grant religious free- 
dom to ail Christians. Mr. Long sets at 
rest that suspicion by giving us a description 
of other democratic institutions in this colonj'. 
Me says: "With religious liberty; with gen- 
eral suffrage; with a representative lower 
branch of the legislature elected from pre- 
scribed areas; Avith an upper branch of the 
legislature elected by the landed proprietor- 
ship ; with passage by both branches 
necessary to the validity of a bill; with tax 
hills, though not originating in the lower 
house, yet necessarily passing through it; 
■with an executive independent of the other 
arms of government; with their judiciary, 
though not independent of proxDrietarial in- 
fluence, yet differentiated from the executive 
and legislative officers: — we have many ele- 
ments in colonial Maryland of our federal 
constitutional system" (p. 96). 

"Maryland," the author continues, "was 
really more autonomous than most of the 
colonies. The passage of a bill by its legis- 
lature and signature by its gOA^ernor Avere 
the only conditions precedent to validity; 
whereas other charters, such as that of Massa- 
chusetts in 1691, further required submis- 
sion to the CroAvn for its i^ossible veto, so 
that the local government had not final juris- 
diction. Maryland did have final authority in 



134 



TILE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



March 15 



U'iiislative :is 'well as executive iiiattiTs. ' ' 
^Fr. Louj;' disavows any intention to convey 
tlie impression tliat Maryland was or consid- 
ered itself to be indei)endent, for such was 
not the case. The ]e<iislature passed a law 
which required each inhabitant to take an 
oath of allegiance to the King, and in otlier 
ways recognized the dependence of the 
colony. 

* ' But, ' ' he declares, ' ' the inhabitants in 
Maryland entertained certain ideas of what 
were their rights and, in striving for the 
attainment of those rights, they, partly 
through their own initiative, partly through 
the magnanimity of their Proprietary did 
take certain steps and did adopt certain forms 
which were expressions of public sentiment of 
that day and which moulded the public senti- 
ment of a hiter day and to which the forms 
and spirit of our Constitution of I7S7 are 
iiartlv ti-acealjle. ' ' 

P. H. Callahan 



Literary Briefs 



--Father Charli>s J. Quirk, b. J., who oc- 
casioimlly contributes little poems to the P. 
11., has published a collection of verses in 
book form under the title, "Sails on the 
Horizon." The contents of the neatly 
printed volume are divided into lyrics, qua- 
trains, and sonnets. Among the lyrics are 
"All Ye Who Tread Dream-Avenues of 
Thought" and "Madigral. " The quatrains 
embrace "The Lovers," "Stars," and 
' ' Shelley. " ' Among the sonnets ' ' Creation 
takes first rank. The author is not a great 
jtoet, but one of those songsters whose verses 
ring true and have a charm all their own. 
They are a treat to a generation surfeited 
with the rantings of ultra-modernistic versi- 
fiers, and we cordially recommend the little 
volume to our readers, who need no sample, 
as they are well acquainted with Father 
Quirk's gentle muse. (Boston: Tlie Strat- 
ford Co.) 

— The Rev. Gerald Shaughnessy, S. M., has 
written "a study in immigration and Catholic 
growth in the U. S. " under the title "Has 
the Immigrant Kept the Faitlif" (The I\lac- 
millan Co. J. It is a moot question he has 
undertaken to treat, but we are sorry to say 
he treats it not as a calm Judicial scholar, 
but with the obvious desire to vindicate the 
efficiency of. the shepherds of the flock by 
finding no defections. He minimizes the 
importance of the Irish, exaggerates the num- 
ber of our converts, and takes scarcely any 
notice of the enormous defections among the 
Italian, Hungarian, and other immigrants. 
The Catholic Citizen (Vol. LVI, Xo. 15) 
justly describes the book as "a Ijrief , ' ' ('. c. 
an ex parte statement, and says of the con- 
cluding chapter on the theme of "our mar- 
vellous groAvth, ' ' that it ' ' sounds like a 
jubilee sermon at the enroljing of a mou- 



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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



135 



siguor. ' ' The problem of our leakage re- 
mains precisely Avhere it Avas before. 

— "The Finger of God," by the Kev. 
Eobert W. Brown (Benziger Bros.) is an 
attempt to tell people just what makes up 
the daily life of a parish priest. The volume 
is crammed with stories all originating with- 
in the parish and in the experiences of the 
Avriter in his spiritual field. There are nine 
chapters in the volume. They treat of 
Mother Love, Stories about Children, Stories 
about Priests, Stories about Sinners, Stories 
about Conversions, and so on. The book is 
interesting and instructive. 

— ' ' Poems and Pilgrims, ' ' by Katheriue 
Bregy (Benziger Bros.), is the work of an 
honest and a talented critic who is herself 
a clever writer. It is ;t volume of essays 
beginning Avith "The Inclusiveness of 
Chaucer'' and ending Avith "Paul Claudel, 
Mystic and Dramatist."' Father Tabb, Kath- 
erine Tynan, Joyce Kilmer, Ernest DoAvson, 
Louise Imogen Guiney, and others are 
brought before us in brief biographical 
sketches with generous excerpts from their 
Avritings. The author is well cjualified to 
arouse an interest in these jioets of the faith, 
and she succeeds very Avell, in our judgment. 

— "Katechetik, '' by Dr. H. Mayer, is a 
summary treatment prepared for "Herder's 
'J'heologische Gruudrisse, ' ' of the science and 
art of catechizing cliihlreii. The author is 
not a mere theoretician, but a priest Avho has 
practiced the art of catechizing for ujany 
years and has contributed numercuis practical 
articles to tlieological jcuirnals in the "Fath- 
erland.'' His command of the literature of 
his subject is remarkaljle, and there is hardly 
an important cjuestion of religious pedagogics 
wliicli ]\o does not discuss luminously, even 
though, of necessity, briefly. The volume 
opens Avith an instructive survey of the de- 
A'clopment of catechetics from its earliest 
beginnings up to the present time. A supple- 
mentary chapter on " Eeligion and the Soul'' 
deals Avith the psychological and religious 
l^resuppositions of catechetics. In conclu 
sion the author offers some specimen instruc 
tioiis. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

— The Rev. Joseph Weigand, a member of 
the Columbus (0.) diocesan school board, 
has j)repared a manual of religion for teach- 
ers, Avhich he calls "The Catechist and the 
Catechumen, ' ' and also a ' ' vSimple Course in 
Religion ' ' for little first communicants. The 
former puts the truths of religion in narra- 
tive form, foUoAving the order of the Balti- 
more Catechism, for the learning of Avhich 
the book is designed to be a preparation. The 
"Simple Course" is a little brochure intended 
for school children in the first room, Avho 
have not yet begun the little Catechism. Both 
books are carefully jjrepared and will help 
teacliers in interesting the children. (Benziger 
Brothers). 



— The veneralile Father Joseph Eickaby, 
S. J., has selected and translated from St. 
Augustine 's ' ' Ena-rrationes in Psalmos, ' ' one 
of the most l)eautif ul of the Saint 's Avritings, 
which fills an immense folio volume in the 
^faurist edition, a number of attractive pas- 
sages that make fine spiritual reading, for, 
"though often Avithout claim to be explana- 
tions of the text that suggested them," they 
are yet "full of the Holy Ghost and fire." 
The A-olume is entitled, "Readings from St. 
Augustine on the Psalms." (Benziger Bros.) 

— Father Daniel A. Lord's "Six One-Act 
Plays'' (Benziger Bros.) deal Avitli themes 
varying from the frankly fantastic to the 
dramatic conflict of opposing Avills. They 
have a literary flavor, are distinctly modern, 
and may be staged quite simply, either in- 
doors or on the campus. 

— The "Thv Kingdom Come, ' 'i series bA" 
the Rev. J. e". Moft^rtt, S. J., has been en- 
ri(died Avith a second volume, subtitled, 
' ' Under the Chancel Light. ' ' Like its prede- 
cessor, this booklet contains short, tender 
meditations for way-Avorn and weary Chris- 
tians on incidents fr(nn the life of Christ. 
( Benziger Bros.~) 

Ne'w Books Received 

Tlie House of llisduin. A Cantata in Honor 
of St. Madeleine Sophie Barat, Foundress 
of the Society of the Sacred Heart. Words 
by Sarah Brownson, music by Theodore 
Heinrotli. For Girls' A''oices Avith accom- 
paniment. Xew York: .1. Fischer & Bro. 
Vocal score, Sit cts. ; vocal jiarts, each 30 
cts. 

TJic Liiurgifid Sacrifice of ilic New Law. 
By the Rev. Joseph Kramp, S. .F. Author- 
ized Version by the Roa'. Leo F. Miller, 
D. D., Professor of Dogmatic Theology 
in the Pontifical College Josephinum. x & 
22(3 pp. ]2mo. B. Hei^ler Book Co. $L50 
net. 

Retreat Matter for Priests. By the V. Rev. 
Paul Stiegele. Adapted into English by 
the Rev. C. F. Keyser. Edited by Arthur 
Preuss. viii tit 410 pp. ]2nio. B. Herder 
Book Co. 

Twilight Talks to Tired Hearts. By W. W. 
Whalen. 2nd edition. 176 pp. 12mo. 
Techny, 111. : Mission Press of the Society 
of the Divine Word. 7-5 cts. net. 

Hills of Best. [A story] by John M. Cooney. 
240 pp. 12mo. St. 'Meiiirad, Ind. : The 
Abbey Press. $1.50, postpaid. 

Leben Je.su-lVerli'. Von A. Meyenberg. ZAvei- 
ter Band. 11. und III. Lieferung. Lucerne: 
Raber & Cie.- (Wrapper). 

Rosary Novenas to Our Ladi/. By Charles 
V. Lacey. 48 pp. 3x5 in. Benziger Bros. 
10 cts. (Wrapper). 

A Short Life of Christ. By Rev. M. V. 
McDonough. Profusely Illustrated. (i3 pp. 
3x5 in. Benziaer Bros. 15 cts. 



136 



THE FOh'TNlGHTLY liEVIEW 



March 15 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



A Conti-ibutjon from China 

Outholic ^Mission, 

Kinoyniig, Kniisu, Cliinn. 

To the Editor:— Jnii. 1. 192C). 

Greetings for the New Yenr and long livo 
the Fortnightly Eeview! Ilere is sonic- 
thing for the Spiee Cohnnn: 

Two tramps were making their war across 
a western State in a side-door Pulhnan. 
when the older of the pair snecunibed to an 
attack of heart disease. When the train 
came to a standstill, the younger alighted and 
laying liis comrade to rest, set up a crude 
tomlistone witli the inscription: 

To Bill 
He done his durndest. 
Angels couldn't liave did more. 

The clock in this mission is of .Tapanese 
manufacture. As often as I open it I am 
reminded of the Fortnightly Spiee Column, 
for this is the ad that graces the interior: 

Keep the While Ten Days at Once 

Horse Mark 

To Stand Clocks and to Hang Clocks 

^Manufactured by 

The Ownri Watch >k Co. 

Rudolph Blockinger, O. M. Cap. 



Expla.iiiiii,'.; one long word liy aiiotlier, or a 
Greek term by a Latin, is not an extinct 
practice. An Anglican reader gives tlie Tabht 
his woJ'd for tlie triitli of the following in- 
-^tatice. dust a year ago simple questions in 
ri-ligicms knowledge were put to some village 
tioys. Having asked \vhat might be the mean- 
ing of the Ejjiphany, the exanjiner received 
Hie surprising answer, ' ' Tom Roberts. ' ' It 
turned out that the approaching feast had 
been hastily explained l)v ,i Sunday-school 
teacher as ''the Manifestation"'; and that 
'i oni LNilicrts, a I'ailway porter, w;is ''Tli' 
r\l;ni at the Station. 



A Sunday school t(acher asked a pupil wliy 
Aiiai)"'as was so severely juinislu'd. 

The little tine thought a minute, tln-n an 
swered : ''Please, teachei', they \\H'rc?i 't s;i 
used to lying in thosf davs, '' 



A yoKUg man, ;il)(Uit to !)(• married, went 

to see the cli'i-o-\iiin ii .'iboitt liaving the banns 
]iublished. 

''Is your intended \\it'e a s])inster .' ' ' the 
clergyman aske(l. 

The man thought for a numient, then h'' 

replied, "No, sir; she's a dressmaker!'' 



llcic is another old liiu- wli'cli uiiglit li;i\e 
Keen written of J^ndiibition Auuudca ; ''Furti- 
I lis pnlHs /ilenus ihilccrliiit loins.'' — Xeir 
/(■(ihiiiil Tahtct. 




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138 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



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L. \f. HEMP, President s. l. ST. JEAN. secretary-Trkasureh J. ^v. ^VESTON, Vice-Pres. 



PERPETUAL NOVENA TO ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA 




In the very heart of the world-famed Highlands 
of the Hudson is Gi'aymoor, the Foundation Center 
of the Society of the Atonement. On the summit 
of a beautiful mountain seven hundred feet high, 
stand the Monastery, Church, Novitiate, and Col- 
lege of the Friars of the Atonement, Third Order 
Regular of St. Francis; in the valley below are the 
Community Buildings of the Sisters of the Atone- 
ment. 

Tlie Friars" Monastic Church on the mountain - 
top bears the name of St. Francis. On the Gospel 
side of the High Altar stands the Statue of St. 
Anthony, before which the Friars of the Atone- 
ment have prayed every day for the past fourteen 
years, invoking the Wonder-Worker of Padua, 
tlieir Great Franciscan Brother, to hear the en- 
treaties of his Clients, who have sent their Peti- 
tions from every part of the United States and 
Canada to be presented at his Graymoor Shrine 
(thousands upon thousands of them). A new 
Novena begins every Tuesday, and so these weekly 
Xovenas form an endless chain interlinking each 
other, and constitute in effect a Perpetual Novena. 



TESTIMONIALS OF GRATEFUL CLIENTS 

C. P., Kansas: "Please accept the enclosed check for Twenty-Five Dollars and use 
it where it will do the most good. I promised to donate it to St. Anthony for success 
in a business matter." 

Mrs. C. C. M., Hartford, Conn.: "Enclosed find thank offering for a favor granted, 
I might say, miraculously. Thanks be to God and St. Anthony." 

.T. B. L., N. Dak.: "St. Anthony is a most wonderful co-worker. He certainly 
makes my sales go up each day. Enclosed find money order as per promise." 

Mr. & Mrs. W. J. A., Ariz.: "Enclosed find offering for St. Anthony's Bread, for my 
husband has found work with good pay. Thanks to St. Anthony, and all who pray for 
us at Graymoor." 

L. L., New York: "Some time ago I sent a Petition to St. Anthony's Graymoor 
Shrine that I might be able to rent my home, and on the day the Novena ended I suc- 
ceeded in doing so." 

Mrs. W. L., Chicago: "It is with great pleasure that I send the enclosed Ten Dollars, 
which I promised if my petition of some weeks ago was granted. My son has since 
had a promotion with an increase in salary, and I feel sure he got it through St. Anthony. 
I wish also to express my thanks to the Graymoor Friars for their prayers in my behalf." 

Send, all petitions to 

ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE. THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 



The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXXIII, No. 7 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI April 1st, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



A Newly Discovered Ancient Syriac 
Chronicle 

In the ZeitscJirift fiir katholische 
Theologie (Vol. 49, No. 4) Fr. J. B. 
Umberg, S. J., analyzes the "Chron- 
icle of Arbela" with regard to its 
teaching on the Sacraments. The 
"Chronicle of Arbela" is a small his- 
torical work, written in the Syriac lan- 
guage, about the year 550 A. D., by 
one Mesihazekha. It was discovered 
by A. Mingana and first published with 
a French translation, in 1907. A Ger- 
man translation by Ed. Sachau was 
printed in the proceedings of the Ber- 
lin Academy for 1915. The "Chron- 
icle" has since been discussed by A. 
AUgeier, Felix Haase, A. Baumstark, 
A. Harnack, H. Dieckmann, S. J., and 
others. The last-mentioned writer 
{Theol. und Glaube, XVIII, 1925, pp. 
66 sq.) says that the importance of this 
"Chronicle" lies in the fact that it is 
the oldest authentic document that can 
be dated with certainty throwing 
light on the spread of Christianity in 
the Orient and thus supplements the 
Acts of the Apostles, which describes 
its extension in the West, and because 
it gives us an insight into the ecclesi- 
astical constitution of that ancient 
time and permits of a comparison of 
the church organization in sixth- cen- 
tury Syria with that simultaneously ex- 
isting in the West. 

According to the ' ' Chronicle, ' ' Bap- 
tism was administered by the bishop, 
probably not only to adults, but also 
to children. The Sacrament of Con- 
firmation is but vaguely adverted to. 
The Holy Eucharist is performed by 
simple priests. Penance and Matri- 
mony are not mentioned at all. There 
is one seeming reference to Extreme 
Unction. But to Holy Orders there 
are several references, which Fr. 



Dieckmann considers as highly impor- 
tant testimonies to the existence of the 
monarchical episcopate in the primitive 
Church. The power of orders is con- 
ferred by the laying on of hands. Dea- 
cons are consecrated bishops without 
passing through the intermediate stage 
of the priesthood. (Similar cases are 
mentioned and discussed in their dog- 
matic bearing by P. Gasparri, Tract. 
Can. de S. Ordinatione, Vol. I, 1893, 
n. 24, and by S. Many, Praelect. de S. 
Ordinatione, 1905, n. 5). 

In connection with this particular 
subject Fr. Umberg points out that 
the new Code of Canon Law does not 
lepresent the priesthood as indispens- 
able for the validity of episcopal con- 
secration, but merely mentions it as 
a condition required by law, on a line 
with legitimate parentage, the canonical 
age (thirty years), etc. 

Jews and CathoHcs 

In a little pamphlet, called "Jews 
and Catholics" (Catholic Guild of 
Israel), Father A. F. Day, S. J., 
pleads for an understanding of, and 
sympathy with, Jews on the part of 
Catholics. Owing largely to historical 
events over which we to-day have no 
control, Catholics and Jews are utterly 
strange to one another, and strangeness 
breeds antagonism. And yet, as 
Father Day points out, we Catholics 
owe our religion to Judaism. Our Lord 
was born of a Jewish mother. His en- 
vironment was wholly Jewish, His first 
followers were all Jews, and the New 
Law is but the fulfillment of the Old. 
Father Day offers many striking paral- 
lels between the Synagogue and the 
Church. He likens High Mass to the 
Temple Liturgy and Benediction is 
the fulfillment of which the Shekinah 
was the type. 



140 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



It is rather au amazing thing that 
the two great historical forces in the 
world's history are coming into con- 
tact now after nineteen hundred years 
of separation. If the Jews and our- 
selves could both lay aside prejudice 
and try to understand each other with 
intelligent sympathy, the barriers 
would gradually break down. It would 
mean a great amount of hard work 
and Christian charity on our part, and 
the time is short, as Judaism is rapidh' 
disintegrating into agnostic material- 
ism. The orthodox Jew is far nearer 
to the Catholic Church than the sceptic 
Gentile, and in some ways is far more 
worth winning over. 

The Huguenots 

The Month, in its No. 734, reviews a 
book, "Histoire Politique des Protest- 
ants Francais 1715-1794," by the Abbe 
Dedien (Paris: Gabalda), which 
throws new light on a chapter of 
French history that has much more 
than national importance. The author 
sliows how considerable, and in many 
cases how direct, was the influence of 
the Huguenot pastors and their congre-' 
gations in bringing about the downfall 
of the Bourbon monarchy. The fluc- 
tuations of government policy towards 
the heretics during the period are 
graphically described. Toleration and 
repression were tried alternately, but 
without effect. The French govern- 
ment certainly displayed but little pol- 
itical intelligence in dealing with the 
problem. Their system of repression 
appears to have lacked both continuity 
and thoroughness. In the gentle art 
of persecution thej^ had much to learn 
from neighboring nations, whether be- 
yond the Pyrenees or across the Chan- 
nel. Rarely has a government incur- 
red so much odium to so little purpose. 
P>ut it must in fairness be remembered 
that the Huguenots were dangerous 
antagonists, exceptionally able and of- 
ten exceptionally unscrupulous. Even 
under the ablest direction, the old 
Catholic monarchy could hardly have 
survived in its traditional form against 
the combined forces of irreligion and 
heresy. 



Is Protestant Baptism Ordinarily 
Valid? 

A notable contribution to this ques- 
tion is made by Father Joseph P. Don- 
ovan, C. M., in No. 2 of the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Review. He shows that baptism, 
as conferred among the Baptists, is 
invalid because of a defective inten- 
tion. Presbyterian baptism also has 
lost the substance of Christian bap- 
tism because Presbyterians, while re- 
taining the word, no longer have the 
Sacrament. The Methodists hold that 
baptism of water is purely a sign of 
baptism in the Holy Spirit, which lat- 
ter alone regenerates man independ- 
ently of the former. The Congrega- 
tionalist creeds exhibit no essential de- 
parturei from Presbyterian standards. 
Baptism among the Campbellites, also 
called "Christians" and "Disciples of 
Christ," is doubtful because they ad- 
mit Baptists and Methodists, nay 
Quakers and Unitarians, to their com- 
munion without rebaptism. Lutheran 
baptism is "plainly regenerative as op- 
posed to symbolic ; but whether suffi- 
cientl}' regenerative to qualify asj es- 
sentially Catholic is not so sure. . . . 
The likelihood of validity seems in- 
capable of passing over into certainty." 
The so-called Evangelicals speak of 
themselves as Liberals, and some of 
their ministers entertain the Presby- 
terian view of baptism. Episcopalian 
baptism is no better to-day than it w^as 
in the days of Newman and Manning, 
who were rebaptized conditionally 
Avhen they became Catholics. 

In view of this uncertainty it is not 
to be wondered at that there is a grow- 
ing practice on the part of our diocesan 
curias to refuse out and out "mixtae 
religionis" dispensations and to issue 
absolute or conditional "disparitatis 
cultus" dispensatioiis to safeguard the 
validity of marriage. 

In conclusion Fr. Donovan calls at- 
tention to an instruction of the Holy 
Office (1878) according to which each 
baptism is to be given such investiga- 
tion as circumstances permit. This 
had been the rule in some dioceses even 
earlier than that. When the late Dr. 



1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



141 



Edward Preuss, for instance, came 
into the Catholic Church from Luth- 
eranism, in 1872, Archbishop Kenrick, 
of St. Louis, appointed a committee of 
three priests to examine the validity 
of his baptism and that of his then 
only son, the present writer. The 
father's baptism, received in Germany 
in the thirties of the 19th century, was 
declared doubtful, while that of the 
son, received at the hands of a Luther- 
an minister in St. Louis, in 1871, was 
accepted as valid. Consequently the 
father was rebaptized conditionally, 
while the son was not rebaptized at all. 

Loisy on the Third Gospel 

How far Alfred Loisy is prepared 
to go in his historical scepticism comes 
out very clearly in his recently pub- 
lished book, "L'Evangile selon Luc" 
(Paris: E. Nourry). The legend of 
Jesus, taken as a whole, he sa.ys, is 
not a collection of historic memories ; it 
is a redaction of the Christological 
myth, elaborated on the basis of Old 
Testament texts, to satisfy faith in 
Jesus and provide an apology for this 
faith against the Jews. It is the ex- 
pression of this faith, in a dramatic 
commemoration of the dying and rising' 
Christ. And beneath this commemora- 
tion it is not easy to detect what, as 
historical facts, the life and death of 
Jesus really were. The teaching at- 
tributed to Him, even in what is called 
the Synoptic records, is not the doc- 
trine of a religious thinker, or the 
message of a prophet : it is a collection 
of sentences which stand in relation 
to the life of the earliest communi- 
ties, — oracles if yoa wish, but oracles 
of Christian prophets. It is very diffi- 
cult to discover in this rather inco- 
herent mass any simple ideas of which 
it may be said with certainty that they 
inspired the whole teaching of Jesus. 
No Gospel simply reflects the impres- 
sion produced by the life, and death 
of Christ on those who were its wit- 
nesses. The simple fact of Jesus was 
immediately transfig-ured into faith in 
the immortal Christ, and so forth. 

"Such historical pessimism," com- 
ments a Protestant critic in the Times 



Literary Supplement (No. 1,239), "is 
the just nemesis of a literary criticism 
so radical and a historical criticism 
so sceptical as that which in increasing 
measure M. Loisy has been pur- 
suing. It is quite incredible that the 
vivid reminiscences of the life and 
teaching of their Master should have 
been so obliterated by the blaze of 
heavenly glory in which His disciples 
believed Him to dwell. It is incredible 
that the personality which dominates 
the Gospels and the actions and words 
in which that personality was ex- 
pressed, should have been almost en- 
tirely the creation of the primitive 
Church." 

The Fruit of a Mixed Marriage 

Theodore Dreiser, the famous novel- 
ist, as our readers are aware (cfr. F. 
R., XXXII, No. 20, p. 426), is a fallen- 
aA^ay Catholic. Like most apostates, 
he likes to talk about religion. Miss 
Jean West Maury, who recently inter- 
viewed Dreiser, writes in Vol. IV, No. 
4 of the Literary Digest Internation- 
al Book Review, page 223 : 

"He told me something of his child- 
hood, of his father's unshakable de- 
votion and blind faith, of his mother's 
attempt to conform to his father's re- 
ligion — ' But she never could conform ; 
my mother was not religious; she had 
a beautiful pagan soul'; of the final 
breaking away from the family reli- 
gion of all the children but one sister, 
and how much to heart the elder 
Dreiser took this dereliction of his chil- 
dren. 'He grieved in his beard about 
it as long* as he lived. In his adher- 
ence to his religion, for which I have 
the greatest respect, my father was fol- 
lowing a dogma formulated through- 
out the Middle Ages. In some ways 
this formula has proved a tremendous 
and marvelous success, but it is not 
for the man who wants to think for 
himself. ' It was because he felt he had 
to do his own thinking, and must read 
what he liked, that Theodore Dreiser 
at seventeen gave up his religion. It 
left him, he said, pretty much up in 
the air, where he still is, unanchored to 
any particular creed." 



142 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



In the course of her conversation 
with him, Miss Maury, noticing his pre- 
dilection for religious topics, prophe- 
sied to Mr. Dreiser that he would soon- 
er or later go back to the religion he 
had discarded at seventeen. But he 
emphaticall}^ said: "Never! I shall 



never again subscribe to any creed." 
We suspect that the elder Dreiser 
was not as staunch a Catholic as his 
apostate son represents him to have 
been ; else why should he have con- 
tracted a mixed marriage? 



The Catholic Revival in Northern Europe 



The Messenger of the Sacred Heart 
for March has an interesting article on 
the General Intention of the Apostle- 
ship of Prayer : ' ' The Catholic Re- 
vival in Northern Europe," part of the 
explanation, referring to the Scan- 
dinavian nations, being given by Mrs. 
Frode C. W. Rambusch, President of 
St. Ansgar's Scandinavian League, of 
New York. Catholic Missions, recently 
much improved under the able direc- 
tion of Msgr. Quinn, has in its Febru- 
ary issue a good article on Iceland by 
the Rev. G. Boots, S. M. M. The follow- 
ing items gathered from private let- 
ters and other sources may interest the 
readers of the F. R. 

While "Archbishop" Soderblom of 
Upsala was touring this country two 
3'ears ago, one of his ablest ministers 
at home organized a Lutheran High 
Church movement with Catholic trim- 
mings. The civil authorities promptly 
deposed this minister, but the Arch- 
bishop upon his return reinstated him 
and assigned him to his cathedral in 
Upsala, with the injunction: "Do what 
you please, but do not become a Cath- 
olic." 

The Month (February, 1926) repro- 
duces some of the impressions which 
the Universal Christian Conference 
(which met at Stockholm from August 
19th to August 30th of last year), 
made upon a keen Catholic observer, 
the Rev. Henry Sierp, S. J., editor of 
the Stimmen der Zeit. Fr. Sierp de- 
scribes the vain quest for unity that 
manifested itself at the Conference, 
and distinguishes three groups among 
the delegates The first group was 
composed of some Anglicans and a few 
Orthodox bishops, who "gave one the 
impression of not feeling altogether at 



home. A few of them even made it 
clear that they had come with reluct- 
ance and only at the express invitation 
of the Anglicans, with whom they were 
then negotiating." The Anglicans em- 
phasized sacerdotalism and the import- 
ance of the Sacraments. The second 
group was that of the Americans, "in 
whom the hereditary traits of Calvinism 
and Puritanism were unmistakably evi- 
dent." They laid great stress on ap- 
plied Christianity, as exemplified in 
various Avelfare institutions. The dog- 
matic basis of these sects has come to 
be regarded as so slight that prac- 
tical Americans began to ask themselves 
why dogma should divide them." The 
third large group was composed of Lu- 
therans, mostly of German nationality, 
who insisted that the doctrine of the 
all sufficiency of faith for justi- 
fication is the only logical and consis- 
tent interpretation of Reformation the- 
ology. ' ' 

Thus there was much dissatisfaction. 
The Finnish Bishop Johannson show^ed 
himself justifiably afraid that under 
Soderblom 's direction the World Con- 
ference would still further attenuate 
Christianit3^ "The universal charity 
with which His Grace proposes to ce- 
ment the union of all parties, is use- 
less because it is an illusion. Christian 
charity can originate only in belief in 
Jesus Christ and is a gift of the Spirit 
of Truth." 

Also in German Protestant circles 
opposition to the Conference was fair- 
ly widespread. No wonder, for its 
members were divided even in such 
important matters as birth control, pro- 
hibition, etc. 

Cardinal Van Rossum, Prefect of the 
Propaganda, visited the Scandinavian 



1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



143 



countries about two years ago, and with 
one exception, was everywhere received 
most courteously. Ministers, laity and 
press welcomed him as the representa- 
tive of "the Mother Church." The 
most prominent living Icelandic poet 
composed some verses in his honor, 
pointing out that from Rome must 
come the words of religious authority, 
and to Rome all must look for religious 
truth. 

About the same time the Brigittine 
nuns returned to Sweden to pray for 
the conversion of their countrymen. 
The superior in charge met Fr. Hagen, 
S. J., at Georgetown, D. C, some years 
ago and was later received by him 
into the Church at Rome. Most of 
her Sisters are converts. 



Fr. Ansgar Meyer, S. J., writes from 
Stockholm about his and Fr. Koch's 
pilgrimage to Rome and their audience 
with the Holy Father, which result- 
ed in a veritable Protestant homage to 
the Pope, for 180 Protestants, together 
with 35 Catholics, knelt before His 
Holiness, kissed his ring, received his 
blessing and cheered him most cordial- 
ly. The Pope was very much pleased 
and by his kindness, affability, and elo- 
quence made a splendid impression up- 
on all, as the correspondent of the 
Berlingske Titende, who accompanied 
the pilgrimage, remarked in his paper. 

Let us pray for the conversion of 
these good people, for whom since the 
days of St. Ignatius prayers and masses 
are continually offered in the Society 
of Jesus. T. H. 



Experiences of a Colored Catholic 

By ThonricLs W. Turner, President of the Federation of Colored Catholics 



In the November number of Oppor- 
tunity Magazine, 1925, I read an article 
entitled "Zigzagging Through Dixie" 
by Albion L. Holsey. 

The article deals with the trials and 
tribulations of colored folk as they 
move about in the normal performance 
of their duties. It appealed to me 
very strongly because of the many 
parallelisms which it presents to the 
experiences of Catholic colored folk 
as they attempt to practice their re- 
ligion in the various Catholic churches 
in different parts of this country. 

During the Christmas holidays, I 
Avent to Kansas City, Mo., to attend 
meetings and to read a paper at one of 
the sessions of the Botanical Society of 
America. Finding myself in St. Louis, 
on Sunday, December 27, I thought I 
would wander out to church, as any 
good Catholic ought to do. It was very 
cold, but I finally landed in St. Ann's 
Church at 9 o'clock and took a seat in 
the middle aisle on the right, where I 
usually prefer to sit, provided, of 
course, that I am not occupying some- 
body else's pew. To avoid this, I 
usually select "for rent" pews when- 
ever I see them. 



There were relatively few people in 
the church. The usher, a corpulent, 
happy-faced youngster, spying me tak- 
ing a seat, rushed up rather perplexed 
and requested me to move to the back 
seat of the row on the far right hand 
side. I wa3 already quite cold, so a 
proffered banishment to a distant cor- 
ner of that large church did not ap- 
peal to my thermal sense at all. I, 
therefore, with as much humility as I 
could muster for the occasion, inquiTed 
why he was so solicitous about my being 
seated under such careful specifica- 
tions. He informed me quite naively 
that the area in question had been re- 
served as the "place" for colored 
people. I assured him that he ought 
to know why even colored people go 
to a Catholic church, and further, if I 
were looking for associations of colored 
people, they would not be those of his 
selection. Then he wanted to know if 
I were ashamed to sit with my 
people. I assured him that I might 
be ashamed to be with those of his 
selection. "Well," he said, "it is the 
pastor's orders." I replied, "I take 
my orders from Jesus Christ, so far 
as the Catholic Church is concerned. 



144 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April I 



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and not from mere man." Then, I 
said, the comedy having run far enough 
into the Mass, "You have done your 
bidding, so please get you hence that 
I may assist at Mass." He skulked 
away with a grumble and, lo and be- 
hold ! I saw this same fellow coming 
doAvn from the communion rail a little 
later, with hands devoutly folded, ex- 
hibiting a long, pious face. 

I continued on my journey and dis- 
covered that in a Kansas town, colored 
children were put out of a parochial 
school which they had been attending 
and were forced into a public school 
which the Catholic parents did not 
prefer (now, in Kansas, the State Uni- 
versity and non-sectarian colleges do 
not draw a color line) ; on the other 
hand, in a large adjoining Missouri 
town, a reverend Father gave peremp- 
tory orders to colored parents to re- 
move their children from the public 
schools and send them to the parochial. 
Some of the parents had well-founded 
doubts about the efficiency of the 
church school, and having the welfare 



of their children at heart, they hesitated 
to place them at what seemed to them 
an obvious disadvantage. This, the 
li'ather could not sense. His next move 
in this case was to punish and perse- 
cute the children. One little boy served 
at the altar. He was immediately dis- 
charged as a server. The parent of this 
boy told me that the uncharitable act 
greatly affected the little fellow. Other 
children were denied any prominent 
part in any church activity which 
might be calculated to stimulate them. 
Of course, the whole church should not 
be blamed for such stupidities, but the 
need of clerics with a human soul and 
an understanding heart is very essen- 
tial; as to-day "marking time" may 
bo considered the dominant procedure 
in the majority of colored parishes, 
if the usual criteria for progress are 
considered. 

Coming East, there is set forth in 
the Crisis Magazine, Volume 31, No. 
3, for January, 1926, a very deplorable 
situation confronting Philadelphia 
Catholics. This case has not been 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



145 



given personal investigation yet, but 
will be looked into. New York col- 
ored Catholics are likewise having no 
end of trouble in trying to go to church 
and get an education, as our collected 
data show. 

Not long ago, one of our educated and 
useful Catholic colored men had an 
interview with a wealthy white Cath- 
olic with the aim of getting some finan- 
cial help for educational work. After 
this colored educator had set forth 
the status of the Catholic Negro in 
America to the prospective benefactor, 
the white Catholic replied, "Why do 
you colored people stay in the Cath- 
olic Church, anyway?" The colored 
educator had good occasion to convince 
his listener that the black man's con- 
nection with the Church of Jesus Christ 
far antedates most of those who would 
have him leave it; thus it would be 
quite painful for him to leave. 

I could extend indefinitely the cir- 
cuitous route by which the colored 
Catholic has to "zigzag" through the 
Church, with examples and documents, 
but enough has been said to show that 
the administration of affairs among 
colored people in the Church to-day 
needs, not improvement, but re-organi- 
zation. In many places parish priests 
are ' ' marking time, ' ' blind to the needs 
and necessities of the colored group. 
They are not living in close enough 
touch with the real problems confront- 
ing Negro life to render effective aid. 
They have not been able, in a major- 
ity of cases, to work in harmony with 
the intelligent people of their churches, 
and thus get the benefit of their advice. 
They commit the basic error of thinking 
that they are wholly sufficient in com- 
munities to speak for colored people 
and that colored leaders are superfluous 
and troublesome. They have very little 
sympathy for the colored peoples' de- 
sire for a colored clergy, and thus very 
few colored boys have had any encour- 
agement for the priesthood. 

These observations are in summary 
form. It is my hope to treat some of 
them separately whenever I can get 
the time between the periods of my 
bread-winning. 



What I have said must not be taken 
as hostile criticism of individuals, but 
of the dominant "Catholic mind," 
which administers colored work to-day 
in America, and is not doing it suc- 
cessfully. The dominant non-Catholic 
forces working for the betterment of the 
colored people are getting much bet- 
ter results, because they have learned 
long ago that real, permanent progress, 
spiritual or temporal, is assured only 
when a racial group is helped to fall 
in lin^ behind its own leaders. The 
prevailing "mind" in the Church 
keeps the Negro on the side lines, does 
not help him either as layman or priest 
to participate for his own uplift. One 
can easily see the fundamental fallacy 
in the pedagogics of this procedure. 
The Catholic Church is practicing a 
true pedagogic method, if I mistake 
not, everyw^here else in the world, ex- 
cept among the Negroes in America. 
It would be interesting to know who 
is responsible for this, and how the sit- 
uation may be improved. 



Arthur Gray, Master of Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge, England, in "A Chap- 
ter in the Early Life of Shakespeare" 
(Cambridge University Press), ad- 
vances the theory that, so far from 
spending his youth amid rustic sur- 
roundings at Stratford, Shakespeare 
passed part of it at Polesworth, in 
Warwickshire, a literary resort of the 
period. 

BREAD AND WINE 

By Albert P. Schimberg 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Without the Upper Eoom a field — 
It felt to Love 's high Mystery so near, 
The ready wheat, when Christ .sat down to sup; 
On golden lan^'es kernels leaping up 
Were quiet suddenly with wonder-fear. 

The ripened grapes took on more sanguine hue 
When Christ the chalice blessed and lifted up; 
Their juices yearned towards the Holy Cup, 
But then a strangely first swift paleness knew, 
At thought of What they were to yield! 

[NOTE: The second, third, fourth, and 
fifth lines of this poem are n free translation 
of a fragment from Jakob Kneip, quoted in 
Stimmen der Zeit, Vol. LV, No. 6.] 



146 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



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Southern Tolerance 

By P. H. Callahan of Louisville 

AVe hear much of Southern intoler- 
ance, mostly from Avriters far removed 
from the South, who have little or 
no information as to present condi- 
tions. It prompts me to follow up with 
another concrete case my article in 
the Fortnightly Review of Februarv 
1 (Vol. XXXIII, No. 3), entitled, 
"The Georgia Plan of Defendins; the 
Faith, ' ' which brought out very clearly 
the present satisfactory attitude of the 
press and the people of Georgia toward 
Catholics and Catholic institutions. 

There was some mixed feeling among 
a few of our friends as to the propriety 
of Mr. Elder and myself attending the 
Scopes Trial at Dayton, Tenn., one 
of our Catholic weeklies going so far 
as to say that my appearance with my 
friend Wm. Jennings Br.yan on that 
occasion Avas "most deplorable"; but 
there was a very definite object in our 
action, and on our return Mr. Elder 
prepared a brochure — "The Tennessee 
School Regulation," — which was cir- 
culated among members of the legal 
profession and the newspaper editors 
of Tennessee. Copies were sent also to 
the Catholic clergy of the State. 

Father Sliemers, a pastor located at 
St. Joseph, LaAvreneeburg, Tennessee, 



a small town near the Alabama State 
line where there are but few Catholics, 
sent the brochure we had mailed him 
to the editor of the Lawrenceburg 
Democrat, which brought forth the 
following friendly comment : 

Let's TJiinJc Our Oivn Thoughts 

The Democrat is grateful for a letter from 
Father M. Sliemers of St. Joseph in whicli 
he iueloses a comprehensive discussion of 
the Tennessee anti-evolution law written by 
Benedict Elder, a Catholic lawyer of Louis- 
ville, Ky. We would like to print the whole 
article, but lack of space makes it impossible. 
However, we were esj)ec-ially impressed with 
the fairness, the evident sincerity of the writer, 
in touching not only on the matter in ques- 
tion, but on the subject of religious liberty 
in general. As is usual with these liberal- 
minded people, an attitude of extreme co- 
operation with non-Catholics was expressed. 
In defense of the statute Mr. Elder says, 
among other things : 

' ' The act in both terms and character is 
inhibitive only, and iuhibitive legislation is 
not a precedent for mandatory legislation. 
Inhibitive legislation is the principal means 
of preserving religious liberty. Protestant 
teachers in public schools are inhibited from 
denying the religious belief of Catholic pupils 
and teaching instead what Protestants believe. 
Catholic teachers are inhibited from den\dng 
what Protestant pupils believe and teach- 
ing instead what Catholics believe. Both are 
inhibited from denying what Jews believe 
and teaching instead what Christians believe. 
That is the way we preserve religious liberty 
in our public schools. By what process, then, 
does one conclude that inhibiting atheists 



1926 



TRE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



147 



and free-thinkers from denying a common 
religious belief of their pupils and teaching 
instead atheistic opinions is to impinge on 
religious liberty or to set a precedent for 
future legislation that will endanger this 
cherished right ? ' ' 

Again in expressing the sentiment of the 
Church in regard to the attitude toward 
Protestants he adds: 

"It is perhaps not the best means to that 
end; it is not the traditional Catholic means, 
but it is an earnest means, and the one most 
immediately available to parents who must 
send their children to public schools. It seems 
to deserve the support of Catholics, because 
they are in sympathy with every reasonable 
effort of Protestant^ Christians to preserve 
the belief of their children from the pagan- 
izing influences of atheists and unbelievers. ' ' 

This spirit of fellowship, of co-operation 
is an inherent characteristic of these people, 
and it seems incredible that any sect, re- 
ligious, political or fraternal, could find room 
for criticism of the beautiful ceremonies and 
sentiments of these worthy citizens. Their 
customs may not in the whole draw approval 
from every man, but there is no one church 
or creed that does this. Like every church, 
like everything in life, there are some who 
cannot conscientiously follow the precepts of 
the Catholic Church, but for one group to en- 
deavor to assert its superiority and condemn 
the sincere beliefs of another as eternally 
damnable is the epitcrme of dogmatism. 

If that were 100 per cent Americanism, 
then to be an American would bring no meas- 
ure of commendation. But we are thank- 
ful such is not the case. 

So long as we continue to enjoy the 
privileges of the Star Spangled Banner, let 
us be free thinking men and women, demand- 
ing the free control of our own conscience 
and according to others the same privilege. 

When a Southern Tennessee editor 
speaks of Catholics as "these liberal 
minded people" and declares that the 
"spirit of fellowship, of co-operation 
is an inherent characteristic of these 
people, ' ' one may venture to ask wheth- 
er Boston or Philadelphia or any other 
of our Northern cities with their large 
Catholic population can boast a news- 
paper so complimentary. 

Formerly it was the country press 
in this kind of an environment that was 
mainh'] responsible for the anti-Cath- 
olic prejudice existing in such places. 
Catholics in the South have succeeded 
in instituting a plan that has worked 
to change this attitude from one of 
hostility to one of friendship, and it 



is to be hoped that our critics in the 
North can do as well around their own 
fireside. 



Notes and Gleanings 



Rev. Father John Ferdinand Mei- 
fuss, who died at Breese, 111., March 
5, was the author of a series of school 
arithmetics, the translator of a book 
on Old Testament women from the 
French of the Countess de Tremaudan, 
compiled a guide for the Catholics of 
the Diocese of Belleville, and for about 
twelve years, from 1896 to 1908, while 
pastor of the little parish of Center- 
ville Station, contributed regularly and 
copiously to the F. R. Many interest- 
ing and instructive articles appeared 
in this journal, partly above' his full 
signature, parth^ above the initials J. 
F. M., and partly under the pen-name 
"J. Hernan." Probably the most im- 
portant service he rendered the Cath- 
olic cause through the F. R. was a 
series of papers on the necessity of 
reforming our Catholic fraternal or- 
ganizations. This subject was later 
handled for us by a professional ac- 
tuary, Mr. Joseph Seelaus of Phila- 
delphia, and the agitation started by 
Fr. Meifuss resulted in the financial 
reconstruction of most of these organ- 
izations. Father Meifuss, as his Bishop 
said at his obsequies, was a faithful 
priest, who had 'a high regard for the 
sacred ministry and a deep sense of its 
responsibilities. He was also a learned 
scholar and a forceful writer, who 
knew how to deal with contemporary 
problems convincingly in the light of 
approved Catholic principles. Have 
pia anima! 

Father Daniel Lehane has devised a 
new method of teaching the Catechism, 
He employs pictures which, together 
with short texts, are thrown upon the 
wall by a stereopticon. A course has 
been arranged according to the Balti- 
more Catechism. Each topic is de- 
veloped in a logical manner, and a 
syllabus is used as a guide which en- 
ables the teacher to place before the 
children to the best advantage the 



148 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



doctrine taught in the films. The auth- 
or, whose method has the approval 
of the ecclesiastical authorities, uses 
modern films instead, of the old-style 
glass slides. The pictures come in their 
proper sequence and are always right 
side up and right side out. The change 
from picture to picture is made by 
merely pressing a button. Each pic- 
ture can be exposed any desired length 
of time. The lantern is so simple that 
it may be left to one of the children 
to operate. Messrs. D. B. Hansen & 
Sons, 27 N. Franklin Str., Chicago, 
111., are distributors of the Lehane 
films, and further information may 
be obtained from them. 



Bishop Boyle, of Pittsburgh, in his 
Lenten regulations for 1926, forbade 
euchre parties, bazaars, theatricals, 
and every other species of entertain- 
ment under parish auspices during the 
holy season of Lent. It is encouraging 
that this timely prohibition has been 
mentioned wdth approval in a num- 
ber of Catholic papers in different 
parts of the country and that' the di- 
rector of the Pittsburgh Union of So- 
dalities, Father Charles Moosman, has 
made it the text of a leaflet entitled, 
''A Serious Question for Catholics: 
Has Lent Changed!" in which he 
points out that in the intention of the 
Church Lent is still just as much a 
season of public penance as it ever was, 
and that it is not properly observed by 
those who refuse to withdraw from 
worldl}^ amusements. He particularly 
emphasizes that St. Patrick's Day is 
no exception to the rule and that Cath- 
olics, by their laxness in this matter, 
easily become stumbling blocks to their 
brethren and a source of scandal to 
outsiders. Copies of this timely leaflet 
can be had from the Diocesan Union 
of Sodalities, R. R. 4, Box 425, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

AVriting in the Revue CatJwlique des 
Idees et des Faits, of Brussels (Vol. 
V, No. 47), Fr. Val. Fallon, S. J., puts 
in a good word for medical examina- 
tion before marriage. He does not 
favor making the examination com- 
pulsory, but says that from the moral 



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1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



149 



no less than from the hygienic point of 
view it offers so many advantages that 
Catholic social reformers should work 
for its voluntary adoption. One who 
proposes to enter a state which will 
change his whole life, should satisfy 
himself whether he is physically able 
to fulfill the grave duties he is about 
to assume and to live up to the terms 
of the contract he is about to make. 
The medical examination is not so 
much of an innovation as it may seem 
to some, writes the Belgian Jesuit, and 
present-day conditions recommend its 
introduction. He adds some wdse 
counsels for examining physicians, 
whom he warns especially against the 
Neo-Malthusian errors now so widely 
current. 

Lord Charnwood has written a 
learned volume on the Fourth Gospel, 
under the title, "According to St. 
John" (London: Hodder & Stough- 
ton). Despite all the radical criticism 
of the last thirty years, he is convinced 
that the Fourth Gospel was the work 
of John, the son of Zebedee, or of an 
intimate disciple of his, and that it 
contains a record of authentic mem- 
cries. Though he admires "the cour- 
ageous and high-minded Loisy," Lord 
Charnwood has no patience with those 
who try to "explain away the origin 
of the Eucharist." 



Our Colored Missions (Vol. XII, No. 
21) agrees with the ideas expressed 
on "The Reorganization of Mission 
Aid" in the F. R. of June 1, 1925. 
Viewing the question more especially 
from the standpoint of the Negro mis- 
sions, our contemporary says that the 
Colored Mission Board pays about 
$5,000 a month to the Sisters teaching 
in the Negro schools of the South, but 
received only $2,000 from the various 
diocesan organizations between Sept. 
1, 1925, and Jan. 31, 1926. For the 
time being the Negro missions manage 
to exist mainly on the charity of those 
who are disobedient. But are they 
disobedient? "Our humble opinion," 
sa.ys the organ of the Colored Mission 
Board, "is that no one under God has 
any authority to tell any one how little 



he shall disburse in charity, nor where 
he shall disburse it. We believe that God 
allows to everyone the disposal of the 
goods he has earned, as long as these 
are not used to offend Him from whom 
the goods flow." All the missions, do- 
mestic and foreign, are suffering from 
the new regulations, and we think if 
the matter is put before the Roman 
authorities in the right way, the reor- 
ganization plan Avill have to be 
changed. 

"As a member of the International 
Court of The Hague, "said Lord Finlay 
in a recent address, "when I myself 
have occasion to quote Latin, I make 
a practice of reading it twice — once 
with the English pronunciation of the 
vowel sounds on which I was brought 
up, and a second time with the Italian 
vowel sounds, to make it intelligible to 
my colleagues." It is to Rome that 
the science of jurisprudence owes its 
origin, and it would be a not unfitting 
thing, if, a uniform pronunciation being 
adopted, Latin became the living lang- 
uage of the judgments, at least, of 
the Court in which that science now 
finds its best expression. 



In "Many Days in Morocco" (Lon- 
don : Philip Allan) Mr. John Home 
points out that the French government 
is erecting a magnificent mosque in 
Paris for the benefit of the Moslem citi- 
zens of the Republic, and appeals for 
similar action in London. 



In his little book, "Scruples" (Tal- 
bot Press), Dr. P. J. Gearon, 0. C. C, 
provides a simple remedy for a very 
serious spiritual malady. The patient 
must first be convinced that he has 
lost the power of judgment and clear 
perception of his own spiritual con- 
dition and, secondly, that he must 
therefore depend on the decision of an- 
other, who should, if possible, be an 
expert in the spiritual life. Above all 
the scrupulous person must be treated 
with sympathy, as one who has good 
will and is doing the best he can ac- 
cording to his lights. The difficulty 
lies in persuading him that it is his 
dutv to ignore his own convictions. 



150 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



This can be accomplished only if he is 
tanght to develop and exercise his will 
power, on which aspect of the subject 
the author gives some valuable hints. 

Msgr. Aug. Pelzer, of the Vatican 
Library, in a pamphlet, "Le Premier 
Livre des Reportata Parisiensia de 
Jean Duns Scot" (Louvain: Institut 
Superieur de Philosophic), demon- 
strates that we have not the genuine 
text of Scotus's Parisian lectures on 
the Book of Sentences. The edition 
by Jean Maire is corrupt and that of 
Wadding, which claims to be genuine, 
is based on a defective version by Aln- 
wick, which Wadding arbitrarily sup- 
plemented with extracts from Maire 's 
edition. The result of Pelzer 's re- 
searches, as Dr. B. Geyer points out 
{Theologische Revue, 1926, No. 1), is 
of great importance for the study of 
Scotism because Wadding's text, now 
seen to be doubtful, has hitherto been 
regarded as the most reliable expres- 
sion of the master's teaching. 



Cardinal Manning said to Hilaire 
Belloc, then in his twentieth year : ' ' All 
human conflict is ultimately theolog- 
ical." Belloc, now over fifty years of 
age, writes: "This saying (which I 
carried away with me somewhat be- 
wildered), that all human conflict was 
ultimately theological, that is that all 
wars and revolutions and all decisive 
struggles between parties of men arise 
from a difference in moral and trans- 
cendental doctrine, was utterly novel 
to me. To a young man the saying was 
without meaning. I would have almost 
said nonsensical, save that I could not 
attach the idea of folly to Manning. 
But as I grew older it became a search- 
light with the observation of the world, 
and wdth the continuous reading of his- 
tory, it came to possess for me a 
universal meaning so profound that it 
reached to the very roots of political 
action, so extended that it covered the 
whole. ' ' 

St. Samson of Dol was born in Wales 
about 486. He was educated and 
ordained at the school of St. Iltut, at 
Llantwit, near Cowbridge. He then 



JUST PUBLISHED 

That Fool Moffett 

By 
E. C. SCOTT 

Cloth, 8vo.; 360 pages; Art Jacket 
net $2.00 

The characterization was his own. 
Young Vincent Moffett. just finishing his 
medical course, was planning to take 
his place in the big house in the home 
town that for three generations had 
sheltered a Doctor Moffett — and to bring 
a bride thereto. The bride-to-be was 
lovely Rosemary Gilmore, his friend 
since childhood. Usually a most likable 
chap, but impetuous and hotheaded, when 
in a mad moment he lost his head and 
flung away his happiness — -"What a fool 
—what a fool!" he groaned in his loneli- 
ness. 

Even though he was a fool, the author 
evidently thinks a lot of Moffett — the 
outstanding character in a group every 
one of whom the reader will follow with 
keenest interest. There is Doctor Mof- 
fett, the somewhat stern father, who 
is looking forward to the day when his 
boy who, in accordance with his dead 
mother's wish has been attending the 
parish school, will go from the care of 
"those women," (the nuns) — "Oh, good 
women! None better, according to their 
lights" — to the college that had been 
his own Alma Mater. Father Hull, Vin- 
cent's pastor, persuades the doctor 
to send the boy to Notre Dame prep., 
with his chum, Dan Gilmore. Then comes 
the doctor's sudden death, and the dis- 
covery of his will, directing that Vincent 
be sent to a university noted for its 
"liberal" tendencies — a circumstance that 
changes the course of the boy's life. 

Space permits only the briefest mention 
of Essie, the pretty but captious little 
wife who, dismayed, says to herself after 
one of the quarrels she has precipitated: 
"Why, we are getting to be like the 
dreadful people who take their troubles 
to the police court!" Of her father, Jas- 
per Delavan, the klan "lecturer." Of 
Sara King, a splendid woman, who tries 
to steer Vince's matrimonial bark clear 
of the rocks. Of the other Gilmores — 
Dan, who becomes a priest, and dear 
little Pate (Patience) who has "won home 
so easily and so soon!" Of the one to 
whom Vince's heart cries out in futile 
longing: "Rosemary — Rosemary!" 

The story is told delightfully. What 
was said of a previous book of Mrs. 
Scott's: "It is illuminated by artistry, 
originality and kinship with life" — is 
equally true of this one. The lesson it 
conveys conflicts sharply with the lament- 
able modern tendency to make life a 
round of pleasure, regardless of conse- 
quences. The spirit of self-sacrifice comes 
to rule, bringing with it happiness and 
peace. 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



151 



entered the monastery of Piro (prob- 
ably Caldey), of which he eventually 
became abbot. On being consecrated 
bishop, he set out for Cornwall and, 
after travelling through that country, 
set sail for Brittany. He founded a 
monastery at Dol, where he died and 
was buried. The early 7th century 
life recently translated by Thomas Tay- 
lor (S. P. C. K.), belongs to a period 
not otherwise represented in literature 
except by the "De Escidio" of Gildas, 
written some seventy-five years before. 
Moreover, in its description of St. Sam- 
son 's ordinations, it throws light on 
the liturgical usages of the period. In 
the account of churches dedicated in 
the Saint's honor no mention is made 
of Milton Abbey nor of Caldey, whither 
his relics were solemnly translated a 
few years ago. 

The journalist's life is a laborious 
one, feverish and tyrannised by the 
exactions of actuality. We must not, 
therefore, judge them with severity and 
criticize every little defect in their 
work. They have a right to be treated 
with indulgence, because we owe them 
gratitude for the task they accomplish, 
for their good intention to do the right 
thing — to seek the peace of Christ in 
the reign of Christ. — Cardinal Mercier. 



Correspondence 



Catholic Plays 

To the Editor:— 

The wide-spread and successful movement 
for a better Catholic Stage, conducted by the 
Catholic Dramatic Company, of JBrooten, 
Minn., is sometimes misunderstood on account 
of the difference in the definition of a " Cath- 
olic play." Some people consider "a Cath- 
olic play" the same as "a religious play." 
This leads to the misunderstanding that the 
Catholic dramatic movement deals only with 
religious plays. 

What is a ''Catholic play"? Before an- 
swering this question we ask: "Who is a 
Catholic?" We answer, a Catholic is a man 
who practices his Catholic religion. A prac- 
tical Catholic not only goes to church on 
Sundays and fulfills his Easter duty, no, he 
is a Catholic in all his ways and at all times, 
not only on Sundays, but all the days of 
the week, not only in church, but also in 
his business and amusements. He is a man 



who lives according to the spirit of the Cath- 
olic Church. 

As the stage should represent real human 
life, so the Catholic stage must represent 
' ' Catholic life, ' ' it must breathe Catholic 
air. A Catholic play, therefore, is a play 
with a ' ' Catholic air. ' ' Not only religious 
plays, but also dramas and even comedies 
can have a ' ' Catholic air. ' ' 

Furthermore, a Catholic play must corre- 
spond with Catholic customs and the rules 
of the Church, that is to say, it must not 
be against the spirit of the season, for in- 
stance, the Holy Season of Lent requires that 
we avoid public amusements; therefore, any 
comedy or drama is not a proper Catholic 
play for Lent, while this time of penance is 
reserved for religious plays which are in 
harmony with the spirit of the season, es- 
pecially the different passion plays. 

"Catholic Plays for Catholic Stages" is 
our slogan. Where are you standing in this 
movement "for a better Catholic Stage"? 
Is the stage of your parish a ' * Catholic 
stage"? (Eev.) M. Helfen 

Brooten, Minn. 



Frequent and Daiiy Communion 

To the Editor: — 

Father Curran in the mid-March F. E. 
insists rightly and, let us hope, with much 
success, on the obligation which every priest 
has of "frequently and with great zeal" 
exhorting his people to frequent and daily 
Communion. It is no secret that not a few 
priests never exhort the people to these prac- 
tices, at least not in public. One wonders 
if the times have changed much since Cardi- 
nal Fischer wrote : " It is a sad truth that this 
Decree [Sacra Tr. Syn.] as well as the one 
on first holy Communion, finds passive resist- 
ance where it should be first of all welcomed 
and enforced. ' ' 

Father Curran says that I had referred him 
to the theologians. Now, I would be far 
from doing that. Since Pius X says that 
certain theologians of "good repute" judged 
that daily Communion should be allowed to 
the faithful only in rare cases and under 
many conditions, we have a right, so it seems 
to me, to look with some distrust and a crit- 
ical eye upon statements concerning holy 
Communion made by theologians. What 
I said was that Father Curran might leave 
the discussion of the reason why frequent 
Communion is necessary to the theologians, but 
that he could not deny the fact of the neces- 
sity. 

Now, in his communication he comes out 
plainly by saying : "to teach that there is an 
obligation of necessity requiring more than 
one Communion a year, is, I maintain, not 
taught either by the Church or by her 
theologians. ' ' This he says in spite of the 
fact that Pius X tells us in his decree : ' ' For 
Christ himself more than once, and in no 



152 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



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ambiguous terms, pointed out the necessity 
of frequently eating his Flesh and drinking 
his Blood. ' ' I feel that Father Curran does 
not Avant to insinuate that Communion once 
a year means frequent Communion. Well, 
if once a year is not frequent Communion, 
then it follows from the words of the Decree 
that Christ Himself teaches the necessity 
of going to Holy Communion oftener than 
once a year. If Father Curran is able to 
get around this passage of the decree, he can 
do more than I. A Priest 



Ugly Charges Against the Catholic Clergy 
of Porto Rico 

To the Editor:— 

The Living Church (Episcopalian) in its 
edition of February 13, 1926, page 506, says 
in an article on "Porto Eico Backgrounds": 

' ' A man in Porto Rico was talking not 
long ago about getting married. He had 
six or seven children, but he and their mother 
had never been married, a not uncommon 
state of things among the poor people of 
that island, and for this reason: They are 
still under the influence of four centuries 
oi' Spanish rule, when nothing was done with- 
out payment. To be married in the priest's 
house cost $10; for him to go to the home, 
$15; to be married in the church, $25 — this 
for a man earning forty cents a day. One 
of our priests, talking to the man above 



mentioned, said 'Well, see here, you ought 
to be married. ' The man said he could not 
pay to do so. Our missionary said next time 
lie came he would bring a certificate and 
marry them himself. When he did come, 
the man still demurred. Someone had told 
him that the missionary 's marrying could 
not be any good or he would not be willing 
to do it for nothing. The man would not be 
married, on the one hand, because he could not 
pay for it; and on the other, he would not 
believe in a marriage that cost him nothing. 
What, in such a case, can a missionary do?" 

I feel that if these charges are true, they 
should be brought to the attention of the 
proper ecclesiastical authorities, and if they 
are untrue, they should be refuted by the 
Catholic press. 

Practically the same claims are made by 
Protestant missionaries in the Philippine 
Islands and in Mexico. Eeports such as these 
certainly leave a bad taste in the mouth 
of American Catholics. (Rev.) A. J. D. 



The Eucharistic Prize Hymn 

To the Editor: — 

In regard to the official prize hymn to be 
used at the Eucharistic Congress at Chicago 
(cfr. F. R., XXXIII, 6, p. 117) the further 
question may be raised as to the propriety or 
even permissibility of employing at so em- 
inently a public function of Catholic wor- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



153 



ship as the Eucharistic Congress, a hymn 
of private composition, not officially sanc- 
tioned and used by the Church in her sacred 
liturgy. Surely the hymns of the Angelic 
Doctor, from a poetic as well as a dogmatic 
point of view, are prize hymns par excellence 
and, humanly speaking, will never be sur- 
passed. 

In comparison with the sonorous strains 
of the " Lauda Sion Salvatorem," for in- 
stance, the prize hymn selected by the com- 
mittee in charge pales into insignificance. An 
analysis of it goes to show that rhetorically 
it is an attempt at heroic verse (though not 
even metrically faultless), and dogmatically 
the first stanza refers to the Incarnation, the 
second to Christ 's prayer over His Apostles 
for unity of faith, and the third is a plea for 
international recognition of God. Except- 
ing the refrain, there is not as much as a 
word or a line directly relating to the cen- 
tral theme of the Eucharistic Congress, 
which is none other than the ' ' sacrificium 
incruentum Novi Testamenti. ' ' As this is 
attained by the celebration of the Holy 
Mass, the Eucharistic Congress being its 
projection on an international scale, and 
particularly so through the miracle of tran- 
substantiation, it is regrettable that this 
theme was not cast into bold relief in the 
prize hymn, as it has an added historical 
significance to the Catholic world, inasmuch 
as the confession of this nomen tecJinicum 
was at one time equivalent to incurring the 
penalty of death, deportation, imprisonment 
and confiscation of property. 

It is doubly regrettable that the commis- 
sion has not seen fit to acquaint the non- 
Catholic public of this country with the time- 
honored and well-nigh inspired compositions 
of a St. Bernard, a St. Thomas, and other 
Fathers and Doctors of the Church, but pre- 
fers the less than mediocre production of a 
private Catholic, even though she may happen 
to belong to the " devotus femineus sexus." 
What an admirable opportunity has been 
missed by the commission to open to an ad- 
miring public gaze the truly artistic as well 
as devotional treasures possessed by the 
Church in her divinely regulated forms of 
sacred) liturgy! The Avhole idea of a prize 
hymn and its setting to special music as 
against the grand old plain chant of the 
Church savors of the sensational and is not 
apt to attract the serious-minded. 
Shelby, Neb. (Eev.) A. Wagner 



Aquinas for Eucharistic Congresses. There 
was no "slogan" at any of the Eucharistic 
Congresses which I attended. 

(Eev. Dr.) Joseph Selinger 
Jefferson City, Mo. 



To the Editor: — 

I applaud the courage of publishing your 
criticism of ' ' The Nation 's Consecration. ' ' A 
venerable priest handed me the text some 
time ago for an opinion. Here it is; Theo- 
logically wrong; liturgically awry; poetically 
stilted. On the whole, unworthy the theme. 
Now let's get the melody! Are there not 
appropriate hymns a-plenty? " Eecedant 
veteta, nova sint omnia," was not meant by 



To the Editor:— 

Your criticism of the Prize-Hymn is per- 
fectly just, only too lenient. I read the 
hymn with disgust. Surely among the 3000 
submitted there must have been some far 
better than the one selected. 

This debacle is a good bait for the op- 
ponents of our parochial schools. 

(Eev.) Fr. Eeuter 
Zanesville, 0. 



To the Editor:— 

When I saw the article on the "Prize- 
Hymn" for the Eucharistic Congress (F. E., 
No. 6), I said: Deo gratias! At last some- 
one has the courage to speak the truth about 
that misshapen product of the ars poetical 
I think the least of the many Eucharistic 
hymns in existence would have been better 
than this. There are quite a few other 
things which seem strange in the prepara- 
tions for the Congress. For instance, in the 
Daily American Tribune it is reported that 
a non-Catholic won the prize for an essay 
on the Congress! S. L. 



The Catholic Foundation at the University 
of Illinois 

To the Editor:— 

The ideal place for a Catholic student 
is in a Catholic school. This holds true of 
the Catholic attendance at college or univer- 
sity, as it does at the elementary school or 
high school. There need be, and can be, no 
debate upon that suljject. It is a truism. 
Sometimes, however, objective conditions 
render impossible the realization of that 
ideal. Whether it be due at times to lack of 
Catholic schools, or teachers, or equipment, 
or courses, or finances on the part of the stu- 
dent, or to any other one of a hundred cir- 
cumstances, many students find it impossible 
to attend a Catholic school. 

For pupils unable to receive their educa- 
tion in a Catholic elementary school or high 
school, the effort is usually made to provide 
religious instruction by the pastor or by some 
suitable person approved by him. That Cath- 
olic students compelled by circumstances to 
attend the State University should be pro- 
vided with religious instruction adapted to 
their particular needs would seem to be de- 
manded by the same line of logical reasoning. 
Indeed it is not only demanded by a priori 
reasoning but it is commanded by His Holi- 
ness, Pope Pius X, in clear unequivocal words 
that admit of no evasion. In his encyclical 
on The Teaching of Christian Doctrine in 
1905 Pope Pius X ordains as follows: 



154 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



' ' We do decree and strictly command that 
in all dioceses throughout the world the fol- 
loioing regulations be observed and enforced: 
Where there are public academies, colleges 
aud universities, let religious doctrine classes 
be established for the purpose of teaching 
the truths of our faith and the precepts of 
Christian morality to the youths who attend 
such public institutions wherein no mention 
whatsoever is made of religion. ' ' 

In compliance with tliis papal decree, His 
Eminence Cardinal Mundelein and the Bish- 
ops of the State, with a solid unanimity 
which knew no shadow of division, have given 
everj^ aid and encouragement to the efforts 
to provide religious instruction to the Cath- 
olic students at the University of Illinois. 
To execute this decree of the Holy Father, 
the hierarchy of Illinois realized that some 
kind of a building in Avhich classes in the 
Catholic religion could be taught, is neces- 
sary. For six years an old ramshackle frame 
dwelling house, an aesthetic eye-sore on the 
campus, has been used. It is totally unable 
to accommodate the students either for classes 
or for attendance at daily Mass. Hence the 
hierarchy have been anxious to provide a 
building that will be adequate to minister to 
these important spiritual needs of the Cath- 
olic student body. That, in a nutshell, is the 
raison d'etre of the Newman Club Building 
or, as it is also called, The Catholic Founda- 
tion Building at the University of Illinois. 

Differing from His Holiness, Pope Pius X, 
and opposing the efforts of the Bishops of 
the State to execute this important papal 
decree to care adequately for Catholic stu- 
dents at State Universities, stands the Rev. 
John McGuire, S. J. By ridicule, sarcasm, 
and innuendo against the wisdom of the ac- 
tion of the hierarchy, Fr. McGuire would 
strangle the efforts to instruct that large 
body of Catholic students in the religion of 
Christ. 

His favorite mode of procedure is to paint 
the State school in the blackest possible colors 
as a veritable den of teeming iniquity. Listen 
to his alarming description of the State 
University as a place ' ' where a large num- 
ber of the professors are atheists, agnostics, 
infidels, or indifferent to revealed religion, ' ' 
and where "few subjects are treated with- 
out making them vehicles for false ideas, ' ' 
"high salaried professors in chairs of pesti- 
lence . . . may see the skull and cross-bones 
of their devilish (!!!) services, ' ' etc., ad 
nauseam. If one did not happen to know a 
few of the actual facts himself he might 
almost become hysterical after reading Fr. 
McGuire 's blood-curdling description of the 
iniquitous State University. 

Let it be clearly understood that the writer 
holds no brief for the State University. To 
prevent any misinterpretation let us repeat 
that the ideal place for the Catholic student 
when he can secure his desired courses, is 
at a Catholic school. Moreover, that some of 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



155 



the instructors at State Universities hold 
views on religion widely different from those 
of a Catholic, no one questions. But that 
Fr. McGuire presents a truthful picture of 
the University of Illinois (with which his ar- 
ticle on the Foundation is chiefly concerned) 
surely no one who is really acquainted with the 
institution, can admit. 

For almost a generation, those two great 
Christian educators, the late President James 
and the present incumbent, President Mc- 
Kinley, have been solicitous to place on the 
faculty men and women not only possessing 
technical and professional knowledge, but 
men and women who would not injure the 
moral character or steal the spark of religious 
faith from the hearts of their students. The 
great overwhelming majority of the faculty 
are religious men and women. Indeed the 
percentage definitely affiliated with a church 
is practically twice as high as prevails among 
the population at large. After nine years 
of almost daily contact with the faculty, 
with a personal acquaintance of hundreds of 
them, and after attending hundreds of lec- 
tures and classes, and after many confer- 
ences with the student body who are in- 
structed to report to the Chaplain any state- 
ment disparaging the Catholic Church, the 
Avriter is frankly unable to say Amen to the 
picture Fr. McGuire portrays. 

But then Fr. McGuire has a distinct ad- 
vantage over the writer, inasmuch as he has 
never (to our knowledge) set foot inside 
the University, and hence has no curb placed 
upon his riotous imagination. Whether or 
not the professors at Illinois are devils in- 
carnate, as Fr. McGuire implies, ready to 
pounce upon the incoming student and tear 
the spark of religious faith from his bosom 
may be judged from the following objective 
occurrence. Some seven years ago, when the 
Chaplain realized the necessity of securing 
academic credit for his lectures in religion in 
order to enable a larger number of students to 
follow them, and to devote enough time and 
study thereto, he petitioned the University 
Senate, composed of over one hundred faculty 
members, having full professorial rank, for 
credit for such religious courses. Though there 
was not a single Catholic in the Avhole Uni- 
versity Senate, that body took the unique 
and generous step of conferring academic 
credit upon courses in the Catholic religion, 
conducted by a Catholic priest for students 
ai^ a State University. The President has 
repeatedly stated in public meetings that 
the University is hungry to lend every pos- 
sible assistance to the churches to safeguard 
and strengthen the religious faith of their 
student members. His educational phil- 
osophy finds apt expression in his frequent in- 
sistence: "There is no complete education 
without religious training. The most im- 
portant phase of education is the development 
of character. Character cannot he developed 



in the best sense without ielief in, faith in, 
God." 

Knowing these actual facts, the writer 
has not been able to gallivant up and down 
the State like Fr. McGuire, railing at the 
University as swarming with "atheists, ag- 
nostics, and infidels," or painting the pro- 
fessors as devils incarnate interested only 
in robbing students of their religious faith. 
This makes Fr. McGuire wrathy against the 
writer. Fr. McGuire seems to forget, how- 
ever, that e-ue?! a State University has a right 
to its good name. He seems to forget that 
veiled slander and misrepresentation of even 
a State University is a breach of the moral 
law. Even professors at a State University 
who do everything possible to enable the 
churches to discharge their duty to their 
student members have a right to protection 
against being branded by clear implication 
before the people of the State, as devils 
incarnate. 

The writer submits that we Catholics who 
have suffered the most from this type of 
grotesque misrepresentation and slander, 
should be the last people in the world to 
indulge in such vilification. The rabid lec- 
turer who brands our priests, sisters and re- 
ligious with foul names, always refraining 
from mentioning specific circumstances of 
time, of name, of place, though he may be 
technically free from legal libel, merits the 
condemnation of all fair-minded people. 

Fr. McGuire 's idea in thus blackening the 
State University is apparently to convey the 
impression that the Catholic students who go 
there under any circumstances are practically 
always robbed of their faith. To confirm 
this viewpoint, he continues : ' ' Listen to* a 
prominent lawyer in one of our large cities. 
* I don 't know of a single (!!!) student that 
went from my Alma Mater to a secular univer- 
sity and left it sound in faith and morals.' " 
(Burning Questions, p. 17.) Note again how 
he discreetly cloaks it in anonymity. It is so 
directly at variance with our experience and 
with the experience of chaplains at other 
universities whose signed testimony the author 
has before him, that the writer challenges 
Fr. McGuire to name the lawyer, the students, 
their number, the Alma Mater and the secular 
universities attended, so the cause of such 
appalling and incomprehensibly uniform 
mortality of the students from that Alma 
Mater can be determined. By all means let 
us have the facts so an investigation can be 
made! 

Fr. McGuire has had Mr. C. H. Heithaus, 
S. J., writing all over the State concerning 
addresses as far back as six and eight years 
to try to find one public utterance of the 
writer which might be stretched into an in- 
vitation or approval of a student 's attend- 
ance at Illinois. Let him add to Mr. Heithaus' 
Scotland Yard labors the investigation of 
this incredible statement of "a prominent 
lawyer. ' ' 



156 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



Fr. MeGuire never tires of describing the 
alleged "spiritual apathy" of the Catholic 
students at Illinois and other State uni- 
versities. While the writer does not main- 
tain that the Catholic students are about 
ready to sprout wings or replace the angelic 
clioirs of the Cherubim or Seraphim, they 
are on the whole a splendid body of faithful 
practical Catholic men and women. Crowd- 
ing our little church four times on Sunday 
morning, hundreds receiving Holy Commun- 
ion, unable to accommodate the crowd at the 
Sunday evening services in Lent, with the 
Foundation Chapel overflowing with students 
at daily Mass, the Chaplain cannot subscribe 
to Fr. McGuire 's gloomy picture of them. 
In a later article, the writer will expose the 
inaccuracy of Fr. McGuire 's statement of 
their alleged apathy in regard to the courses 
in religion. Let Fr. McGuire listen to the 
opinion of a man who has devoted almost his 
entire life to Catholic college work, and who 
labored daily among the Catholic students 
at Illinois for six months — the scholarly Fr. 
J. W. K. McGuire, C. S. V. "I have yet to 
find a finer or more stalwart brand of prac- 
tical Catholicity than that prevailing among 
the Catholic student body at Illinois. ' ' 

About two years ago Fr. McGuire con- 
ducted a Thirteen Hour Devotion for the 
students. While here, he had no single word 
of counsel to offer in regard to the Founda- 
tion plan. Two years later he goes out to 
Kansas City and writes ' ' some seats were 
vacant ' ' at the evening service. In spite of 
the fact that the sermons were among the 
weakest ever preached here on such an oc- 
casion, the students Avith their usual devotion 
packed the church, filling the aisles even with 
folding chairs. When the paper containing 
Fr. McGuire 's statement was mailed from the 
Anti-foundation Propaganda . Headquarters 
to some of the clergy of the country they 
were indignant. ' ' How can Fr. McGuire, ' ' 
said one priest, ' ' seek to create the impres- 
sion that there was a slim attendance when 
the church was packed, even to special fold- 
ing chairs in the aisles?" Not only the ten 
priests present can testify to its uncomfort- 
ably crowded condition, but hundreds of stu- 
dents remain as eyewitnesses of its over- 
packed condition. The writer will allow 
Father McGuire to appease the righteous in- 
dignation of the priests and student body 
by explaining his peculiar method of handling 
the truth. But why go on? This is typical 
of the flood of misrepresentation which has 
deluged the State seeking to frustrate the 
plan of the hierarchy for the instruction of 
Catholic students at the University of Illi- 
nois in the religion of Jesus Christ. 

(Eev.) John A. O'Brien, Ph. D., Chaplain 
of Catholic Students at the University of 
Illinois. 






Eine mariologische Frage 

Dogmatisch-kritische Studie von Ferdinand 
Heinrich Schiith S. J. 

364 Seiten.— Gebunden $1.75. 

Seit den Tagen des tiefschiirfenden Mario- 
logen Scheeben ist wohl kein Bueh in deutscher 
Sprache erschienen, das so griindlieh und 
eingehend die grosse Frage der Stellung 
Marias im Erlosungsplan, ihre Mitwirkung 
beim Erlosungswerk and ihre .Gnadenmittler- 
schaft behandelt. Das Buch ist zugleich 
aktuell, well ja die Lehre der Gnadenvermitt- 
lung Marias vielleicht in Balde Gcgenstand 
einer dogmatischen Entseheidung sein wird. 
Naeli dem Urteil berufener Faehkritiker ist 
dieses Werk eine wertvolle Bereicherung der 
Mariologie. 

Der bekannte Theologe Arndt urteilt: ,,Ein 
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t 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



157 



THE ECHO 

A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
•Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
who used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follows the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
to priests. 

Price, $1.00 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, clevSand" a 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



—Under the title "Easter Chimes, Med- 
itations and Sermons for Holy Week and 
Easter,"" the Et. Eev. Msgr. James C. Byrne 
offers, through the E. M. Lohmann Company, 
of St. Paul, Minn., a symposium of beautiful 
thoughts on the Passion and the Eesurreetion 
of Our Divine Saviour, which are so original 
and suggestive in conception and couched in 
such an attractive style that Bishop Alex- 
ander McDonald, himself a writer of repute, 
does not hesitate to compare them with the 
late Bishop Hedley's discourses on the same, 
— or, rather, on other phases of the same 
subject. The author is most impressive, per- 
haps, in his reflections on the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus, though he seems unaware of the 
fact that the devotion to the Sacred Heart 
is much older than St. Margaret Mary Ala- 
coque. The booklet is tastefully printed and 
beautifully bound in olive green with gold 
lettering. 

— Among recent publications of J. Fischer 
& Bro., 119 W. 40th Str., New York City, are 
an Easy Mass in Honor of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary of Perdolenti, by E. Bottigliero, a 
Missa Brevis in Honorem S. Josephi for 
mixed voices with organ accompaniment, by 
Joseph J. McGrath, and a Cantata, "The 
House of Wisdom, ' ' in honor of St. Made- 
leine Sophie Barat, Foundress of the So- 
ciety of the Sacred Heart, words by Sarah 
Brownson, music by Theodore Heinroth. 

— ' ' A Practical Commentary on the Code 
of Canon Law, ' ' by the Eev. Stanislaus 
Woywod, 0. F. M., in two volumes of about 
700 pages each, holds the middle between the 
large commentaries of Augustine and Ayrin- 
hac (not yet complete) and the smaller one- 
volume works. It is written by an author well 
known to the English-speaking public, and 
with particular relerence to the needs of the 
parochial clergy, who, we think, will find the 
work useful and reliable. A reviewer of the 
work in America criticized the author for not 
c^uoting the actual text of all the canons 
discussed, but this would have increased the 
size of the work by another volume, and, 
besides, it is a safe assumption that by 
this time the new Code, in one of its several 
editions, is in the hands of all the clergy. 
A more plausible complaint is that Fr. Stan- 
islaus often hesitates to point out a clear 
line of action. But this is an almost inevit- 
able .defect, as many points are left in doubt, 
and the true meaning of the law cannot be 
definitively stated until the Commission for 
the Authentic Interpretation of the Code has 
spoken. The author intends to publish semi- 
annual or annual supplements, containing the 
decisions of the Commission, together with 
other Eoman documents of canonical interest, 
so that his Commentary, like Nelson's Loose- 
Leafi, Encyclopedia, will be kept constantly 
up to date, — another feature which is dis- 



158 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



tinctive and gives the work particular value. 
(Joseph F. Wagner, Inc., 54 Park Place, 
New York City). 

—"The Young Apostle," by the Rev. 
Wm. Godfrey, a book of English provenience, 
contains a series of conferences for students 
preparing for Holy Orders. The idea of 
vocation adopted by the author is that of 
Canon Lahitton, and the principal poles 
around Avhich the preparation revolves are 
purification and enlightenment. The well Avrit- 
ten book has the Westminster imprimatur. 
(Benziger Bros.) 

— Father Edw. F. Garesche, S. J., has 
publislied a second volume of ' ' Sodality 
Conferences," dealing mostly with the spirit- 
ual aspects of sodality life. This volume, 
together with that previously published under 
the same title, and the author 's other two 
books, ' ' Social Organization in Parishes ' ' and 
' ' Children of Mary, ' ' constitute a series that 
will prove helpful to zealous directors and 
sodalists. (Benziger Bros.) 

—"At the Parting of the Ways," by 
Father Herbert Lucas, S. J., and "In the 
Morning of Life," by the same author, have 
recently appeared in new editions, the third 
and fourth, respectively. The last-mentioned 
volume has been enlarged by the insertion of 
four meditations. We are glad that these 
excellent books for boys and young men have 
been so favorably received and repeat our 
previous recommendation of them. Nothing 
better can be found to put into the hands 
especially of high school and college students 
with a serious turn of mind. (Sands & Co. 
and B. Herder Book Co.) 

— ' ' The House with Dummy Windows and 
Other Stories," by a Nun of Tyburne Con- 
vent (Sands & Co. and B. Herder Book Co.), 
is a collection of eleven short well told 
stories, with an edifying, yet not obtrusive, 
religious note. The book makes a fine gift 
for adolescent girls. 

—"Twelve and After," by F. H. Drink- 
water, editor of The Soiuer, an English Cath- 
olic educational magazine, is described in 
the sub-title as "a book of teacher's ma- 
terial for the religious instruction of older 
children. " It is well adapted for that pur- 
pose, though there are a few ineptitudes which 
should be corrected in the next edition (cfr. 
America, Vol. XXXIII, No. 17). There is 
a real organic unity in the course. The ma- 
terial is broken up, not into lessons, but into 
subject-sections. Many Scripture references 
are given. In the hands of a good teacher 
this book can undoubtedly be made most 
effective. (Benziger Bros.) 

—"The End of the World and of Man" 
and ' ' The Three Divine Virtues ' ' are two 
new volumes by the Rev. D. I. Lanslots, O. 
S. B. They are dogmatic in character, 
though evidently not intended as text-books 
for the use of seminarists, but rather for 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

(Terms: Cash with Order; Postage Pre- 
paid to any Part of the U. S.) 



Raupert, J. Godfrey. Die Geister des Spiri- 
tismus. Innsbruck, 1925. 50 cts. (Wrap- 
per). 

Stanley, Hy. M. My Early Travels and 
Adventures in America and Asia. 2 
vols. N. Y., 1905. $2. 

Meyer, Fulgenee, O. F. M. "Uni Una." 
To the One God My One Soul. Retreat 
Lectures and Readings. Cincinnati, 1925. 
$2. 

Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. With 
Introduction and Notes by F. A. Purcell 
and L. M. Somers. Chicago, 1915. 50 cts. 

Garesche, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
zation in Parishes. N. Y. 1921. $1.50. 

Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
Empire. Denver, 1925. $1.25. 

Poulain, Aug. (S. J.). Handbuch der 
Mystik. 2te u. 3te gekiirzte Auflage. 
Freiburg i. B., 1925. $2. 

S. M. C, Parables for Grown-up Children. 
With a Foreword by Fr. Edwin Essex. 
O. P. London, 1925. 70 cts. 

Peers, A. Thoughts of Bl. Ramon Lull for 
Every Day. London, 1925. 60 cts. 

Tunstall, C. Certain Godly and Devout 
Prayers. Tr. by Thos. Paynell. Ed. by 
Dom. Roger Hudleston, O. S. B. London, 
1925. 70 cts. 

The Little Office of the Bl. Virgin Mary 
and the Office of the Dead with the 
Penitential Psalms and the Litany of 
the Saints from the Roman Breviary. 
First ed. according to the 3rd Typical 
Vatican Edition. Latin text with Eng- 
lish rubrics and notations. Ratisbon, 
1925. $1.50. 

Detweiler, F, G. The Negro Press in the 
U. S. Chicago, 1922. $1. 

O'Malley, Austin. The Cure of Alcoholism. 
St. Louis, 1913. $1. 

Twelve and After. A Book of Teachers ' 
Material for the Religious Instruction of 
Older Children by the Editor of The 
Sower. London, 1925. $1.35. 

Seisenberger, M. A Practical Handbook 

for the Study of the Bible and of 
Bible Literature. Tr. by A. M. Buchan- 
an and Edited by Rev. Thos. J. Gerrard. 
N. Y., 1911. $2. 

Gearon, P. (0. C. C). Scruples: Words of 
Consolation. 2nd ed. Dublin, 1925. $1. 

Heilniann, A. Vom kostbaren Lel)en. Sonn 
tagsgedanken. Freiburg, 1925. 80 cts. 

Kolbe, Msgr. Upon the Slopes of Mount 
Sion. A Progress from Puritanism to 
Catholicism. London, 1924. $1. 

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
5851 Etzel Ave. St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



159 



popular reading. To this purpose they are 
well adapted. (Fr. Pustet Co., Inc.) 

— A four-volume work of meditations on the 
life of Christ, "Das Leben Jesu, Betraeh- 
tungen besonders f iir Ordensleute, ' ' by the 
Eev. Ignaz Watterott, 0. M. I., deserves to 
be warmly recommended to all who are con- 
cerned about the spiritual life. If sincere 
and intimate devotedness to the person of 
Christ is the very heart of spiritual health 
and holiness, it is easy to see how vital and 
perennial must be the duty of acquiring an 
ever fuller and deeper knoAvledge of the 
God-Man. For knowledge must needs pre- 
cede love and loyal service. The method 
of tho author is that of exegetical exposi- 
tion of a portion of the Scripture text, fol- 
lowed by apposite practical applications to 
life. The subject matter is arranged to corre- 
spond to the seasons of the ecclesiastical 
year, the. ■whole of the Life being distributed 
through 366 meditations. The Scripture texts 
are always given in full. (F. Schoningh, 
Paderborn). 

— In a booklet of 110 pages, titled 
* ' Liebe, ' ' Father Eric Przyvvara, S. 
J., favorably known for his translations and 
studies of Cardinal Newman, has gotten out 
a thought-provoking little treatise on a sub- 
ject of perennial interest to all spiritual- 
minded souls. The thoughts and illustrations 
are in great measure drawn from the words 
of the Apostles SS. Paul and John and from 
the works of St. Augustine. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

New Books Received 

Selma. A Novel by Isabel C. Clarke. 370 

pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $2 net. 
Ideals of Life. Graduation Plays for Boys 

and Girls, in Dialogues, Songs andi^ Five 

Pictures. By Eev. M. Helfen. 12, pp. 

16mo. Brooten, Minn. : Catholic Dramatic 

Co. (Wrapper). 
Easter Chimes. Meditations and Sermons for 

Holy Week and Easter. By Rt. Eev. Msgr. 

James C. Byrne. 2nd ed. 78 pp. 16mo. 

St. Paul, Minn.: The E. M. Lohmann Co. 

$1 net. 
Storia Ecclesiastica Contemporanea (1900- 

1925). Par Orazio M. Premoli, Barnabita. 

xi & 496 pp. 8vo. Turin, Italy: Marietti. 

L. 27. (Wrapper). 
Summarium Theologiae Moralis ad Codicem 

luris Canonici Accommodatum. Auctore 

Nicol. Sebastiani. Ed. Sva minor, recog- 

nita. 659 pp. 16mo. Turin, Italy: Marietti. 

(Wrapper). 
De Censuris Latae Sententiae iuxta Codicem 

luris Canonici. Auctore Alb. D. Cipollini. 

viii & 261 pp. 8vo. Turin, Italy: Marietti. 

(Wrapper). 
Back to Morality. By the Eev. T. Slater, S. 

J. viii & 180 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. 

$2 net. 



Siimmariuvi Theologiae Moralis ad Codicem 
luris Canonici Accommodatum. Auctore 
Nicol. Sebastiani. Ed. 7ma maior, recog- 
nita. 404 pp. 8vo. Turin, Italy: Marietti. 
L. 13.50. (Wrapper). 

Philosophia Naturalis in Usum Scholarum. 
Auctore Carolo Frank S. J. (Pars III of 
the Cursus Philosophicus of the Valken- 
burg Jesuits), xv H 365 pp. 12mo. Her- 
der & Co. $2 net. 

St. Joan of Arc. A Study of the Superna- 
tural in her Life and Mission. By the 
Chanoine Justin Rousseil. Translated by 
the Eev. Joseph Murphy, S. J. sviii & 272 
pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $2.75 net. 

HandMich sur iihlischen Gescliichte. Von 
Schuster-Holzammer. 8te, neubearbeitete 
Auflage. Zweiter (Sehluss-) Band. Das 
Neue Testament. Bearbeitet von Dr. Jakob 
Schaefer. Mit 55 Bildern im Text und 
auf Tafeln, sowie 2 Karten. xx & 782 pp. 
large Svo. Herder ik.^ Co. $7 net. 

Ber Intuitionshegriff in der Icath. Beligions- 
pMlosophie der Gegenwart. Von Dr. theol. 
Simon Geiger. (Freiburger Theologische 
Studien, 30. Heft), viii & 111 pp. 8vo. 
Herder & Co. $1.65. (Wrapper). 

Sinn und Wert der Eucharistie. Von Her- 
mann Muckermann. Mit einem Titelbild. 
iv & 74 pp. 16mo. Herder & Co. 75 cts. 
net. 

Martin Luther s Lei en und sein Werk. 
Zusammenfassend dnrgestellt von Hart- 
mann Grisar S. J. Mit 13 Tafeln. xxxvi 
& 560 pp. large 8vo. Herder & Co. $4.50 
net. 

Report of the Et. Eev. Eenier Sevens, Vicar 
for Missions of the Diocese of Oklahoma, 
for the Fiscal Year 1925. 30 pp. 12mo. 
(Wrapper). 



"FOR A BETTER 
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And you will receive the right to obtain 

"SPECIAL EATES" on prices and 

Eoyalty fees. 

Address: 

CATHOLIC DRAMATIC COMPANY 
Rev. M. Helfen, Brooten, Minn. 



160 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



An old Negro woman stood by the side of 
her husband's grave, and said mournfully: 
"Poor Eastus! I hope he is gone where I 
'spect he ain't." 



Somebody has devised, under the name 
of thrift, a scheme for completely disorgan- 
izing world finance. His proposition is to 
put ten dollars out at interest and allow it 
to compound for 1,000 years. At the end 
of that period it is reckoned that the inno- 
cent and ineffectual sum will have grown to 
$5,374,523,852,824,329. "The fate of the 
ten dollars can be readily imagined," eays 
"Drifter" in The Nation. "In about the 
year 2025, when innumerable bank clerks 
have transferred the dead account through 
innumerable ledgers, when innumerable mis- 
takes have been made in the computation of 
the interest, when a dozen bookkeepers have 
committed suicide because of it, when half 
as many bank presidents have cudgeled their 
brains over what to do with it, a council of 
international financiers Avill be called to de- 
bate the subject of the ill-fated ten dollars. 
It will be decided that the thing has gone 
far enough, and a fund will be established 
for the prevention of cruelty to gold fish or 
some other worthy object. ' ' 

Carl Sandburg in iiis new biography of 
Abraham Lincoln tells this anecdote: Lincoln 
attended a religious meeting at w'hich Peter 
Cartwright, famed Methodist circuit rider, 
Avas to preach. In due time Cartwright made 
the request that "all who desire to lead a 
new life, to give their hearts to God, and 
go to Heaven, will stand." All stood up, 
except Lincoln. In a grave voice the preach- 
er said: "I observe that many responded to 
the first invitation to give their hearts to 
God and go to Heaven. And I further ob- 
serve that all of you save one indicated that 
you did not desire to go to hell. The sole 
exception is Mr. Lincoln, who did not re- 
spond to either invitation. May I inquire 
of you, Mr. Lincoln, where you are going?" 
Lincoln rose slowly nnd deliberately said: 
"I came here as a respectful listener. I did 
not know that I was to be singled out. I 
believe in treating religious matters with 
due solemnity. I admit that the questions 
propounded by Brother Cartwright are of 
great importance. I did not feel called upon 
to answer as the rest did. Brother Cart- 
wright asks me directly where I am going. I 
desire to reply with equal directness: I am 
going to Congress ! ' ' And the meeting broke 
up. 

A negro recently came to the White House 
to ask President Coolidge to declare a Day 
of Prayer for the nation. He was arrested 
and put under observation for insanity. Signs 
multiply that anybody who takes religion 
seriously to-day is a suspicious person, es- 
pecially in Washington. — Uniiy, XCVI, 23. 




J. SELLMANN 

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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



161 



SCHONERE ZUKUNFT 



This Vienna Aveekly magazine, which, 
under the editorship of Dr. Joseph Eberle, 
has built up a wide circulation, will be- 
gin a thorough study of International 
^loney. 

The question of social reform must be 
dealt with fearlessly from a Catholic 
point of view, according to the import- 
ance of problems and tlae importance of 
crises. International Money now con- 
trols the world 's destinies. Not only does 
it hold industry in its grip, but it has 
far-reaching influence on politics, on the 
general social condition, on the press, 
the theatre, the schools. Sclwnere Zulcunft 
will discuss the entire subject with a great- 
er thoroughness and directness than have 
hitherto been granted it by any religious 
magazine. 

Among the books to be discussed are 
Werner Sombart 's ' ' The Bourgeois, ' ' 
Harold Spencer's "Democracy or Shy- 
lockcracy, ' ' and Brook 's ' ' Corruption in 
Ajnerican Politics. ' ' Among the contrib- 
utors engaged are such prominent leaders 
as Alois Lichtenstein and Bishop Ottakar 
Prochazka. 

SCHONEREfZUKUNFT 

Vienna XIX, Nusswaldgasse 14, Austria 

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CATHOLIC DRAMATIC GUILD 

And you will receive the right to obtain 

"SPECIAL RATES" on prices and 

Eoyalty fees. 

Address: 

CATHOLIC DRAMATIC COMPANY 
Rev. M. Helfen, Brooten, Minn. 



Tf 



A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprisiyig and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rareh' that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



Mass Intention Book 

for 

1926 

This book is quite different from 
last year's, improved in a number 
of features, as suggested by Priests 
w^ho used the Calendar last year. 

The arrangement follov/s the Or- 
do, stating all pro Populo Masses. 
Ruled on one side of the book for 
stipends received, and on the other 
for intentions fulfilled. 

In the back are sheets for trans- 
ferring Masses. Additional sheets 
will be furnished free on request 
lo priests. 

Price, $1.00 



JOHN W. WINTERICH, 



1865 PROSPECT AV. 
CLEYEIAND, 0. 

Furnished by all Church Supply Houses 



162 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



WHAT FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS WILL DO 

SIX PER CENT AND ABSOLUTE SECURITY 
ON FIRST MORTGAGE NOTES FROM S500 UP 

Every Investor has always received every dollar of Principal and Interest on loans bought through our 
company. All loans secured by well-located improved income-property. Monthly Sinking Fund provides for 
gradual retirement of the debt and makes repayment of principal and interest a certainty. 

DKSCRIPTIVE BOOKLET ON REQUEST 

CHOUTEAU TRUST COMPANY 

CHOUTEAU, HEMP AND VANDEVENTER AVENUES , 

L. \v. HEMP, President S. l. ST. jean, Secretarv-Treastl^keh J. "W. >VESTOlv, Vice-Pres. 



THE PERPETUAL NOVENA CONDUCTED BY THE FRIARS OF 
THE ATONEMENT AT ST. ANTHONY'S FAMOUS GRAYMOOR 

SHRINE 

It is estimated from the records kept \)y the 
Friars of the Atonement that approximately 
seventy-five thousand testimonials have been re- 
ceived by them from clients of St. Anthony in 
thanksgiving for favors received through the Per- 
petual Novena to the Wonder- Worker of Padua 
conducted at Graymoor. Test this Novena for 
yourself. 

A FEW AMONG THOUSANDS 

J. V. M., Ohio : ' ' Please accept small offering 
of twenty-five dollars in thanksgiving to St. 
Anthony for his patronage the past year. Prior 
to the current year Ave lost money in our opera- 
tions; but this year we will more than break even. 
AVe hope to repeat this again next year. ' ' 

Mrs. C. D., Seattle: "Enclosed find offering 
and many thanks. I wrote some time ago to in- 
clude me in the Novena for the sale of a house. 
A¥e had it in three agencies, but could not sell. 
It was vacant nearly a year. It would soon have 

gone for taxes; but thank God and St. Anthonv, in the course of the Novena it was 

sold. ' ' 

Mrs. C. M., Ontario: "Enclosed find five dollars my husband and I promised 
St. Anthony if he would find one hundred dollars which Ave lost. It Avas found and re- 
turned. Kindly publish, as we are very grateful." 

Mrs. S. C, Schenectady, N. Y. : "1 enclose check for tAventy-five dollars to be 
applied to St. Anthony's Bread in thanksgiving for tAvo very great favors received 
through his intercession. One was the complete recovery of my Mother, Avho had 
already been anointed for death; and the other, the recovery of a friend." 

J. J. M., Trenton, N. J.: "Enclosed find check for tAventy-five dollars. You may 
use this as you desire for charitable purposes. This is given in appreciation of the 
many favors received by us through the intercession of St. Anthony. ' ' 

M. C, South Carolina : ' ' Recently a friend lost her diamond ring, and Avas con- 
sequently very much distressed. After praying to St. Anthony, and promising a Mass 
of Thanksgiving I found it among the leaves on the ground Avhere it had slipped off 
her finger. ' ' 

Prayers and directions for making the Novena will be sent upon request, ten cents 
postpaid. We have also a fcAV copies of the "Life of St. Anthony," tAventy-five cents, 
postpaid. Address your petitions to 

ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 




The Fortni§:htly Review 



VOL. XXXIII, No. 8 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



April 15tli, 1926 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



Archbishop Curley on the CathoHc 
Foundation Plan 

Foremost among those who oppose 
the plan of Catholic fonnclations at 
secular universities (not to be con- 
founded Avith chaplaincies for the bene- 
fit of those who are unavoidably study- 
ing at these institutions) is Archbishop 
Curley, of Baltimore, who said in a 
recent address at AVashington : 

"It has been said that Catholic 
education is merely secular education 
plus instruction in religion and that 
secular education is merely Catholic 
education with religious instruction 
left out. Both of these contentions are 
false and evidence an ignorance of the 
true purposes and worth of Catholic 
education. In a Catholic education 
religion permeates the verj' atmosphere 
of the school. There are great numbers 
of Catholic men and women attending 
purely secular universities. For their 
care there has groAvn up a s.ystem which 
would add to their secular courses but 
a smattering of religious instruction. 
I find that the atmosphere of secular- 
ism in these big institutions of learn- 
ing has had such a great influence 
upon our own priests attending, that 
they have become contaminated. I 
sound the warning against this plan. 
I consider it destructive of our whole 
educational work of three centuries. 
I consider it disloyal to the mind of 
the Church. I find the plan opposed 
to the mind of the Church, dangerous 
to the faith and dangerous to the minds 
and morals of the youth." 

This has been our own view from the 
beginning, and the recent debate be- 
tM^een Dr. O'Brien and Father Mc- 
Guire has confirmed us in the convic- 
tion that the Foundation plan con- 
stitutes a great peril to Catholic educa- 



tion. No doubt after the matter has 
been thoroughly considered in all its 
aspects, those of our bishops who have 
been friendly to the Foundation Plan 
will withdraw their support from it. 

Mission Work in Oklahoma 

The F. R. is indebted to Bishop F. 
C. Kelley for a copy of the first annual 
Report of the Rt. Rev. Renier Sevens, 
Vicar for Missions of the Diocese of 
Oklahoma, covering the fiscal j^ear 
1925. This office of vicar of missions is 
a new one and, backed by the prayers 
and support of both clergy and faith- 
ful, the first year's work of Msgr. 
Sevens has been most encouraging. The 
mission work has been systematized and 
by means of a "Third Sunday Envel- 
ope Collection" the diocesan works re- 
ceived over $5,000 more than ever be- 
fore in the history of the diocese and 
the receipts for missions were multi- 
plied by sis. The work done with the 
funds gathered from this and other 
sources is engagingly set forth in the 
Vicar's report. Two points are of more 
than diocesan interest. The one is the 
auxiliary support given to the priests 
sent into sections where the Catholics 
are poor and scattered. The Oklahoma 
plan is to let the people do all they can 
and then supply what is lacking for the 
actual necessities. $1,784 was spent 
for this purpose in 1925. 

The greatest consolation on the basis 
of tangible results was derived from 
the Negro missions of the diocese. Mis- 
sions to the colored were given in 
several places, and at least one new 
parish was established. New converts 
are being constantly added to the color- 
ed Catholic groups of the diocese, and 
the Vicar says (p. 23) : "It is folly 
to say that the work done for the color- 
ed people produces no results. We 



164 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



know different. This is the most fertile 
of fields." 

AVe have no space to enter into the 
details of this most interesting and 
edifying report, and hence can only 
call attention in passing to what is said 
in Msgr. Sevens 's report about the role 
of the automobile as an aid to country 
pastors in attending to the needs of 
their flocks. For scattered missions, he 
says, the automobile, more particularly 
the Ford, "is not a luxury but a 
necessity. ' ' 

A Crisis in Theosophy 

Since the F. R. last discussed devel- 
opments among the Theosophists (Vol. 
XXXII, No. 1, p. 8), Mrs. Annie 
Besant, at the jubilee celebration of the 
Theosophieal Society, held at Adyar, 
Madras, in the presence of thousands 
of adherents developed her declaration 
already emphasized at a congress in 
Plolland that a new "world teacher," 
whose twelve apostles had already been . 
appointed, was shortly to reveal him- 
self. This teacher, known hitherto to 
the initiated under the name of "the 
Lord Maitraya" — a Buddhist Bod- 
hisattva (successor to the Buddha)- — 
was identical with the Christ of the 
Gnostic interpretation, i. e., a divine 
manifestation through the body of a 
human individual. He would take to 
himself the prepared body of the 
young Brahman, Mr. J. Krishnamurti, 
and by the substitution of a divine 
personality speak and act through him. 
The youth, in a speech at the conven- 
tion, accepted the honor for which he 
was selected by Mrs. Besant some years 
ago. The eclectic character of the new 
creed is shown by Mr. Krishnamurti 's 
dedication of a Hindu temple, and in 
other parts of the world buildings of 
other religious types are being erected 
as centres for the mission. The "Apos- 
tles" have been given the title of 
bishops, and include Messrs. Wedg- 
wood, Arundale, Pigott, Leadbeater 
(whose teachings led to a considerable 
secession from Theosophy in 1906), 
and Oscar Kollerstrom. They claim to 
derive their orders by succession from 
the "Liberal Catholic Church." 



The new religion, however, has met 
with a mixed reception among Theos- 
ophists. Two national branches — those 
of Canada and Czechoslovakia — have 
seceded in protest. The London Lodge, 
the oldest lodge in the United King- 
dom, has withdrawn from the Society. 
There have been many individual seces- 
sions, but the National Council of the 
Theosophieal Society in England has 
adhered by a majority to the new cult. 
Mr. Loftus Hare, one of its prominent 
opponents, estimates that of nearly 
5,000 members of the Society in Eng- 
land one-third do not accept Mrs. 
Besant "s directives. 

The Human Side of Kant I 

Reii'hls Philosophischer Alman- 
ach" for 1924 was devoted entirely 
to Immanuel Kant, on account of the 
200th anniversary of his birth. The 
contributors deal \\\{\i the "Sage of 
Konig.sberg " less on the philosophic 
than the personal, biographical, and 
])il)]iographical side. The purely bio- 
gi-aphical essays seem to be inspired by 
the desire to "bring Kant down to 
earth,'" to show that he was not the 
absolutely aloof character of popular 
conception. Heine was chiefly respons- 
ible for the idea of Kant 's ' ' abstract ' ' 
life; and his "Lebensgeschiehte" of 
Kant — which begins with the mocking 
stntence, "Kant's life history is diffi- 
cult to describe, for he had neither 
'life' nor 'history,' — is made the text 
for an excellent essay on Kant as ' ' Der 
elegante Magister," by Otto Schon- 
diirffer. Here we are assured that 
Heine's satire referred onh^ to Kant 
as an old man and that the philosopher, 
when younger, was given to billiard- 
playing and visiting the theatre. 
In an interesting anthology of con- 
temporary opinion vve are shown Kant 
as a keen student of S^vift and a dili- \ 
gent reader of books of travel ; while 
finally, in an essay bearing the unex- 
pected title of "Der Humor Kants, " 
Dr. Minden actually quotes some of the 
philosopher's jokes, such as that in 
Avhich he assui-ed a group of ladies that 
there could hardly be any women in 
Heaven, since St. John recorded a si- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHT LY BETIEW 



165 



lence of half an hour there. Hardly 
brilliantjto be sure, but — in comparison 
with the commonly accepted notion — re- 
freshingly "un-Kantian." Equally so 
is the remark, ' ' Good eating and drink- 
ing are the true metaphysics of life." 
If this section of the Almanac is hard- 
ly for the serious student, it is at least 
a welcome relaxation for the ordinary 
reader, to whom Kant stands as a for- 
bidding and hardly comprehensible 
figure. 

Military Treuning in American Schools 

Mr. Winthrop D. Lane has done an 
extraordinarily valuable piece of public 
service in preparing his recently pub- 
lished report on military training in 
American schools and colleges. Few 
persons have realized the extent to 
which the militarization of our educa- 
tional system is going on these days. 
Thus in 1915, before the United States 
got into the "war to end war," there 
were only 119 army officers detailed to 
act as militarv instructors in schools 



of all kinds. To-day there are 768 
officers and 1061 enlisted men detailed 
to such service — an increase in ten 
years of 1480 per cent ! The number 
of educational institutions in which 
some kind of drilling is going on is 
uncertain, but Mr. Lane knows of 124 
colleges and universities which have 
units of the R. 0. T. C, and 63 high 
schools, together Avith 39 others, listed 
as "essentially militar}^ schools." In 
83 of the colleges, and in the high 
schools of 23 cities, the military train- 
ing course is compulsory. Mr. Lane 
states that these totals are steadily in- 
creasing. The course of training, it 
should be understood, is prescribed by 
the War Department, and, once intro- 
duced, is altogether beyond the control 
of the local faculty. 

These are facts — and there are many 
more of the same kind in Mr. Lane's 
ro]iort I — which should be known to the 
public, for we believe that the people 
only need to be acquainted Avith Avhat 
is going on to put a stop to it. 



Are Catholic Hospitals Charitable Institutions? 

By the Rev. J. van de Riet, Donaldson, Ind. 



Quite a few people seem to labor 
under the impression that whatever 
services the members of our Sister- 
hoods in their different fields of activ- 
ity render, must be free of charge. It 
is well enough, according to their no- 
tion, that the recipients of the bene- 
fits of the Sisters sIioav their appre- 
ciation b}^ making them a little present, 
but that the Sisters should charge a 
fixed price for their services, does not 
tally Avith their conception of charity. 

Perhaps tAvo facts haA-e served as 
the main causes to create this impres- 
sion. The first is this. The Sisters 
planning to build an institution of 
some kind someAvhere, usually ask the 
faithful or the citizens Avho are apt to 
be benefited by their undertaking, for 
some assistance. A collection is taken 
up, a "drive" is arranged, donations 
are solicited for the purpose. To their 
doing so no one could reasonably ob- 
ject, but in connection Avith the efforts 



to raise funds by these means, such a 
strong emphasis is at times placed on 
that handy and SAveet Avord Charity, 
and on the great things the Sisters 
are going to do if they receive some . 
support, that many are led to believe 
their small contributions will enable the 
Sisters to conduct their institutions 
on a free-for-all plan for all time to 
come. — The other fact is, that on many 
occasions the Sisters are extolled most 
eloquently as "Angels of Charity." 
This is as it should be, but there is 
danger that it be misunderstood. The 
audience must be made aAvare that, if 
the Sisters are rightly called Angels 
of Charity, they are such only by com- 
parison, and that, whilst real angels 
would probably have it in their power 
to practice the kind of charity many 
seem to expect of the Sisters, these 
latter, being angels in the flesh, must 
first receive from the flesh before they 
can give to the flesh. 



166 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



That people with a warped eoneep- 
tioii of charity, such as is hinted at 
in the above, will answer the question : ' 
Are our Catholic hospitals, i. e., the 
hospitals built and operated by our 
Sisterhoods, charitable institutions? in 
thp negative, is self-evident. The Sis- 
ters charge the patients for accommoda- 
tions and services, — and, as some will 
have it, a high price at that, — there- 
fore, their hospitals cannot be char- 
itable institutions. And yet they are 
and very much so. And it is not true 
what has been said of them, viz., that 
they are great money-making concerns, 
ancl that the talk about the charity of 
the Sisters is to a great extent palaver. 
Such and similar statements do not 
disturb the Sisters ver}^ much, — they 
will go on in their own quiet, unaffect- 
ed, unobtrusive way to dispense their 
kind of charity to all who wish to be 
benefited by it ; — ).)ut they hurt the 
cause of the Lord, whose work the 
Sisters are doing, and for this reason 
it is Avortli while to show that our Cath- 
olic hospitals are truh' charitable in- 
stitutions. 

If, through my endeavor and in- 
dustry, I make it possible for my fel- 
lowmen to obtain the things they need 
for the sustenance of their lives for 
about half of what a profit-seeking 
merchant might charge for them, I 
am, as a rule, practising charity. Some- 
^ thing similar the Sisters are doing in 
building and operating their hospitals. 
They actually offer the services and 
accommodations in their hospitals to 
suffering humanity for about half of 
what they would cost in hospitals 
built by private capital or stock com- 
panies and operated on ordinary busi- 
ness principles. It takes no mathe- 
matical prodigy to figure this out. We 
may safely set doAvn $1,500,000 as the 
amount it would take to buy a suitable 
piece of ground in a large city and 
erect on it a modern, 200-bed, Class A 
hospital. Tlie price of the equipment 
is included in the said sum. The cost 
of operating such a hospital would run 
up to $200,000 annually. The finan- 
cial statement would show items like 
the following: Salaries and Wages 



(Superintendents, Druggists, X-ray 
Experts, Dieticians, Clerks, Nurses, 
Waitresses, Laundresses, Housegirls, 
Engineers, Firemen, Chauffeurs, Jan- 
itors) $125,000; Pood Supplies 
$40,000; Fuel and Gas $10,000; Drugs 
and Surgical Supplies $12,000; Tele- 
phone and Elevators $5,000 ; X-ray 
and Laboratory- $8,000 ; Power, Light 
and Water $6,000 ; Books, Printing 
and Stationery $2,000 ; Insurance and 
Taxes $2,000; Autos and Trucks 
$5,000 ; (jrdinar.v Repairs and Improve- 
ments $8,000. The interest on the 
capital invested at 10% would be 
$150,000. The annual receipts to meet 
these expenses would have to be 
$367,000. These figures are based on 
the actual expense account of one of 
our Catholic hospitals, a 200-bed in- 
stitution of Class A, for the year 1924. 
The Sisters, in the said vear, spent : 
for Food Supplies, $29,252.70; for 
Power, Light and Water, $4,110.79; 
for Fuel and Gac, $10,595.22: for 
Laundry and Supplies, $1,074.47 ; for 
Telephone, Elevator and Automatic 
Phone, $5,158.13 ; for Drugs and Sur- 
gical Supplies, $13,684.04 ; for X-ray 
and Laboratory, $7,737.94 ; for Books, 
Printing and" Stationery, $1,880.16; 
for Salaries and AVages, $28,528.45; 
for Improvements (partly extraordi- 
narv) and repairs, $42,784.46. Total, 
$144,806.36. The total receipts from 
patients and donations were $143,- 
887.15. 

Where does the ciiarity of the Sisters 
( ome in? In the expense account of a 
hospital conducted as a business enter- 
]irise, one large item will be found, 
Avliich is absent from the expense ac- 
count of a hospital conducted by our 
Sisters. It is interest on the capital 
invested. The Sisters do not operate 
tlieir hospitals for profit. Accordingly 
they do not figure interest on the money 
value their hospitals represent. Only 
in case they are in debt for the money 
it has cost them to build and equip 
their hospitals, they figure as an ex- 
tra item of expense, as much as it will 
take to meet, at set times, the payment 
of interest and the part payments on 
the principal, until the debt is paid 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIE^y 



167 



off. Another item of expense will be 
found to be large on the account sheet 
of the former kind of hospitals, whilst 
it is comparatively small in the ac- 
count of the Sisters' hospitals. It is 
the item of Salaries and Wages. It 
takes money, and a great deal of it, to 
secure the services of a number of high- 
salaried professional men and women. 
Our Sisters render these services prac- 
tically free of charge. All they ex- 
pect in return is board, lodging, and 
a small alloAvance for the mother- 
house, which has educated them, 
clothes them, and takes care of them 
in sickness and old age. Charity is 
further the great concern of the Sis- 
ters in keeping expenses down to a 
minimum. Their cautious buying and 
careful management of their store- 
rooms redounds to the financial bene- 
fit of the patients. Charity is the free 
treatment given those patients who 
cannot afford to pay. The report of 
the hospital the expense account of 
which is given above, shows the num- 
ber of patients treated in 1924 to 
have been 6,110 ; Operations, 1,549 ; 
X-ray Exams, 1,261 ; Emergencies, 
600 ; Babies born, 553 ; Laboratory 
tests, 7,782. About 10% was pure 
charity work. 

The charity so far described is real 
charity. If the object of the Sisters 
in establishing and maintaining their 
hospitals Avere to minister to the bodily 
needs of their suffering fellowmen at 
as little cost as might be found con- 
sistent with efficiency, they Avould be 
rendering a service for which the world 
Avould have reason to be grateful, but 
such service would not deserve the 
name of charity. It would be hu- 
manitarianism, — cold, soulless human- 
itarianism. The hospital w^ork of the 
Sisters is real charity, because they 
put their great. Christian souls into 
it. They practise the charity which 
the Lord taught. They have been sit- 
ting at His feet and learned from Him 
the lesson that what you do to one of 
these least brethren, you do to Him. 
And the object of Lheir charity is not 
the body alone. This would be little. 
Christ wants the souls of the patients. 



He died for them and He wants the 
Sisters to help Him save them. This 
is the main and ultimate purpose of 
the Catholic hospitals, the greatest 
object of the charity of the Sisters 
operating them. That they are achiev- 
ing results, we may conclude from the 
number of f alien-away Catholics among 
the patients who return to the Church, 
and from the number of non-Catho- 
lic patients who embrace our faith. 
Only the final day of reckoning Avill 
reveal the vast number of those who 
found their way to Heaven via the 
Catholic hospital. 

In view of all this it would be wrong- 
ing the Sisters to deny to their hos- 
pitals the name of Charitable Insti- 
tutions, even if they do charge the 
patients a fixed amount for accommo- 
dations, board, and services. This 
amount will, as a rule, be as small as 
the Sisters can make it without jeo- 
pardizing the ver}^ existence of their 
hospitals. It would be well if it were 
more generally knoAvn what a heavy 
burden our Sisterhoods are compelled 
to shoulder in trying to keep abreast 
of the times in their hospital work. 
And keep abreast of the times they 
must, or gc under they will, in the 
competition, which they are forced to 
enter into, with the richly endowed 
private and tax-supported public 
hospitals all over the land. There are 
many good causes worthy of the sup- 
port of those blessed with temporal 
goods, and the cause of our Catholic 
hospitals is not the least among them. 



The Ecclesiastical Review calls at- 
tention to an article by Fr. J. Stigl- 
mayer, S. J., in the Innsbruck Zeit- 
schrift fiir kath. Theologie (1925, Heft 
3), in which it is maintained that the 
author of the Athanasian Creed ("Qui- 
cunque") was St. Fulgentius (468- 
533). Fr. Stiglmayer examines each 
verse separately and notes a striking 
similarity both in thought and phrase- 
ology with passages found in the writ- 
ings of this African bishop. 



168 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



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at Holy Mass, attended by the beauty of Kilgen Organ Music. 

In countless instances, the forebears of these worshippers, for 
generations back, have listened to this same beauty of stately 
melody. 

Kilgen, you know, have been building pipe organs for houses 
of Catholic worship for over a century, and have ever kept faith 
wth the Faith. 

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A Great Catholic Leader 

The Catholics of Germany have re- 
cently been celebratmg the ISOtli an- 
niversary of the birth of their great 
leader in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century, — Johann Joseph von 
Gorres. Born at Coblenz, in 1776, and 
educated under the influence of the 
new " philosophism, " imported from 
France, Gorres began life as a rational- 
ist and, as he grew to manhood, hailed 
the French Revolution as a new da"\\Ti 
of freedom and progress for the Avorld. 
In support of the new order of things 
he published Das rote Blatt and Der 
Rilhezahl. But a visit to Paris in the 
year 1800 disillusioned him. At Heidel- 
berg soon after he came in touch with 
a group of earnest young Catholics, 
and the result eventually was his con- 
version. After the failure of 
Napoleon's invasion of Russia, in 1812, 
he threw himself into the movement 
for the liberation of Germany, and his 
famous newspaper, Der rheinische Mer- 



kiir, became the organ of the move- 
ment in western Germany. The paper 
was suppressed in 1816 because of its 
criticism of the Prussian regime ; 
Gorres was threatened with arrest and 
for a while took refuge in Switzerland. 

The great work of his life was done 
during the twenty-six years from 1822 
to 1848. He crowded into this quarter 
of a century activities sufficient for a 
lifetime. To this period belongs his 
professorship at Munich, the founda- 
tion of the Historisch-politische Blat- 
ter, the publication of his "Atha- 
nasius" against the interference of the 
Prussian government with the freedom 
of the Church, and a series of learned 
works, among which the "Christliche 
Mystik" is probably the most famous, 
though by no means the most im- 
portant. 

In all he wrote Gorres insisted on the 
necessity of the Catholic ideal and 
Catholic principles as the basis both of 
social and political action and the 
creation of Catholic public opinion and 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



169 



Catholic culture. He was thus the 
chief inspirer that has given Germany 
a splendid Catholic literature. His 
life work is continued by the Gorres 



Association, founded in 1876, which 
still is a rallying point and centre of 
co-operation for the scholarship of 
Catholic Germany. 



The Boy Scout Question 



Various phases of the Scout question 
are touched upon by a correspondent, 
who, however, does not assert that the 
movement is militaristic. He writes in 
part : 

There are many problems connected 
with Scouting as now organized that 
are far more worthy of the attention 
of its enthusiasts than the question of 
militarism. The following are a few 
points which need explanation or cor- 
rection. 

■ 1. Scouting, as now organized, pre- 
vents the unification of Catholic boy 
work under the bishops and pastors. 
The supervision of the training of 
the Catholic boy and the Catholic boy 
leader is transferred from the proper 
ecclesiastical authorities to the local 
council which has full power to control, 
supervise, and extend scouting in the 
community. This arrangement can 
work very effectively to exclude Cath- 
olic leaders from the organization and 
supervision of Catholic scouts. 

2. A little thought will show that 
non-Catholics have an entirely different 
concept of non-sectarianism than we 
have, and that the guarantee that 
scouting is "non-sectarian" means 
very little to-day. While the move- 
ment is theoretically non-sectarian, 
practically when a non-Catholic official 
explains scouting, he can interpret it 
in an anti-Catholic way, though it may 
be "non-sectarian" as far as non-Cath- 
olics are concerned. The official scout 
publications edited by local executives 
show this. Sometimes we read that 
Scouting holds all religions to be 
fundamentally the same. In other 
places it is stated that all present day 
religions are inadequate and ineffective, 
and that Scouting is the solution of 
the boy problem. False philosophy and 
religious error may be spread among 
Catholics, since the impression is creat- 



ed that the Church has approved 
Scouting as explained in these uncen- 
sored publications. Scouting literature 
offers an easy method of disseminating 
the doctrines of indifferentism and 
naturalism. 

3. Non-Catholics look on Scouting 
in relation to religion and character- 
building in an entirely different way 
than we do, and their view of it is the 
one that is often presented as off'icial. 
There is strong agitation to-day to find 
some way to supply religious education 
to pupils of the public schools. Scout- 
ing is being presented as the solution 
— as the ideal s.ystem of religious 
education. Catholics can scarcely be 
mixed up in a thing like this without 
compromising themselves in some way. 
Catholics themselves may be deceived 
and may begin to look on the scout 
troop as a rival of, or a substitute for, 
the parish boys' sodality. 

4. The present local-council organ- 
ization plan, which makes Scouting re- 
sponsible to the community, has many 
dangers, and two notable ones are con- 
nected with the official leadership 
course and the official scout camp. 

The training of Catholic scout lead- 
ers by the non-sectarian local council 
will always be dangerous. No course 
in bo}^ leadership is complete without 
lectures on character training, and this 
subject cannot be presented in a non- 
sectarian way. 

The idea which has gained ground 
that exclusively Catholic scout camps 
are not to be encouraged is defended 
even by Catholic scout officials, who 
say that the big purpose of the non- 
sectarian scout camp is to inculcate 
religious tolerance. Practically this 
can very easily amount to indifferent- 
ism. Not every scout executive who 
insists that he is inculcating religious 
tolerance in his camp will permit a 



170 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



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St. John's Sanitarium and Chapel, 

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Catholic priest on the staff to safeguard 
Catholic boys, even if one should be 
available. 

The idea that the Church has fully 
approved Scouting seems to be at the 
bottom of a lot of these things. The 
fact is, the approbation of the Church 
limits Catholic participation in no un- 
certain terms. The conditions for 
Catholic participation are: (1) ex- 
clusiyely Catholic troops, (2) conduct- 
ed under ecclesiastical auspices, (3) 
with a view to benefit the boys spirit- 
ually and physically. 

When the local-council organization 
plan and present-day conditions out- 
side the Church are considered, the dis- 
advantages and difficulties inevitably 
connected with Catholic participation 
in the movement, as now organized, are 
so great that the enthusiasm manifest- 
ed by our most prominent organiza- 
tions in spreading the movement is 
rather difficult to understand. 

[Editor's note: We solicit expres- 
sions of opinion from those who have 
had experience with the Boy Scouts, 
in order to clear up the status of Cath- 
olic Boy Scouting.] 



One soul is diocese enough for any bishop. 
— St. Charles Borromeo. 



Blessed is he who has found his work. 



A Papal Letter on Bible Reading in 
Public Schools 

By special request we reprint the 
letter addressed to the Apostolic Dele- 
gate by Cardinal Merrj^ del Val in 
April, 1924, in reply to an inquiry sub- 
mitted to the Holy See regarding 
Bible reading in the public schools ^f 
the United States. It reads : 

Supreme Congregation of the Holv 
Office, Rome, April 1, 1924. Your 
Excellenc}^ : The Holy Father has for- 
warded to this Supreme Sacred Con- 
gregation of the Holy Office a letter 
sent to him last December in which he 
was informed that it is the custom or 
established law in some parts of the 
United States to read as a part of the 
curriculum in public schools, which are 
attended by manj^ Catholic pupils, the 
Protestant Bible and without comment. 

It is asked if the presence of Cath- 
olic pupils should be permitted at such 
reading, and if not, what should be the 
action of the episcopate in regard to 
this matter, especially since, when it 
was discussed in the Bishops' meeting 
at AVashington last September the deci- 
sion arrived at, namely, "that the read- 
ing of the Bible in the public schools 
is inadvisable," seemed to some per- 
haps too general and inadequate. 

This matter was considered in the 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



171 



General Congregation of Wednesday, 
March 12, 1924, and my colleagues, the 
Eminent Cardinals, Inquisitors Gene- 
ral, entrusted to me to write to Your 
Excellency in order that, in the way 
you think best, it be made known to 
each Ordinary that the Holy See cer- 
tainly does not reprove or condemn the 
reading of the Holy Bible, either in 
public or in private : provided authen- 
tic and integral texts are used and the 
opportune explanations and necessary 
comments are made by capable persons 
who have been authorized by competent 
ecclesiastical authority to do so, es- 



pecially on those passages that can be 
misunderstood or misinterpreted. 

In case the observance of such neces- 
sary conditions and precautions is in 
no way guaranteed, and the local laws 
give full liberty to the children to ab- 
sent themselves from such reading, it 
is deemed absolutely necessary that 
such assistance of Catholics be explicit- 
ly and peremptorily forbidden. 

While bringing this matter to the at- 
tention of Your Excellency I gladly 
avail myself of the opportunity to wish 
vou every blessing. — R. Card, Merry 
del Val. . . ■ 



Father Albert M. Weiss, O. P. : A Great Catholic Apologist 



From a paper by A. Raybould in the 
Irish Rosary (XXIX, 11) we extract 
the following passages : 

On the night following the feast of 
the Assumption, 1925, Father Albert 
Maria Weiss, "Albertus Magnus" as 
he was lovingl^^ called by his friends, 
died in Fribourg at the age of 81. 

The name of Father Weiss is in- 
separably connected wdth the history 
of Catholic thought and Catholic social 
endeavor during the last fifty years, 
and the Catholic w^orld cannot lightly 
forget the debt which it owes to this 
indefatigable defender of Christian 
truth. 

A daring and prolific writer. Father 
Weiss was not only an apologist and 
theologian, but also in a certain sense 
a popular writer, one who made appeal 
not only to the learned, but also to the 
ordinary public, and who, having the 
social problem at heart, had also a 
word for the masses, with whose lives 
of toil he deeply sympathised. If his 
writings on Christian doctrine have be- 
come handbooks for Catholic teachers, 
his lighter works of practical philos- 
ophy are no less popular, and have 
found their way into half the Catholic 
homes of Europe. Even among the 
working classes his writings are well 
known, and his co-operation in the 
Christian social movement, as well as 
his able defence of the same, must be 
remembered by all who have the in- 



terests of that movement at heart. 

Albert Maria Weiss was born in 1844 
at Indersdorf in Bavaria. From 1853 
to 1861 he attended the gymnasium 
classes of the Benedictines in Munich, 
and in 1861 entered the University of 
Munich, where he studied history, 
Oriental languages, and theology. 
Among his professors in Munich were 
Max Miiller and Dollinger. In 1870 
Father Weiss took out his doctor's 
degree in theology, and in the same 
year was appointed professor of theol- 
ogy in the seminary of Freising. 

In 1872 Father Weiss had already 
entered upon his career as a writer, 
directing in that year the then new 
edition of Herder's "Kirchenlexikon." 
In 1874 he published "Die Altkirch- 
liche Piidagogik" (Pedagogy in Early 
Christian Times), and "Protestan- 
tische Polemik gegen die Katholische 
Kirche" (Protestant Polemics and the 
Catholic Church). 

In 1876 Father Weiss entered the 
Dominican Order and made his reli- 
gious profession in the following year. 

A series of controversial conferences 
held in Munich, formed the nucleus 
of his " Apologie des Christentums vom 
Standpunkt der Sitte und Kultur" 
(Defence of Christianity from the 
Standpoint of Civilisation and Morals). 
This monumental w^ork, begun in 1877, 
published in seven volumes, and finally 
completed and. revised in 1900, is the 



172 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



compendium of Father Weiss 's teach- 
ing, and is unique of its kind, covering 
as it does the whole field of Catholic 
doctrine. 

After working in Rome, in Luxem- 
burg, and in Belgium, Father AVeiss 
was called to Vienna, where he threw 
himself with ardor into missionary 
Avork, preaching, directing souls, work- 
ing among the poor. It was in Vienna 
lliat he came into contact with Baron 
Vogelsang and the leaders of the Chris- 
tian social reform movement, and to 
this movement, which he was later to 
develop and organise in Fribourg, he 
gave himself with whole-hearted ac- 
tivity. 

In 1890 Father Weiss began his 
lectures in Fribourg in sociology, but 
in 1894 he was recalled to Graz and 
Vienna. He returned, however, to Fri- 
bourg in 1896, where he lectured on 
Christian Apologetics until 1919. In 
the spring of that year he left for 
Weesen on the Wallensee, intending to 
end his daj^s in that quiet little spot. 
But Providence and Fribourg designed 
otherwise. He was, as it were, mirac- 
ulously cured, and returned to Fri- 
bourg, where he spent the last years 
of his life, and in Fribourg he is 
buried, taking his last rest among those 
who loved him. 

Albert Maria Weiss was a fighter in 
word and deed, a fighter of the Lord's 
battles. Although a cool thinker and 
of gentle temperament, his spirit took 
fire when Catholic truth was in any 
way attacked or endangered. No 
camouflage of progress, or of the de- 
mands of science, no thought- waves of 
the moment, could obscure for him the 
A'ision of divine truth ; and in season 
and out of season he let fly the sparks 
of his righteous indignation against 
those who would in any way falsifj^ or 
minimise this same divine truth. 

Because of this work, and of his 
unceasing literary activity, the Cath- 
olic German-speaking world had come 
to look upon Father Weiss as a pilot 
in the midst of the dangers of the 
times. When, at the beginning of the 
century, the dangers of Modernism be- 
gan to threaten. Father Weiss was 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIE^Y 



173 



ready with his "Keligiose Gefahr," to 
point out the shoals to be avoided in 
the midst of the advancing tide of 
heresy. This book worked as a tliun- 
derclap in the world of Catholic 
thought, and met with adverse criti- 
cism. Father Weiss was attacked as 
an- inventor of danger, as a pessimist, 
and as one who Avilfully saw things 
blacker than they were ; and for a time 
a veritable storm raged around his per- 
son. 

In 1911 Father AVeiss published his 
"Lebens- und Gewissensfragen der 
Gegenwart," in which he exposed the 
errors, the insufficiency, and the hol- 
lowness of the teaching of the Modern- 
ists. This book was followed by "Li- 
beralismus und Christentum" with a 
sequel "Riickblick auf eine Lebensar- 
beit gegen den Liberalismus, " which 
Avas published in 1914. 

Although always occupied Avith these 
larger controversial Avorks, Father 
Weiss found time to think of the Avants 
of the many, and to Avrite for those 
Avho, AA'ith little spare time on their 
iiands, yet need the solution of life's 
]U'oblems hy religious thought, and to 
Avhom a definite Christian philosophic 
outlook is no less necessary than the 
practice of their religion. To these 
latter Father AVeiss appeals in his 
"Kunst zu Leben" and " LebensAA'eis- 
heit in der Tasche." By his comple- 
tion and revision of "Die Herrlich- 
keiten der gottlichen Gnade," a Avork 
begun by Scheeben, aa^Iio died before 
completing it. Father Weiss has given 
a treasure of edification to pious souls, 
and in his last book, "Jesus Christus," 
he AA'ill surel}'- speak to all. This book 
he AA'ished to be placed in his hands 
AAiien he AA-as dying. Jesus Christ, — 
the eternal apology for Christianity, 
— Jesus Christ, the leitmotiv of Father 
AVeiss's own life. 



Notes and Gleanings 



If AA^e refuse to read Avhat Ave dislike 
— except it be a case Avhere AA^e are try- 
ing to avoid contamination of faith 
and morals — Ave cannot claim to have 
broad minds. All the bigots are not 
in the K. K. K. — The Register, Denver, 
Colo., Vol. I, No. 35. 



Dr. A. Michelitsch, in his recent 
Avork, "Kommentatoren zur Summa 
Theologiae des hi. Thomas," AA^iich is 
intended as an index to all the existing 
commentators on the Summa, enu- 
merates no less than 662 commentaries, 
Avhich he has arranged systematically 
according to the parts of the Summa to 
Avhich thev refer. 



It is barely seven years since Ave 
stopped proclaiming the bloody-mind- 
edness of our enemies. But the erec- 
tion of Avar memorials is already aa^cII 
under Avay. One of the most conspicu- 
ous stands in London. It represents a 
cannon, such as Avrought greatest 
havoc on the Avestern front. The in- 
scription reads : ' ' Saul has slain his 
thousands, but David his tens of 
thousands." Another AA-ar memorial 
has just been erected by the muni- 
cipality of A-^ionna. It, too, carries an 
inscription, Avliich reads: "No more 
Avar. ' ' 

In commenting on the Stockholm 
Christian Conference, Maximilian Har- 
den, the famous JcAvish publicist, in the 
Telegraaf of Amsterdam, Holland, ex- 
pressed the belief that "unless all 
Protestant churches can be speedily 
united, the}^ will lose Avhatever in- 
fluence on Avorld affairs they. noAv 
have." Mr. Harden commented at 
length on the absence of the Catholic 
Church from the Stockholm Confer- 
ence, and said that "only the Roman 
Church could have afforded to stay 
aAvay, since it alone is thoroughly inter- 
rational. ' ' 

Both the make-up and the contents 
of Pax, the quarterly review of the 
Benedictines of Caldey, are inviting. 
The former recalls the "cloistered 
dignity" Avhich some associate Avith the 
great Benedictine schools of old ; the 
latter are ahvays fine products of cul- 
tured and Avell-disciplined Catholic 
minds. The book reviews, fair, in- 
cisive and to the point, are somewhat 
like those that used to appear in 
"Catholic Book Notes" Avhen that little 



174 



THE FOBT NIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



monthly was under the editorship of 
the late James Britten. "We cordially 
recommend this Benedictine magazine 
to the lovers of good literature, of the 
liturgy, and of things spiritual. Sub- 
scriptions can be sent in through the 
B. Herder Book Co., of this city. 

"The Miracle" closed with a deficit 
of $41,034 in St. Louis, and among 
the guarantors who grudgingly paid 
this amount, we noticed several prom- 
inent Catholics ! 



In the month of February, while 
Catholics were praying for the general 
intention of the Apostleship of Prayer, 
"The Defense of the Church against 
Secret Societies," a confidential circu- 
lar sent out by Samuel Hurren, British 
Commissioner of the Salvation Army, 
forbade officers of that organization to 
join any secret society. 

C entral-Blatt and Social Justice re- 
calls a project broached by Catholics 
of German origin of establishing a 
Catholic university ' in the United 
States in the early '70s of the last 
century. The project had the approval 
of Archbishop Spalding of Baltimore 
and of Cardinal Gibbons, then bishop 
of Richmond. Among those who sup- 
ported the proposal was Father F. X. 
Weninger, S. J., the famous missionary. 
In this connection the Portland (Ore.) 
Catholic Sentinel recalls that it was a 
mission given by Father Weninger in 
the Cathedral of Portland, in 1869, or 
thereabouts, which furnished the in- 
spiration for the establishment of the 
CatJtolic Sentinel. 



The central office of "Caritas," the 
international organization of social and 
charitable works, established at Lu- 
cerne, Switzerland, has published a 
useful little guide for Catholic tourists 
in Switzerland. It is a directory of 
Swiss tourist resorts and health sta- 
tions, giving a list not only of the 
places where there are Catholic 
churches, but also of those where a 
priest resides and Mass is said during 
the tourist season. The guide can be 
obtained from the " Caritas-Sekreta- 
riat," 11, Hofstrasse, Lucerne. 



JUST PUBLISHED 
Retreat Matter for Priests 

By The 

VERY REV. PAUL STIEGELE 

Adapted into English 

By The 

REV. C. F. KEYSER 

Edited by Arthur Preuss 

Cloth, 8vo., VIII and 410 pages, 

net $2.50 

"Retreat Matter for Priests" is 
a book that is far more comprehen- 
sive as to contents and purpose 
than the title indicates. It could 
be rightly called a compendium of 
ascetic theology and used as a text 
book for this important branch of 
sacred science. It contains two 
full series of discourses for a re- 
treat to priests, ten sermons to each 
series, with nine conferences, all of 
which are eminently practical. 
They are the fruit of many years 
devoted by the author to the train- 
ing of seminarians for the holy 
priesthood. Besides treating in a 
forceful and impressive way of sin 
and its consequences, the author 
aims to inculcate the various vir- 
tues requisite for priestly sanctit5^ 
Likewise the duties and responsi- 
bilities incumbent upon pastors are 
presented in an attractive and 
charming manner. There is scarce- 
ly a phase of the priest's life that 
is not touched on in this book, and 
always it is treated in a fascinating 
style, breathing the lofty ideals by 
which the author himself was ani- 
mated. Hence the book is eminent- 
ly suitable for spiritual reading, 
being a worthy companion to "The 
Eternal Priesthood" by Cardinal 
Manning. As a guide for priests 
who make a retreat by themselves, 
as many do, there is nothing supe- 
rior to this book in any language. 



B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



175 



In the latest edition of his work 
"De Sacramentis, " Cardinal Billot, 
arguing from the Council of Trent 
(Sess. XXII, Ch. 1), disagrees with 
the teaching of Father M. de la Taille, 
S. J., and contends that the Last Sup- 
per and the Cross were two distinct 
sacrifices. 

Dr. Le Bee, in a recent lecture on 
Lourdes reported by the Paris Croix 
(No. 13,172), calls attention to a cu- 
rious fact, which, he says, must have 
struck many observers, namely, that 
the miraculous cures at Lourdes are 
wrought almost invariabh' for the bene- 
fit of the poor. "It is the proletarians 
who are favored, and not the capital- 
ists." Dr. Le Bee, who is, we believe, 
at the head of the famous Bureau des 
Constatations, admits that not by any 
means all the sick that go to Lourdes 
are cured ; but he asserts that ' ' no one 
ever leaves the sacred shrine of the 
Virgin without having received con- 
solation and new courage." 



Our esteemed friend Col. P. H. 
Callahan has done well to reprint his 
short but very sensible address on 
"The Dignity of Partnership." It is 
good to see a prominent Catholic lay- 
man like Col. Callahan take this sane 
and splendidly Christian view of labor : 
"Every person who contributes his 
labor to an enterprise is to be made 
sensible of the fact that the labor in 
the enterprise is in part his very own, 
not something he has bartered away 
whether for a fair or an unfair wage. 
This, in its most universally applicable 
lines, is the sense, this is the psy- 
chology of industrial partnership." 

The Catholic Church has often been 
called the mother of art, and her litur- 
gy has given inspiration to some of the 
most precious works of song and po- 
etry. It is proper that her rich con- 
tributions to the culture and the higher 
life of nations should be kept before 
the world. Several European journals 
are devoted to the various aspects of 
Christian art. We have as yet no dis- 
tinctively Catholic art journal in 
America. However, the Catholic Art 
Review (published every two months 



at 13, Maple Street, London, AV. I.) 
will appeal to American readers. The 
scope of the magazine is wide : for it 
deals, from a Catholic standpoint, with 
architecture, painting, sculpture and 
decorative art, liturgical art, music, 
poetry, and the drama. This very in- 
clusive programme ought to gain 
friends for the new journal, especially 
in our Sisters' academies and high 
schools, where art is part of the cur- 
riculum. The subscription rate for the 
U. S. and Canada is $3 per annum. 



Catholic Truth (London, Vol. Ill, 
No. 2, p. 44) prints an extract from 
"The Historian's History of the 
AVorld" which shows that that much 
advertised work must be used with 
caution. The passage asserts that con- 
fession "is abused in the idea that one 
performs crimes one is sure of ex- 
piating," suggests that this abuse is 
common, and asserts violations of the 
seal of confession without any evi- 
dence. 

Prof. Henry J. Ford, of Princeton 
LTniversity, has disproved the hoary 
myth that the Liberty Bell was rung 
to celebrate the signing of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The Declara- 
tion was adopted July 2, 1776 ; its 
preamble, July 4 — all without celebra- 
tions in Philadelphia or anywhere else. 
The Declaration was not signed until 
Aug. 2, and the signing was not com- 
pleted until the following Jan. 18, — 
1777. The legend about the ringing of 
the Liberty Bell was started seventy- 
five years later by George Lippard, a 
writer of fiction. 



The Dubuque Witness (Vol. IV, No. 
39) very opportunely calls attention to 
the fact that in judging of the doings 
of the N. C. W. C, and especially of 
the outgivings of its Press Department, 
it should always be remembered that 
the instructions of the S. Consistorial 
Congregation, speaking for the Holy 
Father, clearly state that "all should 
know that this organization [the Na- 
tional Catholic Welfare Conference] is 
not to be identified with the hierarchy 
of the United States." 



176 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



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Correspondence 

That Problam in Connection with Holy 
Orders 

To the Editor:— 

Fr. Hacklier 's attempt (F. R., No. 6, p. 
]30) to explain the papal permission for the 
Abbot of St. Osith to ordain subjects to the 
priesthood does not seem to be founded on 
adequate historical evidence. To what au- 
thentic documents does Fr. Haekner refer 
Avhc7i he says that ' ' the abbots were the 
first bishops and the abbey churches the first 
cathedrals"? Having been an English Bene- 
dictine, I know how very debatable and un- 
certain a field of history is the early mon- 
astic Anglo-Saxon Christianity. Abbot But- 
ler ("Benedictine Monachism, " p. 329, note 
] ) writes : 

"In view of a long-standing controversy 
it is to be noted that while the Benedictines 
lived in their monastery, St. Augustine lived 
at the Cathedral of Christchureh with a body 
of cathedral clergy who were secular priests 
and clerics. That this was the case is evi- 
dent from St. Gregory's words that those of 
them not in holy orders were free to marry 
and to live apart and receive their share of 
the cathedral income (Gregory's Answer to 
Augustine's First Question, Bede, I, 27). 
This is proof positive that such clerics were 
not Benedictines or monks of anv kind. 



Thus it is seen that by 602 there was a 
body of secular clergy in Kent as well as 
the Benedictine monks. Montalambert an 
others after him have said that for a cen- 
tury there were no priests in England ex- 
cept monks, Benedictine or Hiberno-Scottish; 
but this is not in accord with the facts. St. 
Gregory's injunctions to St. Augustine that, 
being a monk he should live in common 
with his clerics and establish in England the 
conamon life, was not an injunction to es- 
tablish monasteries, but to institute the com- 
mon life of the secular clergy, after the pat- 
tern set by Eusebius of Vercelli and St. 
Augustine of Hippo. This manner of life 
had a great vogue in England and on the 
Continent, where (although not in England 
till the Conquest) it was called the 'canon- 
ical life,' and was the object of much legis- 
flation under Charles the Great and later. At 
the present day it is represented by such in- 
stitutes as the Fathers of the Oratory. If 
it be suggested that the Canterbury Cathe- 
dral clergy were a mixed body of secular 
clergy and monks, it has to be said that the 
presence there of the secular clergy is proved 
by the evidence of the only contemporary 
document bearing on the subject; the pres- 
ence of monks is no more than a conjecture, 
based on the fact that at a later date (tenth 
century?) Christ Church, Canterbury, was a 
Benedictine monastery. ' ' 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



177 



The Episcopalian American Church Month- 
ly, February, 1926, p. 457, carried an article 
on the subject of papal permission to simple 
priests to ordain to the priesthood. The 
writer tried to show that the St. Osith docu- 
ment and the permission to Cistercian abbots 
to ordain subjects to the diaconate disproved 
the usefulness of papal infallibility. 
Garrison, N. Y. L. MajTiard Gray 



Catholic Principles the Only Remedy for 
Present-Day Evils 

To the Editor: — 

The liciuor evil was well on the way to 
solution before the outbreak of the war. The 
excessive use of alcohol was frowned on from 
all sides, industrially and socially, except in 
the ultra-wealthy and sporting circles. 

It is my conviction that the liquor evil 
is but one (and though bad, not the worst), 
of an inseparable group of deadly sins, all 
inherent in weak human nature and await- 
ing but the relaxation of moral self-restraint 
and discipline based on religion, to assume 
control of human conduct. 

There can be no rapid-fire remedy such as 
the passage of a law, stupendous financial ap- 
propriations, and an army of enforcement 
officials for any such wide-spread and deep- 
rooted evil as the abuse of alcoholic beverages, 
— as is, it seems to me, now proven. A 
remedy, to be effective, must be based on 
something spiritual, a recognition of the 
fact that human beings are created for cer- 
tain definite purposes and that they will be 
held strictly accountable for the care and 
use of the bodies and souls and intelligences 
which God gave them. 

This recognition will never be generally 
accorded while educational leaders are un- 
hampered in securing and using opportunities 
to impress their atheistic views upon eager 
and plastic youth; while divorce statistics in- 
crease at a ratio incredible less than a gen- 
eration back ; while ■ ' birth-control ' ' is de- 
fended and advocated as a moral and eco- 
nomic necessity; while publishers, the screen, 
the stage, the designers of wearing apparel, 
vie with one another in profitably flaunting 
indecency; while the proclamation by uni- 
versity presidents of atheistic materialism as 
the only sound philosophy no longer causes 
consternation. 

Even many Catholic women, in defiance of 
Catholic teaching and centuries of Catholic 
ideals of womanly purity, have already so 
far succumbed to these immoral influences 
as to permit those in their charge to wear, 
and to wear themselves, garb recognized in 
all former ages as the emblem of moral de- 
pravity. 

All these are off-shoots from the same 
evil root, and the only effective and certain 
remedy which applies to one and all is a 
return to the Christian concept of human 



existence — its beginning and its end — and 
which, in proportion as it is applied, will 
remedy the liquor evil and all the other evils. 

What is to be expected from the prevailing- 
economic and social standards of living 
except ultimate discontent, rebellion, dis- 
regard of parental and civic authority and 
indulgence unrestrained, except by ever-re- 
ceding social barriers, of every appetite and 
desire? 

To -svhat extent are we Catholics to blame 
for present deplorable conditions? The dean 
of a Catholic college conducted by a re- 
nowned educational order told me a few 
months ago that the aim of his college was 
the retention of the faith by the individual 
student; that, even though he strayed from 
the fold, he retained sufficient to return in 
time of stress or danger; — no thought of in- 
culcating a sense of obligation to make re- 
turns in the way of leadership, defense or 
assistance to the body of his less fortunate 
co-religionists for the privileges their sacri- 
fices enabled him to enjoy! 

Is it strange that the Catholic layman 
who comes out publicly in defense of Cath- 
olicity or in opposition to anti-Christian at- 
tacks is regarded as a novelty, when not 
shunned as a meddlesome disturber? Why 
does not every educated Catholic feel it an 
inescapable duty and a privilege when the 
opportunity is presented? Is it not that 
something essential was lacking in his train- 
ing, even when that training was had in a 
Catholic college or university? 

How can one expect the rank and file of 
even Catholics to retain an abiding con- 
ception of Christian standards of life when 
those who have been so favored fail to dis- 
play a due regard for such standards, or to 
uphold them when they are attacked? 

Educated Catholics, clerical and lay, dur- 
ing the war found time and opportunity, dis- 
played eloc^uence and convincing persuasion, 
to arouse Catholics above all others to make 
sacrifices to .combat a danger which I am 
convinced was far Icf^s .formidable to the 
continuous existence of our American form 
of government and the real welfare of the 
American people, not to speak of the Chris- 
tian faith, than the growing cult of atheistic 
material evolution now so firmly established 
within our leading educational forces and 
to which even Catholics are submitting with- 
out effort toward effectual protest. 

As stated before. Catholic principles, if 
persistently preached and practiced by Catho- 
lics, will eradicate the liquor and other evils 
to the extent humanly attainable and, in 
my judgment, the first step should be active, 
positive, continuous opposition to all leaders, 
educational or other, who take advantage of 
their positions to covertly or openly propa- 
gate materialistic theories of creation and 
who have already, owing to the lack of per- ' 
ception, indifference or supineness of Catho- 



178 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



lies, reached a jjoiiit where citing evidence 
or authority in support of their unwarranted 
statements is deemed unnecessary; mere as- 
sertion, and the lifting of the eye-brows 
or a contemptuous ' ' mediaeval superstition, ' ' 
on being questioned, dismissing the matter. 

I feel it is inevitable that all the forces 
of atheism and bigotry will ultimately con- 
verge in an attack on Catholicity as the only 
real obstacle to the general acceptance of 
their destructive policies and I believe that 
it is true now, as it always was, that the 
best defense is a spirited alid sustained at- 
tack. 

Catholics have at times done wonderful 
work. Think of Peter the Hermit, the state 
of the civilized world in his time, and the 
spirit and energy aroused to conduct the 
Crusades. Never perhaps have they had such 
freedom of action, equipment and favorable 
field as exists in our country to-day. 

We have the opportunity, the machinery, 
the energy, and the intelligence, and shall 
it be said that we lack the sense of duty, 
the will, and the zeal? 
Ishpeming, Mich. Maurice Laughlin 

Eucharistic Hymns 

To the Editor: — 

I read with great interest your article on 
' ' The Prize Hymn for the Chicago Euchar- 
istic Congress" (P. E., XXXIII, 6, p. 117), 
Avritten sine ira et studio, and I certainly 
agree with you that the hymn is mediocre 
and unworthy of the occasion for which it is 
intended. 

It may interest your many readers among 
the clergy to be made acquainted, by way 
of contrast, with the official hymn, written 
and composed according to the melody of 
the immortal ' ' Pange Lingua, ' ' by Father 
Bante for the International Eucharistic Con- 
gress at Cologne, in 1909. Here it is: 

I 

Ploribus es circumcincta 
Eoma tu germaniea, 
Peregrinus iain salutat 
Ehenus, et Ecclesia 
Tribus magis dedicata 
Cathedralis iubilat. 

II 

Stellam sicut sunt secuti 
Eeges ad praesepium, 
Piae turbae eonvenerunt, 
Ut adorent Dominum, 
Eucharistici qui panis 
Latet hie sub specie. 

Ill 

Congregantur omnes gentes 
Sub vexillo fidei 
Et discordias aeterna 
Christi vincit caritas. 
Pons solatii perennis 
Macstis patet omnibus. 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



179 



IV 

Omnium Salvator! tuam 
Omnibus da yratiam 
Gressus nostii dirigantur 
Ad c-aelesteni patriam, 
Ut cernamus revelatum 
Te per cuncta saecula. - 

Amen. (Eev.) C. J. M. 



To the Editor: — 

It is a pity that the innocent author of 
the ' ' Prize Hymn, " to be used at the Euchar- 
istic Congress in Chicago, should be visited 
with such cruel criticism as that of your 
Jefferson City correspondent (F. K., No. 7, 
p. 153): "Theologically Avrong, liturgically 
awry, poetically stilted." Every author, in 
publishing his work, as a matter course is 
subject to criticism. In the critic all that 
is required is fairness in apportioning praise 
and blame. No doubt it was not so much 
the hymn itself, as to matter and form, 
that roused the indignation of the critic, 
but rather the fact that it was put forward 
to the world as a prize hymn selected by a 
commission from the poetical contributions 
oi' three thousand American writers. For 
this blunder the prime movers of the Con- 
gress are mainly responsible; and they should 
have the blame. The good nun did her part 
by request and was probably more sur- 
prised by the outcome than any one else. 

As to her poem : There is really so little 
theology in the stanzas that it cannot have 
missed the right way of Catholic thinking 
so very much as to merit the note ' ' theolog- 
ically wrong." The stricture "not clearly 
worded" might seem sufficiently severe. But 
in this regard ' * The Nation 's Consecration ' ' 
is no worse and no better than the mass of 
so-called hymns that are found in many of 
our popular hymn books, religious best sellers, 
airy, fairy nothings with pasteboard wings 
as crowns. 

This fact would imply that the Prize 
Hymn is indeed ' ' liturgically awry. ' ' Yet 
the poem escapes this charge on the plea 
that it is not liturgical at all, being written 
in English and not in the official language 
of the Church. 

Lastly, the note ' ' poetically stilted ' ' seems 
too severe, as meted out to a contestant be- 
fore a prize court that had under considera- 
tion a few thousands of poetical efforts sub- 
mitted by good and pious people at the 
Commission's request. 

Poets are few in number in any nation and 
generation. And these few are generally 
rather shy in the glare of publicity. Poetic 
feeling and deep thought are slow to win 
recognition. Accordingly the true singers of 
immortal songs do not care to ' ' rush in Avhere 
angels fear to tread. ' ' As commissions can- 
not make poets, so they cannot move the 
divine afflatus in others to their own pur- 
poses. 



It is just possible, though not probable, 
that some true poet, in the first fervor of Ms 
heart, sent in a better ' ' hymn ' ' than the 
one adopted by the Commission for the 
Eucharistic Congress. But on the Avhole the 
Commission undoubtedly got what it wanted. 
As a song, ' ' The Nation 's Consecration ' ' is 
not bad; as a hymn, hoAvever, it is nowhere. 
Most people do not know the difference be- 
tween a religious or spiritual song and a 
hymn. Both may be good in their own way 
and place: but they are very different in 
their nature. The religious song expresses 
the pious sentiments of the individual singer, 
the hymn voices the thought and feeling and 
aspiration of the church of which the singer 
knows himself to be a living member. 

The j)oint of view from which the Prize 
Hymn was written was not the proper one. 
The inspiration arose from the contemplation 
of the outward grandeur of the proposed 
Congress, whereas a true hymn would have 
fixed its loving, adoring gaze upon the Won- 
der of wonders itself, the personal Pres- 
ence cf the Lord among men, and would 
have mentioned the splendid surroundings 
in all humility as a very secondary thing. 
The outcome is unfortunate in showing how 
superficial and emotional our religious life 
really is. The outward splendor and pomp 
and wealth, are stressed; the supernatural 
wealth and grandeur are taken as a matter 
of course. Pious sentiment too often sup- 
plants strong, living, manly faith. There is 
too much self-satisfaction, self-glorification 
in what we do for God. For the meetings of 
this Congress "The Nation's Consecration" 
may do well enough; but for the liturgical 
services the "Lauda Sion Salvatorem" is 
infinitely preferable, as theologically sound 
and fu]l, as liturgically appropriate, and as 
poetically grand in its simplicity of expres- 
sion. 

But there really was no need for a prize 
hymn. Chicago might have been content to 
use the grand old hjmns of St. Thomas 
Aquinas, to the solemn inspiration of which 
in ages past the armies of the Lord marched 
to victory over the powers of darkness. But 
we must suppose that Chicago got what it 
wanted, and we must be content. 

(Eev.) John E. Rothensteiner 
St. Louis, Mo. 



Points From Letters 

Let me say that receiving the F. E. means 
several hours of- assiduous reading at my 
earliest opportunity, until I have devoured 
the contents from cover to cover. This has 
been the case ever since I was sixteen years 
old. And you are most earnestly requested 
to outlive me, so that I may continue to 
enjoy this intellectual treat, which I could 
not well forego, until the end. ' ' Serus in 
caelum redeas diuque Laetus intersis populo 
Quirini. "^ — (Rev.) Wni. H. Huelsmann, R. 
3, Jefferson City, Mo. 



180 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



BOOK REVIEWS 



A Pictorial Life of St. Francis of Assisi 

A splendid gift for the seventh centeuary 
of St. Francis of Assisi is the Marshall Jones 
Company's edition of the pictorial life of 
the Poverello, painted in water colors by 
Doni Pedro Subercaseaux Errazuriz, O. S. B., 
now of Quarr Abbey on the Isle of Wight, 
l^oin Pedro is a native of Eome, the son of 
tlio present Chilean ambassador to the Holy 
See. He studied painting at Berlin, Eome, 
and Paris, and acquired fame by his historic- 
al paintings, sea-battles, scenes of modern 
military life, and a fuil-size portrait of Pius 
X, now hanging in the Vatican. In 1911 
he visited Assisi and felt a strong desire to 
express in pictorial form the varied feelings 
whicli the Franciscan legend awakened in his 
soul. He made careful studies of the land- 
scape and buildings and spent long hours 
reading about St. Francis and his time. 
Archeologists helped him to draw correct 
views of the Xlllth century buildings. He 
was encouraged in his work by Johannes 
Jorgensen, Avho has Avritten an eloquent in- 
troduction to this volume, which contains the 
entire series of paintings in beautiful repro- 
ductions, with a brief explanatory text which 
is so simple that it is not only becoming to the 
subject depicted, but enhances its beauty and 
helps us to enter into the real life of the 
Little Poor Man of Assisi. 

In the words of Bishop Shahan, we have 
here "the Gustavo Dore of St. Francis and 
the Holy Land of Assisi . . . Architecture 
and costume, the remote ways of the color- 
ful life of the times, its picturesque round 
of work and play, of rich mentality and high 
spiritual ardor, its delightful cameraderie, 
its varied humor and its drab convention- 
alities, are all here. What Burke did for 
India and Moore for Persia, by their incom- 
parable artistry of words, this painter has 
done for the earthly stage of the Franciscan 
gospel; he has poured upon it delicate hues 
and shadings, a refinement of pictorial in- 
terpretation that all can appreciate, but 
those mostly in whose hearts there dwells the 
urge of that mighty love of all creation that 
inspired the Canticle of the Sun, and joy- 
ously embraced all life from its divine source, 
the Crucified One on Alverna, to the swal- 
lows of Alviano and the wolf of Gubbio. ' ' 

It is undoubtedly the most beautiful book 
of the year, and we hope it will find an hon- 
ored place not only in every Franciscan con- 
vent, but in every school and on the sitting- 
room table of every Catholic home, where, in 
the words of the Ecclesiastical Eevieiv, it will 
attract by its beauty and at the same time 
impart a lesson that is likely to last through 
life. 

There are fifty pictures in all, and the ex- 
planatory text is in French and English. 

("Saint Francois d 'Assise d'apres les 
Aquarelles de P. Subercaseaux Errazuriz, 



Moinc Benedictin de Solesmes. " Boston: 
Miirshall Jones Company. Bound in buckram, 
^'2'). Autographed edition, limited to 200 
copies, in half parchment, $100; in full 
French levant, hand-tooled, $200). 

Literary Briefs 

— Under tlie title, "Graduation Ideals of 
Life,'' the Catholic Dramatic Company, 
Brootcn, Minn., presents a graduation play 
for boys and girls in which the principles of 
Christian conduct ar^' bodied forth in a 
number of scenes that are designed not only 
to benefit the children, but to please the par- 
ents as well. The play is so simple that 
there is liardly a parochial school in the 
land where it could not be produced. For 
a second edition we would suggest a revision 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT, ETC., OF THE 
FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Published semi-monthly at 16th and Locust 
Strs., St. Louis, Mo. Required by the Act 
of Aug. 24, 1912. 

Editor: Arthur Preuss, 5851 Etzel Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Publisher: Same. 

Business Manager: Eleanor Preuss, 5851 Et- 
zel Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Sole Owner: Arthur Preuss. No bondholders, 
mortgagees or other security holders holding 
one per cent or more of the total amount of 
bonds, mortgages, or other securities. 

(Signed) Arthur Preuss, Ed. and Publ. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th 
day of March, 1926. 

Agnes Ebel, Notary Public. 
(My commission expires Feb. 14, 19S'0.) 



POSITION WANTED— A capable 
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We can refer to hundreds 
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Our Catalog — 
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N. SHURE CO., Chicago 

Wholesale Merchandise 




1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



181 



HILLS OF REST 

A Story by John M. Cooney, Ph. D. 



IT is beautifully done, wholesome and refreshing, with- 
^ out one moment of the maudlin sentimentality that is 
too often the only relief that readers can find when they 
turn with disgust from the "passion" of 
the best-seller. Here is neither illicit rot— 
God forbid--nor silly mush, but a fine, 
strong, clean, love story, with the flavor of 
a dew-kissed apple in it, sound to the core. 

—CHARLES PHILLIPS 

PRICE $1.50 • 

For Sale at all Book Stores or at 

The Abbey Press, - - St. Meinrad, Indiana 



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of the text by a competent literary critic 
and more care on the part of the proof-reader. 

— Father Herman J. Gladder 's "In the 
Fullness of Time," translated by the Rev; 
Godfrey J. Schulte (B. Herder Book Co.), 
is "an attempt to interpret the ideas em- 
bodied in the first Gospel. Its purpose is 
not to offer meditations on the Gospel, but 
to present the Evangelist's own thoughts," 
so that the modern reader may understand 
them in the sense which St. Matthew wished 
to convey to his contemporaries. The inner- 
most thoughts of the Evangelist are brought 
out so vividly and forcefully that we are 
not surprised to learn that the book had an 
extraordinarily large sale in the original Ger- 
man and feel satisfied that it will have a wide 
appeal also to English and American read- 
ers. Fr. Schulte 's translation, so far as we 
have been able to test it, is idiomatic and 
faithful to the original. 

— The Tablet raises the pertinent question 
uhat a reviewer should do if he is honestly 
of the opinion that a particular book is 
wholly superfluous and has no reason for 
existing except the author's desire to see 
himself in print. ' ' Many reviewers, ' ' says 
our contemporary (No. 4472), "decide that 
the best thing to do in such instances is 
to do nothing. Every well-conducted paper 
regularly publishes a list of 'New Books 
Received,' from which friends of the author 



may learn that his volume may be bought 
from a certain publisher at a certain price. 
Is it better to print a review saying that the 
book is commonplace or to leave the matter 
entirely alone? Our own feeling is that the 
latter course is generally to be preferred. 
Cases arise, however, when a pretentious title 
or an exaggerated preface compel a reviewer 
to prick the author 's conceit so that his il- 
lusion may be destroyed before it becomes too 
expensive. ' ' We share our contemporary 's 
opinion and content ourselves with merely an- 
nouncing many a volume which is not worthy 
of special notice or which is not likely to 
interest any considerable number of our 
readers. 

— Father Joseph Leonard, C. M., has col- 
lected and translated into English a selection 
of letters and addresses of St. Vincent de 
Paul dealing with mental prayer. They 
prove that, though he was an exceedingly 
busy man, prayer was the very breath of St. 
Vincent 's life. This book makes hearten- 
ing reading for the ordinary man, for it 
mentions no visions, ecstasies, raptures, or 
levitations, but shows how a man can climb 
to great sanctity by a plain ladder. ("St. 
Vincent de Paul and Mental Prayer. ' ' Ben- 
ziger Brothers). 

— The new edition of "Die Herz-Jesu- 
Verehrung des deutschen Mittelalters nach 



182 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



gedruckten und ungedruckteu Quelleu darge- 
stellt, " by the Eev. Karl Eichstatter, S. J. 
(Ratisbon: Jos. Kosel & Fr. Pustet K.-G.) 
surveys tlie entire devotional and sermon 
literature of medieval Germany and shows that 
the cult of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was 
very widely practiced and promoted especially 
by mystical writers like St. Gertrude and the 
two SS. Mechtilds. The German tradition 
reaches to the close of the 17th century, 
when the devotion fell into desuetude, and 
was not resurrected until St. Margaret Mary 
Alacoque had begun her activity in Prance. 
Incidentally the volume isi a valuable con- 
triliution to the history of mysticism in Ger- 
many. It is richly illustrated. 

— 'With the rapid spread of ' ' closed re- 
treats '' for the laity in German-speaking 
countries, — the latest report mentions 183 
part-time and full-time retreat houses in 
German}' alone, — arises the need of a larger 
and more comprehensive literature for gui- 
dance in this important work. In response, 
Herder & Co., of Freiburg i. B., have laegun 
to make accessible to the general public in 
handy, well-bound volumes, the exceptionally 
clear and concise commentary of the Ex- 
ercises of St. Ignatiiis by Father Moritz 
Meschler, S. J. ("Das Exerzitienbuch des 
hi. Ignatius von Loyola erklart und in Be- 
trachtungen vorgelegt. " Vol. I, 362 pages, ed. 
by Walter Sierp, S. J.). In the present vol- 
ume the brief points of individual medi- 
tation are not expanded or explained in de- 
tail; the comment is reserved rather for the 
method and technique. Later volumes will 
no doubt bring all the meditations of the 
thirty days' retreat fully elaborated in the 
clear and vivid style characteristic of the 
author. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

— Father F. Mangan, S. J., in his little 
pamphlet "The Real Presence" (Paulist 
Press), first establishes the fact of the Eeal 
Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist 
and, secondly, shows how this is brought 
about. He stresses the fact that Transul)- 
stantiation is not a doctrine devised in the 
Middle Ages and thrust upon the faithful by 
an arbitrary fiat, but was taught by the 
Fathers and universally accepted centuries be- 
fore the Council of Trent. In conclusion he 
quotes a striking passage from Cardinal 
Newman : ' ' What do T know of substance or 
matter? Just as much as the greatest phil- 
osophers; and that is nothing at all." 

— "Grannie's Story Cupboard," by a Ee- 
ligious of the Holy Child Jesus (Sands & Co. 
and B. Herder Book Co.), contains seventeen 
short stories for young children, charmingly 
told, each with a good moral lesson. 

— Father Henry A. Gabriel, S. J., is a 
writer jvho practices the "labor limae" so 
urgently recommended by the classic rhetori- 
cians. The third edition of his book ' ' Eight 
Days ' Eetreat for Eeligious ' ' has been so 



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Frost, Stanley. The Challenge of the Klan. 
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Kramp, Jos. (S. J.) Eucharistia: Von ihrem 
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Garesche, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
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Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
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Durrant, C. S. A Link Between Flemish 
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John Euysbrock, Gerard Groote, and 
Thomas a Kempis.] London, 1925. $3. 

Callan and McHugh, O. P. Blessed be God. 
A Complete Catholic Prayer Book. N. 
Y., 1925. $1.50. 

MacDonnell, F. (S. J.). The Thinking Man. 
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Yostj C. S. The Principles of Journalism. 
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The Little Office of the Bl. Virgin Mary 
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First ed. according to the 3rd Typical 
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Detweiler, F. G. The Negro Press in the 
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Twelve and After. A Book of Teachers' 
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Seisenberger, M. A Practical Handbook 

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Heilmann, A. Vom kostbaren Leben. Sonn 
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Mayer, H. Katechetik. (Theologische 
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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
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THE FOBTNIGHTLY REYIE^V 



183 



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An Outline of the History of Christian Liter- 
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The Scopes Case. By Dudley G. Wooten, 
Professor of LaAV, University of Xotre 
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The Lion's Cuh. A Drama in Four Acts. 
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Magnolia Dei. Ein Aufriss der christlichen 
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Munich: Jos. Koesel & Fr. Pustet. M. 3.50. 

Meditations on the Fourteen Stations. With 
a Sketch of Their Origin. By Joseph Me- 
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Paulist Press. 5 cts. per copy; $3.50 per 
100. (Wrapper). 

A Little More Joy. Some Hints for Parents 
and Teachers. From Bishop Keppler's 
"Mehr Freude. " By Joseph McSorley, 



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The Minister of Christ; or, Aseetical Notes 
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Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D., Titular 
Bishop of Sebastopolis and Auxiliary 
Bishop of Salford. 2 vols, ix & 301 and 
vi & 314 pp. 12mo. Joseph F. Wagner, 
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Beligious Survey 1924-1935. Official Bulle- 
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The Golden Scpiatu. A Novel by Will W. 
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The Mind. By John X. Pyne, S. J. xxvi & 
382 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $2 net. 



« * 



184 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



A Sprinkle of Spice 



Reviewing Abbot Butler's "Life and Times 
of Bishop Ullathorne" in the Times Literary 
Siopplement (No. 1,255) an anonymous 
writer says: "Neither death nor the devil 
affrighted him, for he interrupted tlie last 
litanies that were being said at his death-bed 
to state, what is a perfect theological truth, 
'The Devil's an ass.' " 



This one from the Emporia Times has 
caused many a chuckle : ' ' There isn 't much 
to see in a small town, but what you hear 
makes up for it. ' ' 



' ' The Golden Legend. ' ' Englished by Cax- 
ton, tells the story of St. Dunstan 's tempta- 
tion by the devil very quaintly as folloAvs: 
"And on a time as he [the saint] sat at his 
work, his heart was on Jesu Christ, his 
mouth occupied with holy prayers, and his 
hands busy on his work. But the devil, which 
ever had great envy at him, came to him in 
an eventide in the likeness of a woman, as 
he Avas busy to make a chalice, and with 
smiling said that she had great things to 
tell him, and then he bade her say what she 
would, and then she began to tell him many 
nice trifles, and no manner virtue therein, 
and then he supposed that she was a wicked 
spirit, and anon caught her by the nose with 
a pair of tongs of iron, burning hot, and 
then the devil began to roar and cry, and 
fast drew away, but St. Dunstan held fast 
till it was far within the night, and then let 
her go, and the fiend departed with a hor- 
rible noise and cry, and said, that all the 
people might hear: Alas! what shame hath 
this carle done to me, how may I best quit 
him again? But never after the devil had 
lust to tempt him in that craft." 



Apropos of your recently printed speci- 
mens of the humor of Pope Leo XIII, here 
is another that is rather caustic. A painter 
had painted a portrait of the Pope and when 
he presented it to His Holiness, he asked him 
to write an appropriate Scripture text on it. 
As the picture was not a good likeness, the 
Pope wrote: " Nolite timere, ego sum. Leo 
XIII."— (Bev.) James Wulcher, B. B. 3, St. 
Cloud, Minn. 

Bishop Trobec once appointed a priest to a 
small country parish, where conditions Avere 
rather primitive. As the priest had never 
been there, he asked the Bishop : ' ' Have 
they electric light there?" The Bishop an- 
swered: "Yes, when it lightens." — (Bev.) 
James Walcher. 

A news dispatch to the New York Times 
tells of a tribute paid by the village herdsmen 
of Camembert, in Normandy, to the memory 
of the discoverer of the famous cheese. It 
was a tender little ceremony ' ' heightened, ' ' 
as the item says, "by the odor of sanctity." 
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under the editorship of Dr. Joseph Eberle, 
has built up a wide circulation, will be- 
gin a thorough study of International 
Money. 

The question of social reform must be 
dealt with fearlessly from a Catholic 
point of view, according to the import- 
ance of problems and the importance of 
crises. International Money now con- 
trols the world's destinies. Not only does 
it hold industry in its grip, but it has 
far-reaching influence on politics, on the 
general social condition, on the press, 
the theatre, the schools. Sclionere ZuTcunft 
will discuss the entire subject with a great- 
er thoroughness and directness than have 
hitherto been granted it by any religious 
magazine. 

Among the books to be discussed are 
Werner Sombart's "The Bourgeois," 
Harold Spencer's "Democracy or Shy- 
lockcracy, " and Brook's "Corruption in 
American Politics. ' ' Among the contrib- 
utors engaged are such prominent leaders 
as Alois Lichtenstein and Bishop Ottakar 
Prochazka. 

SCHONERE ZUKUNFT 

Vienna XIX, Nusswaldgasse 14, Austria 

Subscription, $5.00 per annum. 



A Superior Catholic Newspaper 



The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
folloAving reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic Neivs- 
papers." 

It is rarel.v that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



The Christian Denomination 

that rejects a revealed truth because 
it is incomprehensible, contains 
within itself the seed of dissolution 
and w^ill either end in Rationalism 
or fall at the first onset of tempta- 
tion. Get a copy of 

CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS 

By 

Rev. V. Krull, C. PP. S. 
To fortify yourself on the subject. 

This book is for sale at all Catholic 
book stores, or send directly to the 
publisher, 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, clevST a 

Price, $ 1 per copy. 



186 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Mav 1 



WHAT FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS WILL DO 

SIX PER CENT AND ABSOLUTE SECURITY 
ON FIRST MORTGAGE NOTES FROM »500 UP 

Every Investor has always received every dollar of Principal and Interest on loans bought through our 
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SAINT ANTHONY'S AD. 

For t-eiituriL's St. Anthony of Padua has proven 
himself the Friend of the Poor the -wide world over. 
We often hear it said that "God helps them that 
help themselves. " To a certain degree this is 
true, but often times the saying is used as a cloak 
for selfishness and as an excuse for not helping 
those who really are not in a position to help 
themselves. 

St. Anthony, as the champion and friend of the 
needy, serves notice upon his clients that if they 
would employ him as their heavenly advocate, they 
must pay him a fee in the form of Bread for his 
poor. In a word St. Anthony helps those who 
help the poor. 

During the past three months the Friars of 
the Atonement have given board and lodging free 
to as many as sixty-five homeless, jobless men in 
a single day. It was St. Anthony who paid the 
huge bread and meat bills tlirough the medium 
of those Avho had recourse to his intercession in 
the Perpetual Novena conducted at Graymoor to 
the Wonder- Worker of Padua. That St. Anthony 

helps those who promise to help him feed and lodge his Graymoor dependents, witness 

the following testimonials: 

E. S., Long Island, N. Y. : "On December 28th, I received your acknowledgement 
of my petition and on January 8th I secured work after having been idle mor'e than 
nine months. My Novena was for a steady job with remunerative wages, and I have 
fared better than I expected. The place of work is within ten minutes of my home, 
saving me the inconvenience of travel and the expense of carfare and lunch money! 
Everything has worked in my favor and to such an extent that my wife and I are 
dumbfounded. I gratefully enclose check for my first week's wages as promised.'' 

"Grateful," Wisconsin: "I recently lost twenty dollars, which I could ill afford 
to lose. After praying to St. Anthony, it was returned in a most unexpected manner.'' 

E. D., Kansas: "I promised the enclosed offering last sun^mer if my daughter 
would come back to the Church. Thanks be to God and St. Anthony, she has come 
back; and I very gladly and gratefully fulfill my promise." 

M. H. S., Washington, D. C. : " The Money-Order enclosed is sent in honor of 
St. Anthony for his Bread Box. This offering is made in Thanksgiving for the re- 
covery of a sick person, and that an operation was averted. ' ' 

Mrs. G. M., Penn.: "Enclosed please find offering for St. Anthony's Bread in 
thanksgiving for finding my diamond ring. ' ' 

Send all petitions to 
ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 



The Fortni§:htly Review 

A^OL. XXXIII, No. 9 ST. LOUIS, MISSOUKI May 1st, 192(i 



CHRONICLE AND COMMENT 



The Latest Encyclical Letter of 
Pius XI 

The encyclical letter "Rerum Eeele 
siae Gestarum" makes it plain that 
monopolies of particular mission-fields 
are not coueedecl as of right or in per- 
petuity to the congregations or mis- 
sionary societies who may now be in 
exclusive possession thereof. At 
jjresent we have, in practice, Jes- 
uit territories, Dominican islands, 
Franciscan ' areas, and so forth. 
Such arrangements have Avorked well ; 
but the more successful they are, 
the more quickly will dawn a day when 
the faithful in such fields will be en- 
titled to know that the whole life of 
the Churcli is richer than that of any 
one Order. The Sovereign Pontiff goes 
so far as to say that one congregation 
or society may not be only reinforced 
by another, but even superseded, if the 
interests of the native Christians should 
demand a change. 

The Holy Father's long-sightedness 
has caused him also to utter words 
which Avill improve the position and 
prospects of indigenous clergy. Chris- 
tianity has too often been regarded as 
the white man's religion. This is a 
thoroughly. un-Catholic idea. In the 
past there have been French, German, 
Spanish, and English popes as well as 
Italians ; and, in the future, Japanese, 
Hindoos, Maoris, Kanakas, Indians, and 
even Kaffirs ma}^ ascend the Throne of 
the Fisherman. While it maj^ be true 
that some of the lower and more back- 
ward races have not yet reached the 
stage at which they can safely be made 
stewards of the Sacraments, there are 
other "missionary peoples" from whom 
the Holy See has already chosen vicars 
Apostolic. The Supreme Pontiff re- 
minds us that the Apostles themselves 



gave new communities of Christians 
tlieir native clergy. 

A Catholic Anthropological Society 

The first steps towards an important 
undertaking for the promotion of Cath- 
olic scholarship were taken at a meet- 
ing of Catholic missionaries on April 
6, at the Catholic University of Amer- 
ica. The meeting had been called by 
the Rev. Dr. John M. Cooper, profes- 
sor of apologetics at the Catholic Uni- 
versity, who is known to scholars for 
his bibliography on the tribes of Tierra 
del Fuego. Representatives of prac- 
tically all communities engaged in mis- 
sionar}^ work in foreign lands had been 
invited to the Conference. According 
to a programme sent out by Dr. Coop- 
er, two important questions were to be 
answered: (1) How can we best pre- 
pare our outgoing missionaries for an 
intelligent understanding of the life 
and religion of primitive tribes, or 
of a cultured non-Christian people like 
the Chinese? (2) How can we make 
available for science, especially for eth- 
nology and anthropology, the data 
which no one can furnish so well as 
the missionary, .sinee he generally 
learns the language of the tribe and 
is the intimate friend and guide of the 
l^eople among whom he has been 
called to labor? 

The members '-f the Conference 
were cordially welcomed to the Uni- 
versity by the Rector, Bishop Shahan, 
who in a short address pointed out 
th^ many opportunities for ethnologic 
research open to the Catholic mission- 
ary. He exhorted those present not 
to neglect these opp'Ortunities and to 
make available for ethnologic science 
the treasures gathered in the field. 

The splendid work already done in 



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raissionaiy ethnology by the Society 
of the Divine Word gave rise to ex- 
pressions of pleasure and congratula- 
tion. Father Marcellinus Molz, S. D. 
S., who was present and spoke of his 
life in Assam, Northern India, told of 
The assistance that had been afforded 
to missionaries by the learned Fr. AVm. 
Schmidt, S. Y. D., by his question- 
naires, which enabled the missionaries 
hotli to understand the people and to 
gather facts for publication. 

It was decided that a year book be 
published, which would give practical 
hints to young missionaries, and em- 
bod}' ethnologic researches by mission- 
aries in the field. The scholarly re- 
searches of Father Paul Schebesta, S. 
V. D., among the Pygmies of New 
Guinea and the new material gathered 
a 3'ear ago among the tribes of Northern 
Luzon by the Belgian missionary, Mau- 
rice Vanoverbergh,show what our Cath- 
olic heralds of the Gospel can do if 
equipped with ethnologic training. 

An executive council composed of 
Fr. Mathis, C. S. C, Fr. Tibesar, of 
Maryknoll, Msgr. Elughes, Director of 
the Bureau of Catholic Indian Mis- 
sions, and Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., 
of St. Louis University, was appointed. 
This committee is also to act in an 
editorial capacity on all matter sub- 
mitted for publication. 

The Association is now launched and 
will take the name ' ' Catholic An- 
thropologic Conference." It has a 
^\'ide field and one ricli in promise for 
the extension of Catholic missions and 
for the encouragement of productive 
Catholic scholarship. We hope to see 
Catholic editors and scholars come to 
the support of this movement, which 
will help both the missions and the 
progress of science. 

Overdomg the Kilmer Cult 

A memorial to the late Joyce Kil- 
mer, poet and soldier, is to be erected 
in the form of an auditorium and li- 
brarj^ at Campion College near Prairie 
du Chien, Wis. This memorial is to 
cost in the neighborhood of $250,000, 
and the glory of financing it is to l)e 
tossed to the Knights of Columlius. 



The Catholic Observer, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa. (Vol. XXVII, No'. 44), expresses 
the opinion — which has been voiced l)e- 
fore in the F. R., — that the Kilmer 
cult is overdone. ''May we suggest,'" 
says our contemporary, "that close 
personal friendship for Kilmer has dis- 
torted the promoters' vision of his 
proper position in the literary firma- 
ment? His claims to national recogni- 
tion are based on his poetic ability in 
combination with the fact that he met 
his death in the World War. From 
all accounts he was a brave soldier, 
but thousands of the brave sleep in 
France. He was a poet of promise, 
winning readers by the simplicity of 
his verse. We have read pieces in 
'A Line 0' Type or Two' in the Pitts- 
burgh Post that compare favorably 
with his best. Has he made such bril- 
liant contributions to American liter- 
ature that the Knights of Columbus, as 
a national organization, should feel 
it their duty to erect a monument cost- 
ing a quarter million dollars in his 
memory! We are of the opinion that 
while he was a good soldier who left 
a wife and six children at home to fight 
for a principle, while he was a promis- 
ing author who wrote certain commend- 
able poems and some mediocre essays, 
the monument to his memory exceeds 
his fame." 

A Contemporary Ssunt? 

"The Life of Matt Talbot, "" by Sir 
Joseph A. Glynn, a pamphlet published 
by the Catholic Truth Society of Ire- 
land, gives us the first authentic in- 
formation about a Dublin laborer who 
died last year and was discovered after 
his death to have practiced virtue in 
a heroic degree. Matt Talbot, born in 
1857, was a common day-laborer all 
ills life. He gave the major portion 
of his earnings to charity and led a 
life of austere mortification. He was 
a member of the Third Order of St. 
Francis and spent nearly all his leisure 
time in prayer. His attitude towards 
his employers was one of exceeding 
strictness, and his fellow-workers re- 
spected him so highly that "it was 
an unheard of thing for anvone to use 



1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



189 



bad language in the yard in which, he 
worked." The few books he possessed 
were all on spiritual subjects. He slept 
on a plank with a piece of pitch pine 
for a pillow. His fasts were extraor- 
dinary. On the vigil of every feast- 
day he black-fasted and during Lent 
he took no meat, butter, or milk. He 
was a daily communicant, but does not 
seem to have had a spiritual director 
in the ordinarj^ sense. 

Talbot dropped dead in the street on 
Trinity Sunday, and when his body 
was being prepared for burial, it was 
found that he wore a cart chain tied 
twice around, held together with twine 
and hung with religious medals ; around 
one arm was a lighter chain, around the 
other arm the cord of St. Francis; 
around one leg was a chain similar 
to that which was around the arm, and 
around the other leg a rope was tied 
tightly. The body was scrupulously 
clean, though the chains were rusty 
and had sunk deep into the skin. Sir 
Joseph A. Glynn has gathered all the 
available facts about this contemporary 
saint, and his pamphlet, which bears 
the imprimatur, of the Archbishop of 
Dublin, has had an enormous sale — 
16,000 copies within a few weeks. No 
doubt it will soon be followed by a 
more elaborate biography. 

Agnes Smith Lewis 

Mrs. Agnes Smith Lewis, whose name 
is mentioned in every modern intro- 
duction to Sacred Scripture, died at 
Cambridge, England, March 26. She 
was the elder twin-daughter of John 
Smith, of Irvine (Ayrshire), in which 
town she was born. After four years 
at Irvine Academy, she completed her 
education entirely by private tuition. 
After the death of her father, Mrs. 
Lewis, accompanied by her twin- 
sister, Mrs. Gibson, and another lady, 
in 1868-69, made an extensive tour 
through the East — in those days a 
far more serious undertaking than it 
is at present — visiting Egypt and the 
Holy Land, and on her return she 
wrote "Eastern Pilgrims." Later she 
made a journey through Greece and 
Cyprus, the result being "Glimpses of 



Greek Life and Scenery," and "A 
Journey Through Cyprus in 1886." In 
1887 Miss Smith was married to the 
Rev. Samuel Savage Lewis, Fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and 
with him she made many more jour- 
neys in the East. After his death, in 
1891, she resolved to carry out a long 
cherished project of visiting Mount 
Sinai. She had been fascinated in 
early girlhood by the descriptions 
which her brother-in-law, James Young 
Gibson, had given her of a journey 
which he took by Sinai and Petra to 
Jerusalem in 1865. After reading the 
"Apology of Aristides," which had 
been discovered by Dr. J. Rendel 
Harris in the Sinai library, Mrs. Lewis 
became so deeply interested that she 
began to learn the Syriac grammar. 
On Feb. 6, 1892, the two sisters 
arrived at the Convent at Sinai, 
after traveling for nine days across 
the desert. Mrs. Lewis examined 
the store of ancient MSS. in the li- 
brary, and there made her famous dis- 
covery- of the most ancient known copy 
of the Four Gospels, which had super- 
imposed on the original writing biog- 
raphies of women saints. She returned 
Avith over 1,000 film photographs, 400 
being of the Syriac palimpsest, 500 of 
two codices of Arabic Gospels and 
Epistles, and the remainder of other 
important books. She wrote an ac- 
count of her discovery in 1898. 

Mrs. Lewis and her sister returned 
to Mount Sinai several times. During 
a visit in 1895 she deciphered about 
a fifth of the underwriting of the 
palimpsest. This was published shortly 
afterwards, and was found to contain 
many valuable readings. With her 
sister, Mrs. Lewis prepared a complete 
edition of the Palestinian Syriac Lec- 
tionary of the Gospel, 1899. The sis- 
ters were also known for their "Studia 
Sinaitica" and "Horse Semiticse." 



The ' ' Societa Filologica Friulana G. 
I. Ascoli" (Udine) has drawn up the 
plan and undertaken the preparation 
and publication of a linguistic atlas 
of Italy. This work, when completed, 
should satisfy a much-felt need. 



190 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
J. G. Frazer as a Biblical Critic 

By the Rev, Albert Muntsch, S. J. 



Mav 1 



In a former paper (F. R., XXXII, 
21, pp. 443 sqq.) we described the 
methods employed by J. G. Frazer 
("Folk-lore in the Old Testament") 
in his vain endeavor to give a rational- 
istic explanation of the story of Jacob 
receiving the blessing intended for 
Esau. By a liberal use of "we may 
readil}' conjecture," "we may now 
suppose, ' ' and especially by far-fetched 
analogies from the folklore of many 
nations, he attempts to show that the 
writer of the Genesis narrative merely 
retold an incident known to earlier 
scribes and strove to give "a legalistic 
explanation" of the assumption by 
Jacob of a privilege to which, accord- 
ing' to the custom of his time, he had 
no right. "We saw that Frazer 's inter- 
pretation brought up new difficulties 
instead of throwing light upon a simple 
story. 

Frazer will not allow Jacob to depart 
in peace with "the stolen blessing." 
He pursues him relentlessly. Chapter 
IV of "Folk-lore in the Old Testa- 
ment" is entitled, "Jacob at Bethel," 
and begins as follows: "The treachery 
of Jacob to Esau, as it is represented 
in the Biblical narrative, naturally led 
to an estrangement between the broth- 
ers." There can be no objection to this 
statement as it paraphrases the words 
of the inspired writer. But how differ- 
ent the subsequent discussions of 
Frazer from the fresh, vivid, and with- 
al easily understandable story of 
Genesis? Again we ask, why all the 
labored apparatus summoned from 
afar, which serves only to obscure, and 
not to illustrate, this ancient Oriental 
narrative 1 

The verses which Frazer takes as the 
basis of his criticism are the following : 
"And he [Jacob] saw in his sleep a 
ladder standing upon the earth, and 
the top thereof touching heaven : the 
angels also of God ascending and des- 
cending by it . . . And Jacob arising in 
the morning, took the stone, which 
he had laid under his head, and set it 



up for a title, pouring oil upon the top 
of it." 

These two plain and direct state- 
ments, which are readily understood 
from the context and from the religious 
practices of the patriarchal age, are ex- 
amined in the light of the folklore and 
superstitious observances of other, and 
chiefly non-Semitic people. The far- 
ther Frazer goes in his wanderings, 
the more he departs from the Biblical 
story, and he could have kept on in- 
definitely citing "analogies" without 
making his case any the stronger. 

For by the method of Frazer almost 
anything can be "proved." It is the 
easiest thing in the world to gather 
a number of illustrations from fairy 
lore, mythology, and primitive religion, 
give them a particularistic interpreta- 
tion, and then offer them as "proofs" 
for a preconceived opinion. Examples 
are abundant. The Westfalian peasant 
wears wooden shoes, the Palestinian 
shepherd has sandals, the American 
Indian prefers moccasins. But in the 
legends and folklore of these different 
people we occasionally read of "mother 
earth," and of the reverence which 
ought to be shown her. By a Frazerian 
analogy it would be proper to say that 
people of these nations wear footgear 
out of fear and superstitious dread of 
treading on "good mother earth" 
rather than for the prosaic and prac- 
tical purpose of protecting their feet. 
The illustration is every bit as apt and 
forceful as those adduced in bewilder- 
ing kaleidoscopic manner by Frazer in 
the three volumes of "Folk-lore in the 
Old Testament." 

Chapter IV of the work just cited 
is divided into four sections: 1. Jacob's 
Dream ; 2. Dreams of the Gods ; 3. The 
Heavenly Ladder ; 4. The Sacred Stone. 
In sections two, three, and four Frazer 
enters upon his world-wide wanderings 
in quest of the "deadly parallel" and, 
of course, "proves" his case: — not, 
however, entirely to his own satisfac- 
tion as the numerous "conjectures", 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



191 



''perhaps", "we may well imagine", 
etc., throw doubt upon his own state of 
mind. 

We begin our criticism with section 
two, ' ' Dreams of the Gods. ' ' We read : 
''As critics have seen, the story of 
Jacob's dream was proiahly* told to 
explain the immemorial sanctity of 
Bethel, which may* well have been re- 
vered by the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Canaan long before the Hebrews in- 
vaded and conquered the land. ' ' Notice 
the two conjectural shadings of the 
statement, which starts out bravelj^ 
enough, but weakens towards the end. 
The assertion immediately following 
has absolutely no bearing on the case. 
It is true ; but, we ask, why make it at 
all? "The belief that the gods re- 
vealed themselves and declared their 
will to mankind in dreams was wide- 
spread in antiquity." Countless other 
"beliefs" were widespread in olden 
days with just as much or just as little 
bearing on the matter under discussion. 

But let us study some of the exam- 
ples which Frazer offers as proofs of 
the "un-originality" of the Bible story. 
"We read of a Baconian woman named 
Arata who suffered from dropsy. So 
her mother made a pilgrimage on her 
behalf to the sanctuary of Aesculapius 
at Epidaurus. There she slept and 
dreamed a dream, and in her dream she 
thought that the god cut off her 
daughter's head and hung up the head- 
less body neck downwards, so that all 
the water ran out; then he took down 
the body, and clapped on the head 
again. When the mother returned to 
Lacedaemon, she found that her 
daughter had dreamed the same dream 
and was now perfectly cured." It is 
difficult to see how Jacob's dream and 
that of the Greek woman may be com- 
pared upon common ground, except for 
the fact that in each case we have a 
dream. 

"Again, we read of a man who was 
afflicted with an internal ulcer. He 
slept in the sanctuary and dreamed a 
dream. In his dream it seemed to him 
that the god commanded his servants 
to take and hold him, that he might 

*Italics mine. — A, M, 



cut open his belly ; at that he fled, but 
the servants of the god laid hold on 
him and tied him to a post, whereupon 
Aesculapius slit open his belly, re- 
moved the ulcer, and sewed up the 
wound, after which he was released 
from his bonds. Next morning he 
went forth whole, but the floor of the 
dormitory was full of blood." Here 
the attempt to find a parallel borders 
upon the absurd. 

But let us consider some of the ex- 
amples cited in . the section, ' ' The 
Sacred Stone." "The worship of rude 
stones has been practiced all over the 
world, nowhere perhaps more systemat- 
ically than in Melanesia. Thus, for 
example, in the Banks Islands and in 
the Northern New Hebrides the spirits 
to whom food is offered are almost al- 
ways connected with stones on which 
the offerings are made." The reader 
Avho has the merest acquaintance wijh 
folklore knows that pagan tribes wor- 
ship not only ' ' stones, ' ' but everything 
to which their fear or fancy or super- 
stition lends unusual significance. In 
fact, E. B. Tylor has introduced a new 
idea into folklore study by his account 
of worship of "stocks and stones and 
lifeless things" among savage races. 
To him we owe the term "animism" in 
the anthropologic sense, that is, the be- 
lief that all objects have a natural life 
or vitality or indwelling souls. Totem- 
ism is, in one sense, a phase of animism, 
and totems are taken by the Austra- 
lians and the American Indians not 
only from the animal kingdom but also 
from lifeless objects. But yet they are 
worshipped as "protecting spirits." 
What more natural than that the 
primitive mind should pay honor, or 
even worship, to stones. In the light 
of these well-established facts of ethnol- 
ogy, the whole of Frazer 's elaborate 
series of instances on "sacred stones" 
is shorn of all argumentative worth. 
The story of Jacob dreaming and con- 
secrating the stone upon which he rest- 
ed is not deprived of an iota of historic 
value. 

We offer one more example of his 
"stone worship" stories. "The 
Waralis, a tribe who inhabit the jun- 



192 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



|^il0^n ©rgein B^ciut^ 
For Three Great Churches 

In scores of churches the rich flowing melody and the stately 
dignity of Kilgen Organ music has for years been consonant with 
the beauty of Catholic services. 

And now three more great churches, spanning a continent, 
are preparing to receive this same music beauty from the noblest 
instrument of all, a Kilgen Pipe Organ. 

Kilgens are carefully being built for: — 

St. Catherine of Alexandria, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
St. Francis Xavier, St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Monica Church, Santa Monica, Cal. 

MAIN OFFICE & PLANT ^V*^ (^X^^XS ST. LOUIS, MO. 

We invite you to visit our new plant at 4016 Union Blvd. 



gles of Northern Konkan, in the Bom- 
bay Presidency, worship Waghia, the 
lord of tigers, in the form of a shape- 
less stone smeared with red lead and 
clarified butter. They give him chickens 
and goats, break cocoa-nuts on his head, 
and pour oil on him. In return for 
these attentions he preserves them from 
tigers, gives them good crops, and keeps 
disease from them." Very interest- 
ing, indeed, as are most of the little 
facts of life from strange corners of 
the world, revealed by the, industry of 
Frazer, but we must say, "What of 
it?" They do not illumine in any way 
the narrative of Genesis, since the tAvo 
facts cannot be co-ordinated on any 
basis — be it historical, psychical or 
racial. 

Catholic exegetes have, of course, 
commented on this chapter of Genesis, 
but their interpretation is direct and 
to the point and does not lead into a 
wilderness of conjectures. Thus 
Schuster and Holzammer in their ex- 
cellent and much quoted "Handbuch 



zur Biblischen Gesehichte" (seventh 
edition, page 329), comment as follows 
on verse 18 of the 28th chapter of 
Genesis : the oil was poured over the 
stone "as a sign that it was to be con- 
secrated to God and His holy service. 
For oil, one of the most noteworthy 
products of the East, lightens, vivifies, 
and strengthens, it soothes and heals, 
and preserves even from corruption. 
Spiritually God's grace does the same 
thing. Hence oil has ever been regard- 
ed as the symbol of the all enlighten- 
ing, vivifying, and healing grace of the 
Holy Spirit. Persons and objects 
destined for God's service ... were 
anointed with oil. It need not cause 
surprise that Jacob had oil with him. 
For even to-day in Asia travelers take 
oil with them, not only as food, but 
also to limber the joints (cfr. Luke X, 
34; the Good Samaritan)." This ex- 
planation may not sound as learned 
and is not as far-fetched as any of 
Frazer 's, but it is satisfactory, objec- 
tive, and based on readily verifiable 
facts. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



193 



With the weakness characteristic of 
his argumentation, Frazer concludes 
his chapter with several hypotheses, 
thereby practically dismantling the 
structure erected so laboriously. He 
says : " In the light of these analogies 
it is reasonable to suppose* that there 
was a sacred stone at Bethel, on which 
worshippers from time immemorial 
had been accustomed to pour oil, be- 
cause they believed it to be in truth 
a 'house of God' (Bethel), the domicile 
of a divine spirit ... On the other hand 
the holy stone at Bethel was probably* 
one of those massive standing-stones or 
rough pillars which the people called 
'masseboth', and which, as we have 
seen, were regular adjuncts of Cana- 
anite and early Israelitish sanctuaries. 
. . . Such we Tiiiay suppose* to have been 
the sacred stone which Jacob is said 
to have set up and anointed at Bethel, 
and for which his descendants prob- 
ably* attested their veneration in like 
manner for many ages." 

We have here pointed out four 
"probabilities." All told, there are 
five such hypothetical "probables" in 
Frazer 's concluding paragraph. The 
final paragraph of a disquisition of 
thirty-seven pages (pp. 40 to 77 of Vol. 
II of "Folk-lore in the Old Testa- 
ment"), which is so weak in argument, 
does not speak well for the solidity of 
the rest of the chapter. We wonder 
whether Frazer himself has ever count- 
ed up the large number of his "con- 
jectural" statements. If he had done 
so, he would have written with much 
less aplomb and been less hasty in 
stretching his facts upon the Procrus- 
tean bed of an unsound and unscien- 
tific thesis. 

*Italics mine. — A. M. 



I heard the other day, writes a cor- 
respondent, of a delightfully uncon- 
scious truth spoken by a Protestant. 
Two men met on a train journey and 
started a conversation. Thinking that 
his companion was a Catholic, one said : 
"I suppose you are one of the true 
religion?" "No, thank God," said the 
other, "I am a Protestant." — Universe. 

Do thy duty ; that is best, — -Leave 
unto thy Lord the rest. — Longfellow. 



A New View of Spiritism 

Reviewing a number of recent books 
on Spiritism in the Irish quarterlv 
Studies (Vol. XV, No. 57, pp. 79-94), 
Father Herbert Thurston, S. J., says 
he finds it impossible to accept the view 
which at present seems to be gaining 
ground in America, that Spiritism is 
a fake. With Father Th. Mainage, 
0. P., the learned English Jesuit be- 
lieves in the objectivity of at least a 
portion of Spiritistic phenomena, 
though he does not, like Mr. J. Godfrey 
Raupert and some others, hold these 
to be necessarily diabolic in origin. Fr. 
Thurston discusses P. Mainage 's theory 
of "complex telepathy," without how- 
ever identifying himself with it. His 
own idea, put forth tentatively, is that, 
since the influences encountered in the 
practice of Spiritism are not all evil 
(Mme. Mink Jullien, Dr. T. L. Nichols 
and his wife and others have been 
brought into the Catholic Church 
through Spiritistic influences), it is 
likely that "there are really outside in- 
telligences which communicate (though 
such communications are invariably 
colored and distorted by the subcon- 
cious beliefs of the medium or automat- 
ist), and that these intelligences are 
often mocking or freakish, often un- 
truthful, sometimes brutal, licentious 
and malevolent, but not infrequently 
sincere and kindly. It is easy to be- 
lieve," in his opinion, "that Satan and 
his myrmidons are apt to take a direct 
part in such intercourse, but there 
seems nothing to exclude the possibility 
that the disincarnate spirits of the un- 
baptised, or, it may be, other intelligent 
beings whose existence has not been 
otherwise made known to us, also in- 
tervene." 

As a possible clue to the identity of 
these intelligences Fr. Thurston quotes 
the following passages from the 
visions of Ann Catherine Emmerick 
(Schmoger's Life, II, 206 and 207) : 

"There are, also, souls neither in 
heaven, purgator}' nor hell, but wan- 
dering the earth in trouble and an- 
guish, aiming at something they are 
bound to perform. They haunt deserted 
places, ruins, tombs, and the scenes of 



194 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



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their past misdeeds. They are spec- 
tres. ... I have often iinderstood, in 
my childhood and later, that three 
whole choirs of angelic spirits, higher 
than the archangels, fell, but were not 
east into hell ; some, experiencing a sort 
of repentance, escaped for a time. The}" 
are the planetary spirits that come up- 
on earth to tempt man. At the last 
day they will be judged and con- 
demned. I have always seen that the 
devils can never leave hell. I have 
seen, too, that many of the damned 
go not directly to hell, but suffer in 
lonely places on earth." 

"Great order reigns among the 
planetary spirits who are fallen 
spirits but not devils. They are 
very, very different from devils. 
They go to and fro between the earth 
and the nine spheres. In one 
of these spheres they are sad and mel- 
ancholy ; in another, impetuous and 
violent ; in a third, light and giddy ; 
in a fourth, stingy, parsimonious, mi- 
serly, etc. They exert an influence 
over the whole earth, over every man 
from his birth, and they form certain 
orders and associates .... Some of 
these spirits are an occasion of good, 
in as much as man himself directs their 
influence to good." 

All this, of course, is mere conjecture, 



and we must never forget that "the 
attempt to communicate with the un- 
seen through Spiritualistic practices 
is extremely dangerous and that the 
Church in all ages has very wisely 
denounced it." 



The Canonization of St. Thomas 

Fr. Mandonnet's article on the can- 
onization of St. Thomas in the "Me- 
langes Thomistes Publics par les Dom- 
inicains de la Province de France a 
rOccasion du Vie Centenaire de la 
Canonisation de S. Thomas d'Aquin," 
according to a critic in the Archivum 
Franckcanum Historicuni (Vol. 
XVIII, fasc. 3, p. 406), is biased. 
"The author furnishes no proof what- 
ever that John XXII held the views 
which he attributes to him, or that the 
canonization of St. Thomas (18 July, 
1323) had the doctrinal significance 
which he imagines. The acta of the 
canonization process were the result 
of two separate inquiries. The first 
of these, described by Mandonnet as 
'the only important one from the his- 
torical point of view,' contained the 
depositions of the witnesses taken at 
Naples from July 23rd to November 
26th, 1319 (printed in the Acta Sanc- 
torum, March, 1, 686-715). The car- 
dinalitial commission at Avignon, how- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



195 



ever, considered this inquiry incom- 
plete, and hence another had to be in- 
stituted. It took place at Fossanova 

(where St. Thomas had died March 7, 
1274) from the 10th to the 26th of 
November, 1321. Its acta have never 
been edited, but were utilized by Ber- 
nard Guidonis, 0. P. (published partly 
in the Acta Sanctorum, I. c, 716 ff.) 

The canonization of St. Thomas finallv 
took place July 18, 1323. ''It was the 
Dominican province of Naples and 
Sicily which had promoted the cause 
of St. Thomas. In view of these pre- 
liminaries and the pretended 'initia- 
tive' of the Holy See, one is astonished 
that the learned Fr. Mandonnet should 
ignore a letter written by Peter a 
Palude, vicar-genera] of the Order, to 
King James of Aragon, on May 29, 
1317. This letter, which was discussed 
by Benedict XIV (De Serv. Dei 
Beatif., 1. I, c. 21), and before him 
by Francis Peiia, shows that at that 
time the Dominican Order thought only 
of the canonization of Raymond of 
Peiiafort and that John XXII had of- 
fered to canonize some Dominican — 
'unum quern duxerimus eligendum.' 
James of Aragon received this letter 
and, declaring himself satisfied with 
the decision of the Friars Preachers, 
on June 11, 1317, ordered the magis- 
trate of Barcelona to promote the cause 
of the canonization of Raymond of 
Pefiafort (see his letter in A. Rubio y 
Lluch's Documenta per I'Hist. de la 
Cultura Catalana, I, Barcelona, 1908, 
69 ff.)" 

Evidently the history of the canoni- 
zation of the Angelic Doctor is not yet 
fully cleared up. It is surprising that 
a scholar of the ability of Fr. Man- 
donnet should ignore the facts brought 
out by his Franciscan critic. 



Abbot Butler in his Life of Bishop 
UUathorne confirms the authenticity of 
the story that UUathorne once in an 
outburst of anger said to Manning: 
"My dear Sir, I taught the catechism 
with a mitre on my 'ed while you were 
still an 'eretic!" 



Notes and Gleanings 

We beg leave to recommend to the 
prayers of our readers the soul of 
Mrs. Susan Tracy Otten, wife of our 
old friend and contributor, Mr. Joseph 
Otten, choir director of the Pittsburgh 
Cathedral. After nursing her husband 
through a long siege of illness, Mrs. 
Otten took ill rather suddenly in Holy 
Week and died of pneumonia on Holy 
Saturday. She was a convert, an ex- 
traordinarily gifted woman, who 
wrote many articles and innumerable 
book reviews for the F. R. in the course 
of the last twenty -five years. Her 
judgment in matters literary was keen 
and sound and her literary style pol- 
ished and incisive. We have lost 
through her demise one of our ablest 
and most faithful contributors. R. i. p.! 

The American Historical Review 
agrees with Father Herbert Thurston, 
S. J., that Hilaire Belloc's "History 
of England" is "not worth. serious con- 
sideration as history." "Its author's 
very approach," says the critic (Vol. 
XXXI, No. 3, p. 502), "is unhistor- 
ical. History, in Mr. Belloc's mind, is 
apparently a medium for exposition of 
his well-known ideas about the excel- 
lences of Roman Catholic civilization, 
the superiority of Latin culture to Ger- 
man culture, and, incidentally, the dis- 
integrating effects of wealth upon 
morale. While all these opinions may 
or may not be true, and while history 
developed as an inductive science may 
illustrate their truth, any conscious 
attempt to make history prove them is 
bound to result in a perversion of his- 
tory into propaganda." In other words, 
Mr. Belloc is not a historian, but an 
apologist. Considered from this point 
of view, his work has some undeniable 
merits; but it should not be played up 
as history, lest we make our sacred 
cause ridiculous and give outsiders 
a false idea of Catholic scholarship. 

Unfortunately, Father Otto Brauns- 
berger, S. J., who devoted forty years 
of his life to editing the correspondence 
of St. Peter Canisius, was not spared 



196 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



to write the full biography of the Saint 
of which his recent one-volume life 
was but a forerunner. Fr. Brauns- 
berger died March 27 at Exaeten, Hol- 
land, at the age of seventy-seven. R. i. p. 
We are glad to learn from the Cologne 
Volkszeitung that the final volume of 
his "Epistulae B. Petri Canisii," to- 
gether with a supplementary volume, 
are so far advanced that they can be 
put through the press without much 
delay. The work is generally acknowl- 
edged, even by non-Catholic scholars, 
to be one of the most important and 
best edited source-books for the history, 
secular as well as religious, of the six- 
teenth century. 



A reader sends us a marked copy of 
the True Voice, in which (page 3) space 
is given to the organization and pro- 
gramme of a "K of C. Sunday morn- 
ing Baseball League," composed of 
sixteen parish baseball teams which 
play only on Sunday mornings. On 
the same page of our Omaha contem- 
porary the Loyola Dancing Club of 
St. John's Parish announces that it 
will resume its Friday night dances 
with a ' ' Harmo Jazz Orchestra, ' ' what- 
ever that may be. Here is some "pro- 
gressive" Catholic sentiment for you! 

Archbishop Hanna of San Francis- 
co is publishing in his official organ, 
the Monitor (March 6 sqq.), a series 
of papers on "The Parish — Its History, 
Importance, and Opportunities," which 
are later to appear in book form. He 
shows that from Apostolic times the 
center of Catholic life has always been 
the parish church. In this country 
new and constantly changing condi- 
tions have caused the old tradition to 
fade, but if the Church is to fulfill her 
mission, the people must again make 
the parish church the centre of their 
affections. The Code "compels us to 
return to the old parish ideal and to 
seek the development of Christian life 
along lines strictly parochial." With 
this ideal in mind one can imagine why 
Dr. Hanna should not be particularly 
enthusiastic about those organizations 
and movements which tend to disrupt 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



197 



the bonds of parish life. Latent oppo- 
sition to such organizations and move- 
ments has been apparent in the columns 
of his official paper for some time. It 
is a healthy symptom, and we trust 
the Archbishop 's forthcoming book will 
recall all the Catholics of America to 
the parish ideal. 

The Rosary Magazine calls attention 
to the fiftieth anniversary, on April 
17 of this year, of the death of Orestes 
A. Brownson, the famous convert, 
whose name is almost forgotten, despite 
the fact that he was one of the staunch- 
est defenders of the faith among Amer- 
ican Catholic laymen. We agree with 
our contemporary that Brownson has 
been unduly neglected and that this 
anniversary should lead to a resurrec- 
tion of his works, which have been long 
out of print. 

The Rosary Magazine extols Dr. 
Brownson for three reasons, the second 
of which is that "he never feared to 
stand by his own guns in questions 
about which the Church did not judge. 
Mau}^ of his opinions were controverted 
by the leaders of his time, but when- 
ever he realized that he was in the 
right, he never quailed. He did not 
blush to correct his opinions when 
shown their falsity. Hence he was as 
great in his readiness to change what 
was shown him to be wrong as he was 
in his unwillingness to hedge when con- 
vinced that he was right. To-day we 
need that kind of laymen to set their 
faces against the winds of temporizing 
and accommodation. "No doubt we need 
"that kind of laymen," but the neg- 
lect into which Brownson has fallen 
shows that they are not appreciated, — 
not even after death. The work must 
be done for purely supernatural mo- 
tives. 

We have received the first number of 
the Catholic Union Bulletin, published 
monthly by the Catholic Union, an in- 
corporated society which, as our readers 
know, aims at bringing about the 
reunion of the schismatics of the Near 
East with the Catholic Church. There 
are, as the editor informs us, in Russia 



and the Near East more than 120,000- 
000 souls cut off from the graces and 
blessings of the one true Church of 
Christ through the schism of their fore- 
fathers. Most of them hold nearly 
every article of the Catholic creed ex- 
cept the primacy of the Roman See. 
Since the Russian revolution the so- 
called "Orthodox" church organization 
has all but broken down, and the 
chances for reunion have accordingly 
grown brighter. What is primarily 
needed is priests to carry to these 
schismatics the message of reunion and 
hope. To supply priests is one of the 
primary objects of the Catholic Union, 
which has the special blessing and rec- 
ommendation of Pius XI. The Bul- 
letin will be sent gratis to any address 
upon application to the American 
headquarters of the Union, 50 Union 
Square, New York City. 



Among the memoranda submitted to 
Congress against the Curtis-Reed Bill 
was one drawn up by Mr. Charles J. 
Tobin for the Cathedral Academy of 
Albany, N. Y. The author shows that 
the Curtis-Reed Bill had its inception 
in the Smith-Towner Bill of 1918 and 
its real though hidden purpose is the 
federal control of education. He de- 
velops the fcllowing points: (1) The 
Constitution does not give the central 
government power to establish a federal 
department of education; (2) Author- 
ization for the enactment of the Curtis- 
Reed Bill is not found in Article I, 
section 8, of the Constitution; (3) Edu- 
cation is a local function; (4) Histor- 
ical records on the U. S. Constitution 
preclude education as a federal func- 
tion. "Once more to tap the federal 
treasury under guise of aiding the 
States," the author concludes, "and 
once more to establish an army of 
bureaucrats in Washington and another 
army of inspectors roaming at large 
throughout the land, will not only fail 
to accomplish any permanent improve- 
ment in the education of our people, 
but it will assist in effecting so great 
a revolution in our American form of 
government as one day to endanger its 
perpetuity. ' ' 



198 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 



The diocesan process for the beatifica- 
tion of Contardo Ferrini, the famous 
jurist, has been concluded and the mat- 
ter is now before the S. Congregation 
of Kites at Rome. The body was found 
in a fair state of preservation. Con- 
tardo Ferrini was born at Milan in 
1859, and spent his life at university 
work, being professor successively at 
the universities of Messina, Modena, 
and Pavia. He died in 1902 at Suna, 
on the Lago Maggiore, at the early age 
of forty-three. Pope Pius X was es- 
pecially^ interested in him, and con- 
stantly urged the preparations for the 
introduction of his cause. C. Pellegrini 
has written a Life of Contardo Ferrini 
(Turin, 1920). The official process be- 
gan on July 1st, 1922. 

St. Teresa had no sympathy with the 
people that asked for crosses which 
some one else would be obliged to 
share. "I am amused," she writes to 
Father Gracian, "at hearing that you 
wish for more crosses; for God's sake 
leave us without them, for you do 
not bear them alone. Give us at least 
a few days to breathe freely." That 
is Teresa's sense of humor at its best. 
So she notes with quaint humor and 
we can well believe wath her tongue 
in her cheek, referring to the Sisters 
of St. Joseph's Convent, "It seems to 
me that if they asked for crosses from 
God, He has exceeded their requests." 
—Catholic World, No. 707. 

As Msgr. Lepicier, who was a mem- 
ber of the pontifical commission for the 
reform of the Catechism, lately in- 
formed the editor of the Bombay Ex- 
aminer, the work of drawing up a 
single Catechism of Christian doctrine 
to be officially authorized for the whole 
Church is still under way. The first 
draft proved too bulky, and much 
pruning had to be done. Cardinal 
Gasparri, notwithstanding the immense 
labors of his office as Secretary of 
State, is taking a close interest in the 
revision. The final draft is to be sent 
to all the bishops for examination, and 
their criticisms and suggestions will 
be considered before the official text is 
adopted. 



JUST PUBLISHED 
Retreat Matter for Priests 

By The 

VERY REV. PAUL STIEGELE 

Adapted into English 

By The 

REV. C. F. KEYSER 

Edited by Arthur Preuss 

Cloth, 8vo., VIII and 410 pages, 

net $2.50 

"Retreat Matter for Priests" is 
a book that is far more comprehen- 
sive as to contents and purpose 
than the title indicates. It could 
be rightly called a compendium of 
ascetic theology and used as a text 
book for this important branch of 
sacred science. It contains two 
full series of discourses for a re- 
treat to priests, ten sermons to each 
series, with nine conferences, all of 
which are eminently practical. 
They are the fruit of many years 
devoted by the author to the train- 
ing of seminarians for the holy 
priesthood. Besides treating in a 
forceful and impressive way of sin 
and its consequences, the author 
aims to inculcate the various vir- 
tues requisite for priestly sanctity. 
Likewise the duties and responsi- 
bilities incumbent upon pastors are 
presented in an attractive and 
charming manner. There is scarce- 
ly a phase of the priest's life that 
is not touched on in this book, and 
always it is treated in a fascinating 
style, breathing the lofty ideals by 
which the author himself was ani- 
mated. Hence the book is eminent- 
ly suitable for spiritual reading, 
being a worthy companion to ' ' The 
Eternal Priesthood" by Cardinal 
Manning. As a guide for priests 
who make a retreat by themselves, 
as many do, there is nothing supe- 
rior to this book in any language. 



B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REYIE^V 



199 



In its No. 7 the F. R. printed an ar- 
ticle by the President of the Federated 
Colored Catholics of the U. S. This 
organization was founded in 1923 with 
the approbation of the Archbishop of 
Baltimore, who is its spiritual director. 
The object is "to bring about a closer 
union and better feelings among all 
Catholic Negroes ; to advance the cause 
of Catholic education throughout the 
Negro population ; to seek to raise the 
general status of the Negro in the 
Church, and to stimulate Catholic Ne- 
groes to a larger participation in racial 
and civic affairs of the various com- 
munities and of the whole country." 
The Federation is particularly inter- 
ested in the Cardinal Gibbons Insti- 
tute, which, it hopes, "will become the 
same kind of progressive force among 
the members of our Catholic group as 
similar educational institutions [have 
become] among other colored religious 
groups." This Federation is not in- 
tended to supplant any existing organ- 
ization or to compete in any way with 
other organizations. Additional in- 
formation will be cheerfully furnished 
by the president, Dr. Thomas W. 
Turner, of Hampton Institute, Hamp- 
ton, Va. 

Great critics have taught us one es- 
sential rule ... It is, that if ever we 
should find ourselves disposed not to 
admire those writers or artists, Livy 
and Virgil for instance, Raphael or 
Michel Angelo, whom all the learned 
had admired, not to follow our own 
fancies, but to study them until we 
know how and what to admire ; and if 
we cannot arrive at this combination 
of admiration with knowledge, rather 
to believe that we are dull than that the 
rest of the world has been imposed on. 
— Edmund Burke. 



THE GIFT OF LOVE DIVINE 



By TV. E. Walsh, S. J. 



The subscribers of the F. R. have 
shown themselves broad-minded, for 
though at times we have said unpal- 
atable things, they have given us credit 
for sincerity and continue to support 
us right loyally. This is a precious 
moral attitude, which cannot be too 
highly appreciated. 



How wondrous is this Gift of Love Divine 

Which by our faith we see! 
Christ gives Himself through change of bread 

and wine 

In this great mystery. 
Our minds accept, in deep humility, 

What no man can define. 

In every tongue, through every land and clime 

This precious Gift proclaim. 
Christ lives and reigns until the end of time. 

All hail His royal Name! 
The Gift Divine aud Giver are the same, 

O mystery sublime! 



Correspondence 



Thoughts on Popular Devotions 

To the Editor:— 

Father Hoeveler's brochure, "Gebetser- 
horungen, " ought to be adapted into English 
and widely circulated with an energetic pref- 
ace by one of our bishops, calling attention 
to the fact that devotion to the saints of 
God consists mainly in imitating their vir- 
tues. 

Regarding devotions to the "Little Flow- 
er" in particular, I have observed that ladies 
who were most enthusiastic over this cult were 
frivolously dressed and showed great ob- 
stinacy when their inconsistency was pointed 
out to them. This, I presume, is the "mod- 
ern simplicity ' ' which is so highly recom- 
mended. A definition of this modern virtue 
would be very welcome to us old fogies. Older 
ascetic writers agree in their explanation 
of that simplicity which, according to Christ 
Himself, must be combined with proper pru- 
dence; but modern writers are not agreed on 
the subject, and it is very easy indeed to 
venerate a modern saint without bothering 
to imitate his or her virtues. (On true sim- 
plicity see Albert M. Weiss, O. P., ' ' Apologie 
des Christentums, " Vol. V, pp. 244 sqq.) 

I am satisfied that quite a number of those 
who profess to venerate the ' ' Little Flower ' ' 
know very little about her life, not to speak 
of a deeper understanding of it. They ven- 
erate the Saint because it is fashionable to 
do so, just as women wear short, lowcut, 
and sleeveless dresses because they are stylish. 
Reason plays a most insignificant role in these 
things. If the Church were to prescribe a 
certain form of devotion to the "Little 
Flower" which would not appeal to the mod- 
ern mind, or, more correctly, to modern senti- 
mentality, it is safe to say that this devotion 
would soon cease to be popular. Too many 
Catholics want to have things entirely their 
own way. They are willing to observe the 
first Friday, but hear Mass on Sundays only 



200 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



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■when it suits them. They regard May de- 
votion with its pompous crowning of the 
Queen as obligatory, but pay no attention to 
the Eosary in October. They make novena 
after novena to St. Antony or the "Little 
Flower " as a splendid demonstration of their 
sanctity, but have no use for the novena 
to the Holy Ghost, which is prescribed by the 
Church. 

In regard to these modern devotions it is 
necessary to study the agencies engaged in 
their propagation. The various statues. 
medals, pictures, etc., of the ' ' Little Flower ' ' 
are sources of rich revenue for the manu- 
facturers and dealers that make and sell them. 
The commercialism of the age cooperates 
with modern devotion, and it is too much 
to ask us to see the Holy Ghost at work in 
these business manipulations. 

In what way the pictorial representation of 
the ' ' shower of roses ' ' is apt to promote 
the devotion to the ' "' Little Flower " is a 
question which we submit for an answer to 
those who have originated this practice. Re- 
garded from the dogmatic point of view, this 
representation is offensive. I do not know 
whether there are any other saints who so 
definitely predicted what they would do on 
earth after they reached Heaven. St. Paul 
in the famous passage where he declares that 
he fought the good fight does not express 
himself with nearly as much assurance as the 
' ' Little Flower ' ' is said to have done. Pri- 



vate revelations, even in the case of saints, 
must be treated with the greatest caution. 

The American representative of t"he So- 
ciety of St. Boniface lately sent out an il- 
lustrated pamphlet dealing with the jubilee 
of 1925. It glorifies the "Little Flower" in 
word and picture, but omits St. Peter Canisius, 
who was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church 
the same year. Does the Church guarantee 
the truth of the innumerable, more or less 
miraculous tales that are being spread about 
the ' ' Little Flower ' ' ? And is it not strange 
that one hears hardly anything about St. 
Joan of Arc, though she was canonized less 
than six years ago and her life is certainly 
more remarkable from every point of view 
than that of Soeur Therese? 

That the latter is known to many almost 
exclusively as the ' ' Little Flower ' ' offers 
food for thought. That she is extolled as 
a Avriter and placed beside her holy foundress, 
St. Teresa, for no other reason than that 
she composed her own biography, is more 
than risque. To picture her as paying a 
visit to the Holy Family at Nazareth is child- 
ish, and some at least of the representations 
of the "shower of roses" which are being 
circulated among the faithful deserve emphatic 
condemnation from the standpoint of sound 
theology. 

In view of the popular fashions and the 
current desire for novelty in the domain of 
popular devotions one is justified in asking: 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



201 



How much does the Church gain, and how 
much does she lose by such methods? How 
many thinking Catholics are repelled by this 
new-fangled Catholicism which cares so little 
for the honor of God, but so very much for 
the gratification of individual tastes? 

And yet we Catholics have a solid founda- 
tion for our devotion in the decisions of the 
ecclesiastical magisterium. Would it not be 
a thousand times bettor to await these de- 
cisions in prudence, patience, and silence, 
before speaking of miracles and revelations 
and spreading pious stories which usually are 
fables? To w^hat abuses are not the words 
' ' edifying " and " edification ' ' sub j ected ! 
Human inventions and lies can never serve 
as the foundation of true edification. When 
so-called jjious legends are exploded, as is 
frequently the case in these days of severe 
historic criticism, pious souls who have ad- 
hered to these legends as if they were re- 
vealed truths and put their own edification 
above the interests of the Church, must be 
the first to suffer shipwreck. 

(Rev.) Bede Maler, 0. S. B. 
Evansville, Ind. 



Organizing the Catholic Stage 

To the Editor: — 

Announcement has been made of a new or- 
ganization of which the chief aim is to work 
for the elevation of the Catholic stage, espec- 
ially the amateur stage. A little booklet is 
to be distributed free of charge to all leaders 
of Catholic stages and to any Catholic who 
is interested in stage work. Founder and 
organizer of the new association is the Cath- 
olic Dramatic Company, Brooten, Minn., 
which has been working in this field with 
great success. 

This is not the first time that an attempt has 
been made to organize a movement for the 
elevation of the stage. Many former organ- 
izations failed because they were too theo- 
retical and complicated. The new ' ' Catholic 
Dramatic Guild" has a practical background 
in the well-known and approved Catholic 
Dramatic Company, which publishes dramatic 
works. The Company was the preparation 
and is and will be the strong foundation for 
the Guild. This co-operation of publishers 
and organization means more power to the 
latter, because the publishers offer to the 
members of the Guild many benefits which 
any other organization without such a close 
connection with a publishing company could 
not grant to its members. The Catholic Dram- 
atic Company are known as publishers of 
plays that are in harmony with Catholic 
ideals, and their clean, interesting, and ele- 
vating plays will be an immense help for the 
success of the new Catholic Dramatic Guild. 

Many articles in Catholic papers lamented 
the present degraded condition of our Cath- 
olic stage, many deplored the kind of enter- 
tainment our young people were and are pre- 



senting on parish and school stages. Only 
a practical remedy can succeed in elevating 
our Catholic stage. The diagnosis is made, 
now we have to make good use of the medicine. 
The Catholic Dramatic Guild, therefore, 
should find the support of all Catholics. 

The problem of our young people in the 
parishes Avas and is discussed many a time 
in meetings, papers, magazines, etc. Now, 
here is a practical way to solve the problem, 
and — it will be interesting for the young 
people. Further more, you will make them 
interested also in parish work by organizing 
a Catholic Dramatic Club according to the 
regulations of the new Guild. The little 
pamphlet will tell you how to accomplish this 
end. Therefore, send for this free booklet. 
Brooten, Minn. Eev. M. Helfen 



"The Catholic Foundation" at the 
University of Illinois 

To the Editor:— 

It may be of interest to refer your readers 
to an editorial, ' ' Catholics and State Uni- 
versities, " which appeared in the F. R., Vol. 
XXXII, No. 7 (April 1st, 1925). Comment- 
ing on the presence of Catholics at secular in- 
stitutions the following pertinent statements 
were made: "not a few of the tutors are 
infidels"; there is no doubt about "the very 
real danger to Catholic education that lurks 
in this movement, ' ' meaning the Catholic 
Foundation Plan. 

Cardinal O'Connell in an address (cfr. 
Michigan Catholic, Feb. 15, 1917) warned 
his hearers of the great dangers to our coun- 
try from modern thinkers and said that many 
leading professors in our universities are 
atheists. His Eminence quoted a statement 
of Professor James Henry Leuba, professor 
of psychology at Bryn Mawr (Boston Sunday 
Herald, Jan. 14, 1917), to the effect that 50 
per cent of the distinguished educators in our 
colleges and universities are atheists. Leuba 
says that only 27 per cent of the more eminent 
teachers believe in God and only 35 per cent 
believe in the immortality of the soul. 

In a recent news item sent broadcast by the 
N. C. W. C. news service Archbishop Curley 
of Baltimore is quoted as having said in an 
address in Washington, D. C. : "1 find that 
the atmosphere of secularism in these big uni- 
versities of learning, where perhaps 10,000 
are in attendance, has had such a great in- 
fluence upon our priests attending that they 
have become contaminated. I sound the warn- 
ing to-day against this plan. I consider it 
destructive of our whole educational work of 
three centuries. I consider it disloyal to the 
mind of the Church. I find the plan opposed 
to the mind of the Church, dangerous to the 
Faith and dangerous to the minds and morals 
of the youth. The Catholic Foundation Plan 
is a dangerous plan." 

Without revealing his identity the Arch- 
bishop quoted from a speech given by the 



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1926 



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203 



Eev. John A. O'Brien, Ph. D. (A Ghost and 
Its Flight, page 6; delivered at Springfield, 
111., May 12, 1925), in -which the latter 
stated that the only purpose of Catholic 
schools was to teach religion, and that if some 
agency would relieve them of the burden of 
secular subjects they would be benefitted. 
Archbishop Curley characterized this state- 
ment as follows : ' ' This is a sort of veiled, 
hypocritical attack from the inside. ' ' The 
significance of these words is well under- 
stood by everyone who has been following 
the discussion on ' ' The Catholic Foundation ' ' 
as it has appeared in various Catholic pub- 
lications. 

Whenever and wherever this question was 
discussed, great care was taken to make ex- 
plicit, definite, and positive statement that 
there was not a word of complaint to be said 
about the presence of priests at these secular 
institutions who were there to take care of 
the spiritual welfare of the Catholic students. 
What is condemned is the false, pernicious 
view of education or of the philosophy of 
education, that is being palmed off as real, 
true, genuine Catholic education. It is this, 
it seems to me, that has aroused the just, 
righteous indignation of Archbishop Curley, 
and should cause the same feelings in every- 
one imbued with the Catholic instinct and 
Catholic principles. G. P. S. 



Eucharistic Hymns 

To the Editor: — 

The Dutch daily, Be Tijd, published a 
Dutch translation of the prize hymn for the 
Eucharistic Congress. This translation is a 
great improvement over the original, especial- 
ly that of the second stanza. Some of the 
readers of the F. E. might care to see it. 
Here it is. 

O Christenheid, verhef 
Tot Jezus hart en stem : 
Zijn bloed verbroedert ons 
En maakt ons een met Hem. 

Be f rain 
Aan Hem, die heerscht in 't Heilig Sacrament, 
Zij luister, lof en liefde zonder end. 
Vader aller macht, 
Zoo hebt Ge dus het woord: 
"Maak alien een als Wij," 
Van uwen Zoon verhoord. 

Aan Hem ons aller hart. 
Elk ras en volk op aard, 
Totdat zijn lof ons eens 
In 't hemelsch heil vergaart. 

With the refrain of the original the Dutch 
translator must not have been able to do 
much. He replaced it by a new one, which 
is another improvement. It occurred to me that 
it might be worth trying to retranslate the 
Dutch version into English. This is what 
came of the idea : 



Christians, to your King 
Your hearts and voices raise, 
Made of one blood by Him, 
His love and mercy praise. 

Father of all might, 
Thy Son 's, our Saviour 's word : 
"That all like Us be one," 
Thou hast with favor heard. 

O Nations, races all. 

To Him our hearts must cling. 

Till joined in Heav'nly Bliss 

In endless joy we sing: (Follows refrain.) 

That second stanza must be replaced by 
one which expresses the real subject, sug- 
gested by the Eucharistic Congress directly, 
and in words that the ordinary Catholic, who 
knows his catechism, can understand. Then 
the refrain must refer to Christ's mystic 
Kingdom on earth and the endless duration 
of His Kingdom in the glory of Heaven. 
Putting the thought in verse, the hymn took 
this form : 

O Christians, to your King 
Your hearts and voices raise. 
Made of one blood with Him, 
His love and mercy praise. 

Hail, Eucharistic King, we Thee adore! 

Thy glorious reign endures for evermore. 

In mem'ry of His works 
Christ has this wonder wrought, 
With them to share His life, 
Whom on the Cross He bought. 

Hail, King most powerful, We Thee adore! 

Thy glorious reign endures for evermore. 

O Nations, races all! 

To Christ our hearts must cling, 

Till joined in Heav'nly Bliss 

In endless joy we sing: 
Hail, Jesus Christ, our King, we Thee adore! 
Thy glorious ' reign endures for evermore. 

The critics of this and other countries will 
continue to express their opinions, favorable 
or less so, presumably the latter, on the 
literary merit of the prize hymn. Neither the 
author nor the judges of the hymn can reason- 
ably object to their doing so. The critics 
are only exercising the right the law of the 
literary realm gives them. The F. E., in 
taking the lead in this necessary and useful 
work, has rendered a real service to the 
Catholic Church. It has helped to forestall 
the attacks on the Catholic system of educa- 
tion, which attacks, in the form of broad 
hints at its deficiency, its utter failure to 
develop the esthetic and literary taste, are 
sure to follow in the secular and sectarian 
ma,gazines, in connection with the prize hymn. 

U. D. G. 



Poverty never spoils a good man, but 
prosperity often does. 



204 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 




s™.„.. ^yy^^ ^ Rest 

Blue Grass Region 

By John M. Cooney 

1 ^ 

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the delightful variety of characters fill 

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I schemes of a revengeful bully, officers 

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aggravated by numerous complications, 

I are woven into a plot of swift, relentless 

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BOOK REVIEWS 



Catholicism, Capitalism, and Communism 

It is a stout volume which Father Jeremiah 
Harrington presents to us under the title 
"Catholicism, Capitalism and Communism," 
supplied with a Preface by the Eev. Dr. 
John A. Ryan, an Introduction by Mr. Ralph 
Adams Cram, and an Epilogue by Mr. Gilbert 
K. Chesterton. The multitude of questions 
touched upon makes the volume almost a 
small encyclopaedia on the outstanding so- 
cial, industrial, and economic problems of 
the hour. Much has already been written 
in praise of the work, and several Catholic 
journals have been reprinting chapters of 
the book in weekly installments. The book 
appears to us to be a modern "Key to the 
World's Progress," expanded and bringing 
up to date many topics discussed in the well- 
known work of the late Charles Stanton 
Devas. 

Father Harrington frankly assumes the 
position that the present system of ration- 
alistic capitalism would be impossible if the 
Church were free to exert her influence now 
as she was in the days gone by. His whole 
book is a development of this thesis, and he 
strengthens it by abundant citations from 
leading Catholic social students. 



The volume is well suited for study courses. 
But a work touching on such a large variety 
of topics ought to have an index. The lan- 
guage quite often borders on "journalese" 
and a careful revision from the literary point 
of view would add value to this timely book. 
(St. Paul, Minn.: The E. M. Lohmann Co.) 

A. M. 

Literary Briefs 

— The second ' ' liber ' ' of the first volume 
of the ' ' Institutiones Biblicae, ' ' published 
by the Papal Biblical Institute, treats "De 
Textu" and is from the pen of Fr. Albert 
Vaccari, S. J. It deals with the original texts 
of the Old and New Testaments and with the 
ancient translations. It will be a pleasure 
for seminarians to study this Introduction. 
The arrangement is clear and orderly. The 
Vulgate comes in for a thorough treatment. 
The bibliography is copious, so that the 
student will be well informed on any question 
pertaining to this brarcli of biblical knowl- 
edge. There are six tables, at the end, on 
fine paper. The first gives ten different styles 
of Hebrew script; the sources of each are in- 
dicated. The second table gives the ILO^h 
(109th) psalm in Armenian, Arabic, Coptic, 
Syriac and Ethiopian, in parallel columns. 
The third is a 3-column facsimile of the Codex 
Vaticanus (B). The fourth the Codex 
Chisianus with Origen's asterisks and obeli. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY RErIE^Y 



205 



The fifth is Mt. XX, 27, 30 with au addition 
' ' vos autem quaeritis de pusillo crescere et 
de maiore minores esse, etc.," not found in 
our ordinary bibles. This table is from the 
Codex Vat. Lat. 7223, of the fifth century. The 
sixth table is p. 166 of the same codex, -which 
was Claromontanns, now is Vatieauns. 

— The renewed interest in the scientifir 
work of our Catholic missionaries (one evi 
dence of which is the recently formed Con- 
ference of Catholic Anthropologists) prompts 
us to refer again to the fine Report of the 
Sixth Annual Meeting oi the Franciscan Edu- 
cational Conference. This work shows what 
the Franciscan Fathers have done in cultivat- 
ing the science of language. Tlie volume 
is so meritorious and is such a marked proof 
of what the Catholic heralds of the Gospel 
have done for scholarsliip that it deserves a 
long and exhaustive review of many pages. 
We promise the readers of the F. E. that 
such a review Avill be forthcoming. In the 
meantime we must content ourselves with 
congratulating the Fathers and especially 
the scholarly editor, Fr. Felix M. Kirsch, 
O. ^I. Cap., on this excellent Eeport. (Ca- 
puchin College, Brookland, D. C.) 

—When the Paulist Press (401 W. 59th Str.. 
New York) issues in rapid succession three 
such timely and Avell written apologetic pam- 
phlets as "Indulgences for Sale" by Herbert 
Thurston, S. J., "Papal Infallibility" by 
the Most Rev. John Mclntyre, and "Ag- 
nosticism ' ' by the Rev. John Gerard, S. J., 
we may say that it is one of the great centres 
of Catholic apologetic activity in our coun- 
try. The booklets are attractively gotten up 
and those in search of the truth on these 
very practical questions could not find better 
matter than that presented here. 

— George L. Hurst 's ' ' Outline of the His- 
tory of Christian Literature" (The Macmil- 
l;iu Co.), is intended to "meet the need of 
English speaking Protestants who seek gui- 
dance along an hitherto untrodden path. ' ' 
The author is remarkably fair in his esti- 
mates of Catholic Avriters, though here and 
there he errs through ignorance, as when 
he confounds St. Thomas's " Summa Theolo- 
gica" with the same writer's Summa contra 
Gentiles. ' ' One wonders what induced such 
a fair-minded and well-disposed writer to 
quote from Milraan's "History of Latin 
Christianity" the unhistorical passage de- 
scribing Emperor Henry IV 's humiliation be- 
fore Pope Gregory VII, which has absolutely 
no bearing on the subject of this book. 

— Father Nicholas Sebastiani's useful 
" Summarium Theologiae Moralis" has re 
cently been reprinted in both of its editions, 
the octavo edition for the seventh and the 
16mo edition for the eighth time. The work 
has been adapted to the new Code of Canon 
Law and will no doubt continue to be pop- 



ular with seminarists and the parochial 
clergy, for whom it is mainly intended. 

— It is an encouraging augury for the 
future of Germany that Prof. Franz Zach's 
massive volume, "Modernes oder Katho- 
lisehes Kulturideal? " (Herder & Co.), has 
gone into a third edition in less than two 
years. The new edition is carefully revised 
and considerably enlarged. Zach is a sociolo- 
gist and tries to show his countrymen how it 
happened that such a great misfortune befell 
them and how they can manage to work their 
way out of their present misery. He traces 
Germany 's misfortune to the Protestant Re- 
formation and shows that there is but one cure, 
namely, return to the Christian ideal of cul- 
ture and the Catholic Church. His book is an 
essay in the philosophy of history that others 
besides Germans may study with profit. We 
have dipped into a number of its chapters and 
found it stimulating and instructive reading. 

— J. Fischer c<c Bro. have sent us a little 
catalogue of ' ' Operettas for Amateur Or- 
ganizations, " which comprise such well-known 
productions as "Peter Rabbit" for children 
of the intermediate grades, ' ' The Brownies " 
Whispers," a floral cantata, and "0 Hara 
San," a Japanese opera by Edith M. Bur- 
rows and Edward Johnston, in which the 
story of a princess who Avishes to marry a 
young student unAvelcome to her parents, is 
told almost entirely by means of musical 
numbers. Those interested in operettas fi) 
the amateur stage are advised to write for 
this catalogue to J. Fischer & Bro., 119 W. 
40th Str., New York City. 

— "St. Joan of Arc," by Canon Rousseil, 
translated into English by Fr. Joseph Murphy, 
is, as the subtitle indicates, "a study of the 
supernatural in her life and mission. ' ' Its 
purpose is apologetical, namely, to defend 
St. Joan of Arc against the misconceptions 
and wrong opinions which have gathered 
round her name owing to the political and 
scientific prejudices of partisan Fl-ench 
Avriters. " There are some pages of entirelv 
superfluous introductory matter (like the 
letters from Marshall Foch and Louis Bert- 
rand), and in the text the author, in his 
anxiety to press his point, sometimes weak- 
ens perfectly good proofs by superfluous and 
less convincing arguments. It is too bad 
the translator did not prune the text of 
these redundancies and ineptitudes. (Ben- 
ziger Bros.) 

— Rev. J. E. Moftatt, R. J., sends out the 
fourth of his "Thy ivingdom Come" series, 
under the title "God Beckons Vs." It is 
a presentable booklet, containing helps to 
reach Heaven safely. The author desires to 
offer to others "a bit of encouragement to 
tide them over the toilsome places of their 
pilgrimage." We take pleasure in recom- 
mending the booklet. (Benziger Brothers). 



206 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



— We are indebted to the Verlag ' ' Friede 
dureli Eeclit, ' ' of Wiesbaden, Germany, for 
t\YO volumes of Prof. F. W. Foerster 's ' ' An- 
gewandte politische Ethik, ' ' mostly collected 
from the columns of the weekly newspaper 
' ' Die Menschheit, ' ' which this noted German 
philosopher has edited for the last four or 
five years. These essays deal with the ethical 
aspects of practically all the political ques- 
tions that have agitated Central Europe dur- 
ing the past lustrum. Prof. Foerster is hard 
on his fellow-Germans, so hard occasionally 
as to be manifestly unfair; but he undoubt- 
edly means well, and if his views Avere listened 
to and weighed, instead of being rejected 
angrily, it would be belter for all concerned. 
We agree with him that there can be no just 
and permanent peace unless and until the 
nations, — all the nations, — return to the Chris- 
tian principles that made Europe great dur- 
ing the Middle Ages. 



New Books Received 

The Life of Matt TaJhot, a Dublin Labourer 
(1857-1925). By Sir Joseph A. Glynn. 6th 
ed. 20 pp. 16mo. Dublin: Catholic Truth 
Society of Ireland. (Wrapper). 

Meditations and Readings for Every Day of 
the Year. Selected from the Spiritual 
writings of St. Alphonsus. Volume II, 
Part I. Sexagesima to Easter. Edited bv 
J. B. Coyle, C. SS. E. xvi & 423 pp. 16mo. 
Talbot Press and B. Herder Book Co. $2 
net. 

The Gift of Love. By John A. McClorev, 
S. J. vi & 79 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book 
Co. 90 ets. 

The Official Catholic Directory for 1926. 
U. S. Edition. 1239 pp. & xii plates and a 
General Summary, New York: P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons, 44 Barclay Str. 

The Life and Times of Bishop Vllatliorne, 
1S06-18S9. By Dom Cuthbert Butler, Bene- 
dictine Monk of Downside Abbey. Vol. 
I. be & 368 pp. Vol. II. 331 pp. 8vo. Illus- 
trated. Benziger Bros. $8.50 net. 

The Diffictdt Commandment. Notes on Self- 
Control, Especially for Young Men. By 

C. C. Martindale, S. J. 71 pp. 43/1x7 in. 
P. J. Kenedy &' Sons. 70 ets., postpaid. 

The Little Flower's Love for the Holy Euchar- 
ist. By Sister M. Eleanore, C. S. C, Ph. 

D. 32 pp. 5x7 in. Benziger Bros. 20 ets. 
Notes on the Jubilee of 1926. Compiled by 

Et. Eev. Louis J. Nan. Preceded by an 
Historical Sketch "Jubilee Indulgence," 
by the Eev. Geo. Eehring. 16 pp. 3%x7i/4 
in. Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc. $5.00 per 100; 
$22.50 per 500; $40 per 1000. Clergy edi- 
tion of the same, with Notes on Cancns 
899 and 900 Codieis Juris. 29 pp. 10 iU\ 
per copy. 
Stopping the Leak. The Work of the Cath- 
olic Instruction League. By Josephine 
Van Dyke Brownson. 21 pp. 4%x7 in. 
(Timely Topics Series, No. XX). Central 



SECOND HAND BOOKS FOR SALE 

(Terms: Cash with Order; Postage Pre- 
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Frost, Stanley. The Challenge of the Klan. 
(Facts about the Ku Klux Klan). In- 
dianapolis, 1924. $1.50. 
Kramp, Jos. (S. J.) Eucharistia: Von ihrem 
Wesen und ihrem Kult. Freiburg, 1924. 
60 ets. 

Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. With 
Introduction and Notes by F. A. Purcell 
and L. M. Somers. Chicago, 1915. 50 ets. 

Garesehe, Edw. F. (S. J.). Social Organi- 
zation in Parishes. N. Y. 1921. $1.50. 

Fuller, E. I. The Visible of the Invisible 
Empire. Denver, 1925. $1.25. 

Durrant, C. S. A Link Between Flemish 
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John Euysbrock, Gerard Groote, and 
Thomas a Kempis.] London, 1925. $3. 

Yost, C. S. The Principles of Journalism. 
N. Y., 1924. $1. 

The Little Office of the Bl. Virgin Mary 
and the Office of the Dead with the 
Penitential Psalms and the Litany of 
the Saints from the Eoman Breviary. 
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1925. $1.50. 

Seisenberger, M. A Practical Handbook 

for the Study of the Bible and of 
Bible Literature. Tr. by A, M. Buchan- 
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Heilmann, A. Vom kostbaren Leben. Sonn 
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Mayer, H. Katechetik. (Theologische 
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Augustine, St. De Quantitate Animae. Ed. 
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duction and Notes. Phila., 1924. 50 ets. 

Liturgie und Frauenseele. Von Ath. 
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The Evolution of Modern Capitalism. A 
Study of Machine Production by John A. 
Hobson. New and revised edition. N. Y., 
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How to Pray Well. Short Instructions on 
the Most Important Eeligious Exercises. 
Compiled by Wm. Gier, S. V. D. Techny, 
111., 1925. 75 ets. 

Economics for Christians and Other Papers. 
By Joseph Clayton. Oxford, 1923. 75 
ets. 

Handbook of Moral Theology by Koch- 
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Morality, its Subject, Norm, and Object. 
2nd ed.'st. Louis, 1919. $1.20. 

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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REYIE^Y 



207 




AN ARCHITECTURAL 
INSPIRATION 

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construction, and its glorious 
facade rivals the grand cathe- 
drals of old. 

Based on Spanish Gothic, for 
its Leitmotiv, it inspires at 
once the feeling of entire satis- 
faction from an artistic and 
architectural standpoi-nt. 
It was planned to be built of 
tapestry brick, with stone 
trimmings. 

The magnificent towers rise to 
a height of two hundred and 
sixty live feet. The upper por- 
tions are singularly beautiful 
and graceful, and touches of 
color, polychrome terracotta 
and tiling, lend interest to the 
entire design. The treatment 
of the facade is massive, of 
astonishing depth, and breadth 
of vision. Rich in the extreme 
in its modulations and orna- 
mentations, it bids the faithful 
to enter its hallowed portals. 
Those of the clergy that con- 
template the building of a 
church, truly Catholic in 
thought and design, should 
communicate with undersigned. 



ECCLESWLOGIST of DESIGI^I 
ART CHURCH -FURNISHINGS 



ADOLPH B. SUESS 



1314 Lynch Ave. 
East St. Louis, 111. 



Bureau of the Central Verein, St. Louis, 
Mo. 10 cts. ; $4 per 100, carriage extra. 

Weelc-End Betreats for Men. A Means to 
Revive and Perfect the Spiritual Life. 12 
pp. i^xGi/^ in. (Timely Topics Series, 
Xo. XXI). Central Bureau of the Cen- 
tral Verein. Sets.; 50 cts. per dozen; $3.75 
per 100, carriage extra. 

The House of God. A History of Religious 
Architecture and Symbolism. By Ernest 
H. Short. Illustrated. The Macmillan Co. 
$7.50. 

Sprechen Sie lateiniscli: Moderne Konversa- 
tion in lateinischer Sprache. Von Georg 
Capellauus. 8te Auf. 118 pp. 4%x7 in. 
Berlin : Ferd. Diimmlers Verlagsbuchhand- 
lung. For sale by the B. Herder Book Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 60 cts. (Wrapper). 

Scribisne Litterulas Latinas? Kleine mo- 
derne Korrespondenz in lateinischer 
Sprache. Von Karl Thieme. 3te Aufl. 109 
pp. 4% in. Berlin: Ferd. Diimmlers Ver- 
lagsbuchhandlung. For sale by the B. Her- 
der Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 60 cts. 
(Wrapper). 

Before the Congress of the United States. 
Memorandum in Opposition to a Bill to 
Create a Department of Education and for 
Other Purposes. On Behalf of the Cathe- 
dral Academy, Albany, N. Y. By Charles 
J. Tobin. 30 pp. SxlOVa in. (Paper). 



TJr Christ entum und Katholizismus. Drei Vor- 
trage von Dr. Albert Ehrhard, Professor 
an der Universitat Bonn. 153 pp. 12mo. 
Lucerne: Eaber & Cie. Fr. 5.50. 

Junge HeJden. Ein Aufruf an Jungmannen 
zu edlem Streben und reinem Leben von 
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Auflage. 208 pp. 12mo. Kevelaer: Joseph 
Becker. 

Im Dienst des Schopfers. Ein Buch iiber 
die Ehe fiir katholische Brant- und Eheleute 
von Hardy Schilgen S. J. 94 pp. 12mo. 
Kevelaer: Joseph Becker. 

Tractatus de Satis factions Sacramentali, quern 
scripsit in Usum Confessariorum P. Thomas 
Villanova a Zeil, O. M. Cap. 96 pp. 8vo. 
Innsbruck: Fel. Eauch. M. 1.50. (Wrapper). 

Du und Sie. Des Jungmanns Stellung zum 
Madchen von Hardy Schilgen S. J. xii & 
165 pp. 12mo. Diisseldorf: L. Schwann. 
M. 4. 

Prospectus of the Society of Mary (Marian- 
ists). 48 pp. 5x7 in. St. Louis, Mo., 1926. 

I>er vereitelte Friede. Meine Anklage gegen 
Michaelis und den Evangelisehen Bund von 
Friedrich Eitter von Lama. 104 pp. Svo. 
Augsburg : Hass & Grabherr Verlag. 

The Great Catholic Movement for a Better 
Catholic Stage. ... By the Eev. M. Hel- 
fen. 32 pp. 4%xG in. Brooten, Minn.: 
Catholic Dramatic Company. (Wrapper). 



208 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Mav 1 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



Clement. Wood, in his "Poets of America" 
(Dntton), quotes this as a sample of the free- 
verse poetry of the late Amy Lowell : 
''Bang! Bump! Tong ! 
Petticoats, 
Stocking's, 
Sabots, 

Delirium tiapping its thigh-bones; 
Red, blue, yellow. 
Drunkenness steaming in colors, 
Red, yellow, blue, 

Colors and flesh weaving together. 
Pigs' cries white and tentions 
White and painful, 
White and — 
Bump! 
Tong ! " ' 

In the opinion of our good friend, Dr. 
Alexander JST. De Menil, there are only two 
more lines necessary to cap the climax, and 
make all this exquisitely sublime, namely: 
Whoop-la! 
Bu.g-house ! 



A comtemporary tells the story of a vener- 
able darkey who acted as caretaker of an 
alligator pond. A Xew Yorker watched them 
sunning themselves and inquired: "Colonel, 
are they amphibious?" 

"Yessah. Amphibious as the devil. They'll 
l)ite you in a minute. ' ' 

Which reminds us of the answer we once 
got from an old darkey in Sanford, Fla., 
wlien Ave asked him whether certain trees in 
a public park were deciduous. ' ' No sah, ' ' 
he said, emphatically ; ' ' dem trees is as 
healthy as you or me." 

A soldier went to his colonel and asked 
for leave to go home and help his wife with 
her spring-cleaning. "I don't like to re- 
fuse you, my man," said the colonel, "but as 
a matter of fact, I've just had a letter from 
your wife saying that you are no help to 
her with the spring-cleaning, and asking me 
not to give you leave. ' ' The man saluted 
and turned to go. At the door he stopped, 
turned and remarked: "Colonel, there are 
two persons in this regiment w'ho handle 
the truth loosely, and I'm one of them. I'm 
not married! ' ' 



The late Bishop Trobec, of St. Cloud, Minn., 
once said Mass at St. Boniface Cliurch, Mel- 
rose, Minn. As I was' assistant there at 
the time, I assisted him at Mass, lit mos est. 
A little boy, the son of a druggist, watched 
the performance and then went home to his 
mother and told her: "Mother, but we have 
a stupid bishop! Father Walcher had In 
show him everything ! ' ' Father Eichter, now 
deceased, told the Bishop, who had a good 
laugh. — (Sev.) James Walcher. B. H. S. Si. 
Clovd, Minn. 



A certain English literary celebrity went to 
the United States on a lecturing tour. Un- 
fortunately during the voyage he suifered 
acutely from mal rJe rner. On his arrival at 
New York he was met by a member of the 
staff of the Atlantic Monthly, who asked him 
to contribute to that distinguished periodical 
during his stay in America. "No, thank 
you," replied the author gravely. "I have 
already contributed to the Atlantic daily." 



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1926 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 209 

St. Francis of Assisi 

By DOM PEDRO SUBERCASEAUX ERRAZURIZ 

Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight 

Introduction by Johannes Joergensen 

TTie volume of quarto size contains four-color reproductions 
of fifty paintings of great spiritual power and beauty. The reviews 
that have appeared in The Ave Maria, the Commonweal, America, The 
Fortnightly Review, the Franciscan Herald, the Ecclesiastical Review, 

and elsew^here without exception acclaim it as worthy of all praise in 
honoring the seven hundredth anniversary of the death of the great 
Saint. 

Copies of the limited edition have already found places in the 
Vatican Library, in convents and in private libraries. 

Circulars on request. 
Regular edition $25.00. Autographed limited edition $100.00 

and $200.00 

Marshall Jones Company, Publishers 

212 Summer Street, Boston 



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The Ave Maria of Notre Dame, 
Ind., August 8, 1925, makes the 
following reference to The Echo : 

"The Echo . ... is one of the 
most enterprising and carefully 
edited of American Catholic News- 
papers." 

It is rarely that Father Hud- 
son, the scholarly editor of the Ave 
Maria, praises a contemporary so 
unreservedly. 



We shall be glad to send you sample 
copies upon request 



THE ECHO 

564 Dodge St. Buffalo. N. Y. 



A True Biography 

not only sbows us men with their 
halo, but also their delinquencies. 

You find this rule applies to all true 
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Saviour. 

The Prophetical Biography of 
Jesus Christ 

is a most notable book, written by 
that inspired penman, 

Rev. V. Krull. C.PP.S. 



For sale at all Catholic Book stores 
at 75 cts. a copy or direct from the 

Publisher, 

JOHN W. WINTERICH, clevSanT^o." 



210 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



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GRAYMCCR'S PERPETUAL NOVENA TO ST. ANTHONY INCREASES 

IN POPULARITY 




A new Novena to St. Anthony is started every 
Tuesday by the Friars of the Atonement in the 
Church of St. Francis at Graynioor, Xew York. 
This amounts in actual practice to a Perpetual 
Novena, for as a Novena which begins on Tuesday 
ends on Wednesday of the following week, before 
its conclusion a new Novena begins, and conse- 
quently, tliese Tuesday Novenas constitute an 
endless chain, each Novena being interlinked with 
its successor. For thirteen years, without inter- 
mission, these Novenas have continued unceasingly 
at St. An'.honv's Graymoor Shrine and all the 
while their popularity increases. A thousand 
clients of the Wonder-Worker of Padua now ap- 
peal to him through his Graymoor Novena to 
every hundred who did so a few years ago. 
Th lusands of testimonials like the following ex- 
plain the why and the wherefore. 

A. B., Phila., Pa.: "Thanks be to God and St. 
An'hony, our prayers have been heard. My dear 
brother's mind was restored, and he was able to 
r^poivp ihe Last Sacraments before he died." 
T. J. C, Ky. : "The petition which I sent in last month has been answered. I 
Iiave secured a position giving me steadv employment." 

L. F. P., Vt. : "Enclosed you M-ill find a small offering, which I promised to 
St. Anthony if he would grant me a favor which I greatly desired. Good St. Anthony 
has answered my prayer a hundred-fold. May God be honored ever more and more 
through the Wonder-W^orker of Padua." 

M. B., N. Y. C. : "Enclosed find an offering which I promised to St. Anthony's 
Bread Fund for an increase in sa]arA^" 

B. J. D., N. Y. C: "Enclosed find a donation for St. Anthonv's Bread, Avhich 
I promised a few months ago if my petition was obtained. I firmly believe vour 
prayers have helped me, as I secured a good position after asking for remembrance in 
the Novena." 

■ Mrs. B. C. M., N. Dak.: "Enclosed you will find my donation for St. Anthony's 
Bread in gratitude for benefits received through the Perpetual Novena. I have gotten 
back mv health and strength, for which I am very grateful.'' 

F. J. P., Providence, R. I.: "Enclosed please find oft'ering, which I promised 
to St. Anthony if I found a position and also had our two tenements rented. Thanks 
to St. Anthony, both my requests were granted." 

Mr. and Mrs. T. D.: "Words cannot express our thanks to St. Anthony for ob- 
taining a favor that was almost impossible. "The fourth day of the Novena the favor 
was granted. ' ' 

Address all communications to 
ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, BOX 316, PEEKSEILL, N. Y. 
N. B. A short Life of St. Anthony will be mailed upon request postpaid for 25c. 
Graymoor Prayer Manual containing prayers for St. Anthony's Novena 10c. 



The Fortnigfhtly Review 



VOL. XXXIII, No. 10 ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



May 15th, 1926 



The Intellectual Confusion of To-day and the "Philosophia Perennis" 

By the Rev. Virgil Michel, O. S. B., CoUegeville, Minn. 



In an address delivered at the Uni- 
versity of Munich this school year, the 
condition of modern universities was 
likened to the confusion of tongues at 
Babel. Universities have become cen- 
ters of intensified specialization. The 
researcher in one field is completely ab- 
sorbed in his own specialty, separated 
from all other fields, and there is no one 
to interrelate the various individual 
advances of our modern culture, 
whence the latter is in great danger of 
disintegrating. 

This may be true particularly of our 
universities as centers of specialized 
research, but it is also an apt descrip- 
tion of our entire modern mentality. 
We have long been dominated by an 
atomistic conception of things. Every- 
thing has been split up into elements, 
of which the whole, no matter how 
organic, has been considered merely 
the sum. In psychology all was re- 
duced to elementary processes of sen- 
sations, feelings, and conations, of 
which mind is the mere interplay. A 
mental substance was considered old- 
fashioned, even where Mill's notorious 
definition of mind as "the permanent 
possibility of sensations" was laughed 
to scorn. We had streams of conscious- 
ness, indeed, but they were merely a 
succession of impressions. For some 
there was a mind-stuff, but it consisted 
of smaller mental atoms. Society has 
long been considered a mere aggregate 
of individuals ; its laws are decided by 
the quantitative majority, the largest 
number of individuals voting alike. A 
living organism consists merely of an 
aggregate of cells, and these in turn of 
multiple molecules. Even in ethics, 
which should study general principles 
of conduct, some have introduced the 
case method, by which each case is 



solved for itself, and common princi- 
ples are meaningless. 

This condition is not surprising in 
the light of antecedents. The evolu- 
tion accepted in the past century as a 
philosophy of life had done away with 
the notion of purpose. No need to ask 
for any further reason of a thing. Tele- 
ology in every form was dead and 
buried. Positivism helped the process 
by insisting that in every phase of life 
facts ^^■ere their own ultimate explana- 
tion. There was no further value con- 
ceivable in a fact than its being a fact, 
an occurrence. The atomistic viewpoint 
was enthroned. All complexities are 
constituted of simpler components. 
Analyse the complexities, resolve them 
into their, components, catalogue these, 
and the work is done ! 

Specialization centers on minute 
problems. It can not do otherwise and 
advance. Nor can the world to-day ad- 
A-ance Avithout specialization. But the 
legitimate question of "What is it for 
after all?" is a valid one, and it can 
only be answered if in some way the 
various specialized aspects of our cul- 
ture are seen in their relation to one 
another and to the whole of life. The in- 
tense specialization of our day must be 
counterbalanced by a synthetic view 
of life, — which can only mean that 
philosophy must again come into its 
own in our culture and education. 

Is there any prospect of this? Scho- 
lastic philosophy has in recent years 
shown renewed vitality. Even non- 
Catholics are beginning to acknowl- 
edge this, and to ask whether the 
funeral orations delivered over it in 
the past were not premature. Non- 
Catholic philosophical thought has 
been examining its conscience for some 
time and is coming to realize that a 



212 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



philosophy that ignores values is itself 
valueless, and that for generations the 
category of value has had no place in 
philosophy. Now it seems safe to say 
that where the question of A^alues is 
taken up seriously by way of reaction 
to the slumbering self-satisfaction of 
past decades, there should be reason 
for hope. Just whither the specula- 
tion of the next years will lead, no one 
as yet can tell; but there is the con- 
sciousness of past futilities and of the 
imminence of some change. In the 
latest presidential address of the East- 
ern Division of the American Philo- 
sophical Association, the situation was 
summed up as follows : 

"Finally there is a subtle change in 
the entire intellectual atmosphere since 
the War, difficult to describe but per- 
fectly palpable. Things, tendencies, be- 
liefs, in which we were frantically in- 
terested, have suddenly lost their in- 
terest. Things we had thought decent- 
ly buried have come to life again. As 
the arts have quietly sloughed off their 
cubisms and futurisms, so many of the 
most exciting novelties of thought have 
become as a tale that is told. There is 
clearly a lull in the hot race. AVhat 
does the lull portend? I can not be- 
lieve that the quiet that has come over 
us is but the exhaustion of tired radi- 
cals, nor yet the beginning of meaning- 
less reaction. Perhaps it is the quiet 
hour before the turning of the tide." 

Without playing prophet, one can 
venture to say that a philosophical 
change for the better Avill come just in 
as far as some of the attitudes of the 
philosophia perennis are approached. 
Therefore the task of the latter is the 
more urgent today. There are still 
ever so many problems that it must 
work out more thoroughly; for in- 
stance, just that of values, which is 
still in its infancy in all philosophy. 
And it must prepare for a rapproche- 
ment with modern thought, not by 
giving up any of its principles, but by 
developing a more sympathetic at- 
titude towards all men, and feeling 
more of the fire of the missionary zeal 
that should be its own in accordance 
with its claim of being the embodiment 
of truth. 



The Papal Mediation Offer of 1917 

In a brochure, entitled "Der ver- 
eitelte Friede, " just published by Haas 
& Grabherr of Augsburg, Friedrich 
Ritter von Lama proves his charge (cfr. 
F. R., XXXII, Nos. 14 and 21) that 
the then German Chancellor, Dr. Mich- 
aelis, Avantonl_y frustrated the media- 
tion offer of Great Britain made 
tlirougli Benedict XV in September, 
1917. Instead of taking the offer up 
enthusiastically. Dr. Michaelis merely 
notified the Emperor and the German 
High Command that he liad received 
"from a neutral quarter a message 
which seemed to indicate that England 
was asking for peace on condition that 
the independence of Belgium be re- 
stored;'' and when he was authorized 
by a crown council to give the requested 
assurance, he omitted all reference to 
Belgium in his reply, and thus the 
last chance of a negotiated peace went 
a-glimmering, the war continued, and 
the German people had to drain the 
bitter chalice to the dregs, thanks to 
the anti-Catholic bigotry of their chan- 
cellor, who, being a bellicose Lutheran 
of the "Evangelischer Bund" group, 
would not accept the mediation of tlie 
Pope, whom he regarded as the Anti- 
christ. 

Ritter von Lama's charges were de- 
nied by Michaelis himself and pooh- 
poohed by a Catholic writer. Dr. Mar- 
tin Spahn, but they are proved to the 
hilt in this brochure, Avhich cites all 
the documents in the case verbatim. 



One of St. Teresa's nuns te'ls us 
that she was so merry that whenever 
she laughed, everyone else laughed too. 
Her dearly beloved Father Gracian, 
in his declaration after her death, testi- 
fied : "Teresa was of the sweetest dis- 
position, so peaceful and pleasant that 
everyone Avho had to deal with her felt 
attracted by her, and loved and sought 
her company. She detested the rude 
and disagreeable manners of some re- 
ligious people which make both them- 
selves and perfection hateful to 
others. ' ' 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
Religion in the Schools 

By an Old College Professor 



213 



Religion is by far the most potent 
factor in tlie education of youth. Re- 
ligious education is a source of the 
greatest blessings, whereas its neglect 
is the cause of unspeakable vroe for. 
and eventually of the moral downfall 
of an}' nation. All who fully com- 
prehend the real meaning of education 
will concede this; all Avho realize what 
it means that contempt for authority 
is spreading at an alarming rate must 
necessarily trace the same to a lack 
of religious education. Banish God 
from the schools and God will be aban- 
doned b}' the scholars. AVhat we need 
at present, — more perhaps than at 
any other time in the past, — -is more 
religion, in order that the individuals 
who constitute Church and State will 
better understand their responsibilit.v 
to both. Said President David Mc- 
Kiihey of the University of Illinois in 
an address before Catholic students of 
that institution: "There is no com- 
plete education without religious train- 
ing It is religion which offers ef- 

;reetive sanctions for the doing of good 
and the avoiding of evil. It is the 
incentives which spring from faith 
that enable one to resist temptations 
and cling to the path of moral recti- 
tude when other motives fail." 

Cicero says (De Legihiis, III, 13, 
29) : "The law commands us to lead 
blameless lives (omni vitio carere) ; 
.... but this is a hard task {difficile 
foctn, est) excepting by a certain kind 
of education and schooling." If we 
give this saying of the pagan Cicero 
a Catholic form, it will read : ' ' God 
commands us to lead good Christian 
lives ; . . . . but this cannot be accom- 
plished without a thorough Catholic 
training in our schools." 

Are we doing our dut}' in this most 
important matter? I am afraid that 
we must answer in the negative. The 
fundamentals of our holy religion are 
contained in the Catechism and Bible 
history. AVithout wishing to under- 
rate the zeal of many priests in this 



matter, the real state of affairs is clearly 
shown in the boys that enter our col- 
leges. A large percentage of these are 
ignorant of Bible History and Cate- 
chism. They know nothing of the his- 
tory of religion, of the arrangement of 
tlie ecclesiastical year, the meaning of 
some of the most important truths of 
our holy religion, etc. I found a large 
nunil)er of students who had received 
tJieir elementary education in Catholic 
city or countr}" schools and had "suc- 
cessfully" gone through the Catholic 
high School, ignorant of some of the 
most imi)oi-tant chapters of the Cate- 
chism and with hardly any idea of 
Bible History. ^'oung men in tlie 
Sophomore class could not tell who 
Noe was, or give an account of the 
travels of St. Paul lor the propagation 
of the faith, or explain why he is called 
"Apostle of the Gentiles"? 

Where is the cause of this ignorance 
to be found ? In my opinion, we do not 
bestow time and energy enough upon 
the most essential branch of education, 
i. e., tlie moulding of character and the 
making of thorougli Christians. It is 
on this account that Ave have com- 
pai'atively few Catholic leaders among 
the laity. AVhen Bismarck, at the be- 
ginning of the Kulturkampf, in 1872 
attacked the Catholic Church in order 
to bring her under the complete con- 
trol of the State, /. e., to destroy her, 
he at once tried to undermine the vital 
elements on which she lives and 
thrives ; he wanted to allow only two 
hours weekl}' for religious instruction 
in all the schools. The German Cath- 
olics, — bishops, priests, and laymen, — 
arose as one body, saying: "Never!" 
and they carried their point and kept 
their six hours. There is before me 
the catalogue of one of our American 
Catholic institutions of higher learning 
in A\hich, during the six years of the 
Academic and Collegiate courses, i. e., 
from the first year of the Academic to 
the Sophomore class, two hours a week 
are assigned to religion (except in the 



214 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



first Academic year, when four hours 
are devoted to it). And no Bible his- 
tory at all! Conditions are about the 
same in other institutions. Does this 
not look as if we Catholics were con- 
curring in the modern tendency to min- 
imize the time for laying a religious 
foundation and to place religion below 
the secular branches? 

The first question in the Catechism 
is: "Why are we in this world?" The 
answer: "We are in this world that we 
may knoAv God, love Him and serve 
Him, and thereby attain Heaven." 
Man naturally thirsts after religion, 
which brings him nearer to God, his 
ultimate end; the more man learns of 
the eternal truths, the more will he 
love God. How can he love his reli- 
gion if he is ignorant of it? 

There was a lime when church, 
school and home worked hand in hand 
for the one end, to raise children of 
God, and the.y succeeded well. In our 
rationalistic, materialistic, atheistic age 
the aim is to draw man away from, 
instead of leading him to, God. It is 
very unfortunate that our Catholic 
schools do not devote more time to the 
study of religion. Our Catholic high 
schools and colleges ought to supple- 
ment the defects of the parochial 
schools by paying special attention to 
those boys and girls Avho did not have 
the opportunity of attending Catholic 
schools. Many a boy is sent to our 
Catholic colleges for that purpose by 
parents who liave the spiritual welfare 
of their children at lieart. It is, there- 
fore, our duty to give such boys the 
religious instruction which they need, 
and I maintain that two or three hours 
a M^eek are absolutely inadequate to 
fulfill this obligation. 



The Medieval Academy of America 

The Medieval Academy of America 
has recently been incorporated with 
the purpose of conducting and promot- 
ing research, publication, and instruc- 
tion in all departments of the letters, 
arts, science, and life of the Middle 
Ages. The president is Professor B. 
K. Rand, or Harvard. The officers in- 



clude business men and artists, as well 
as students of ancient and modern 
languages and literatures, medieval 
religion, philosophy, history, art and 
education ; and an equally broad mem- 
bership is intended. The Academy 
maintaiiis a quarterly journal. Specu- 
lum, in which it means to publish not 
onl}' the results of research, but also 
articles of broader character. The 
Academy proposes many other func- 
tions. One of the chief is that of serv- 
ing as a clearing-house for information 
and a help to co-operation among those 
concerned in all the various sides of 
medieval study. In this movement 
toward co-operation many hundreds of 
persons all over the world have already 
signified their interest. Enthusiastic 
response has been found in Britain and 
Germany ; in France, especially 
through the Association Guillaume 
Bude ; and in Belgium through Profes- 
sor Maurice de Wulf, of Louvain, who, 
during his stay at Harvard, aided the 
inception of the Academy. Persons 
in any part of the world who are pur- 
suing original research on any aspect 
of the Middle Ages are invited to send 
their names and information as to their 
subjects of study to the clerk of the 
Academy, who acts as its secretary. 
Tlie Academy will maintain relations 
with religious organizations, such as 
the Benecli.tine Order, concerned with 
medieval studies. Large co-operative 
enterprises are particularly needed in 
the medieval field, and already mem- 
bers of the Academy are taking a hand 
in several such projects. The useful- 
ness of the new organization Avill ob- 
viously be increased when it is able to 
establish a suitable local habitation, 
with a library, accessible records and 
archives, and meeting quarters. There 
are various forms of membership. Any 
person interested in becoming a mem- 
ber may obtain fni-ther information 
from the otfice of the Academy, Room 
312, 248 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 



Even the lowest may quench his thirst 
at rivulets fed by springs from above. 
— Longfellow. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 
By What Authority? 



215 



It was to be expested that when, 
sooner or later, some one representing 
the N. C. W. C. would appear before 
a committee either of Congress or a 
State legislature, questions would be 
asked and statements elicted that 
would create a false impression and 
furnish the enemies of the Church Avith 
dynamite for use during times when 
reli^'ions prejudice runs high. 

That is what really happened in 
the latter part of last February, when 
Mr. William F. Montavon appeared 
before the Committee on Education and 
Labor of the U. S. Senate and the 
House Committee on Education at the 
joint hearing given to the opponents 
of the Curtis-Reed Bill to create a 
Federal Department of Education. 

Mr. ]\Iontavon, a gentleman who is 
unknown to probably ninety-nine 
hundreths of the 20 or 25 million Cath- 
olics whom he claims for these United 
States introduced himself as the repre- 
sentative of the National Catholic Wel- 
fare Conference, which, he declared, 
"acts for the body of Catholic citizens 
of the United States in matters of pub- 
lic interest and of national importance. 
Its active head is in Washington is 
Father John Burke, a man who is na- 
tionally known because of his patriot- 
ism and his zeal for education." 

In reply to a question from Senator 
Phipps, "How many members do you 
have, and how do you get members?" 
Mr. Montavon had to admit that the 
N. C. W. C. "is not made up of mem- 
bers;" still, he insisted that "it repre- 
sents the Catholic citizens of the United 
States." 

One cannot blame Senator Phipps 
for further inquiring : ' ' How many of 
them are there and how do they get 
their positions?" But the answer he 
received was neither clear nor satis- 
factory: "There are from 20 to 25 
million of Catholic citizens in the 
United States, 20 to 25 million whom 
Ave represent." 

"And how do you get your places, or 
appointments, as representatives?" in- 



sisted the Senator. "Hoav is this se- 
lection made ? ' ' 

The ansAver Avas again evasive : "The 
manner of appointing the Welfare 
Conference — the executive board of the 
Welfare Conference is a board Avhieh 
is elected annualh'. " 

"AVho elects that board?" queried 
Hslr. Phipps. 

"That board," Mr. Montavon Avas 
finally compelled to admit, "is not 
elected at all, but appointed by the 
hierarcliy of the Catholic Church." 

Having brought out this admission, 
Avhich Avill furnish splendid ammuni- 
tion to the enemies of the Church in 
the next KnoAV-nothing — A. P. A. — Ku 
Klr.x campaign, Senator Phipps in- 
quired: "HoAv many constitute that 
board?" 

Mr. Montavon : ' ' The executive 
board has a membership of approxi- 
mately 20." 

Senator Phipps: "Hoav are they 
selected? Hoav many of these rep- 
resentatives are there on the committee 
of Avhich you are chairman?" 

Mr. Montavon : ' ' Our organization 
Avorks through committees, and each 
of these committees has a representa- 
tive in the executive board. The num- 
ber of the executive board is equiva- 
lent to the number of the committees 
through Avhich our organization 
Avorks." 

Senator Phipps: "Hoav many are in 
yoiw committee, for instance?" 

Mr. Montavon : ' ' AVe have a member 
of the hierarchy, Avho is the executive 
authority of the committee. I am the 
actual chairman. ' ' 

Senator Phipps: "Hoav many are in 
your committee? That make up your 
committee ? ' ' 

Mr. Montavon : ' ' We are four. ' ' 

Senator Phipps: "So, through these 
four representatives, of Avhich you are 
chairman, and the committee of 20 of 
the hierarchy, you represent the Cath- 
olic men and women of the country. 
It that correct?" 



216 



THE FOBT NIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



Mr. Montavon: "That is the organ- 
ization." 

At this point Mr. Reed took tlie 
chair, and Mr. Montavon was permitted 
to set forth his objections to the Cnr- 
tis-Keed Bill, in the name of his com- 
mittee, which claims to represent the 
20 or 25 million Catholic men and 
women of this conntr.y, — if there are 
that many, wliich is very unlikely; 
soberer estimates place the number 
at from 16 to 18 million. 

Need we insist on the aravely dam- 
aoinof nature of these statements made 
before a joint committee of the Sen- 
ate and the House of Representatives 
by a man who has no more ri^ht to 
speak for you or me than has the ex- 
Hearst journalist who perpetrates the 
N. C. AV. C. weekly news sheet or the 
Rev. John J. Burke, 0. S. P., who 
writes dictatorial letters to Catholic 
editors and their contributors in the 
name of "the ejiiscopal chairman of 
this board." 

The Holy Office was correctly in- 
formed when it condemned the Avhole 
idea of the N. C. W. C, and most of 
us shall probably live to rue the fact 
that its original decree was not put 
into effect. Meanwhile let those who 
are shocked and scandalized by such 
conduct as that of Mr. Montavon re- 
member that the Holy Office, as the 
Archbishop of Dubuque has but lately 
found it necessary to remind the public 
through his official organ The Witness, 
has clearly stated in the name of His 
Holiness the Pope, that "all should 
knoiv that this organization [namely, 
the National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference] is not to he identified tvith the 
hierarchy of the United States." If 
it is not to be identified with the hier- 
archy, and is not elected by the lait}^, 
as Mr. Montavan admits, just for whom 
or for what does it stand, and what 
right has Mr. Montavon or any other 
member of that executive board of his 
to appear before official bodies like a 
joint congressional committee and make 
statements which gravely compro- 
mise the Catholic cause? 



The Case Agaunst Evolution 

The Kt. Viov. Arehabbot Aurelius, 
0. S. P>., r('(|uests us to call the at- 
tention of our readers to the fact that 
Fathei- S. Richarz, S. V. D., was in 
error Avhen he stated (P. R., March 15, 
p. 128) that Henry Woods in his 
"Palaeontology," 5th ed., p. 28!), has 
a foot-note in which he says: "This 
and the following genera .... were 
formerly regarded as constituting a 
single genus Ammonites." The foot- 
note in question (5th ed. of 1919) re- 
fers not to Ceratites, but to Tradiyce- 
ras, and AVoods does not include Cer- j 
atites among the genera "formerl_y re- 
garded as constituting a single genus — - 
Ammonites." 

Dr. 'Toole's book impresses sonu; 
non-Catholics favorably. Thus an 
Episcopalian clergyman, says in a 
letter addressed to the author that he 
has found "The Case Against Evolu- 
tion" usefnl in preparing a sermon on 
the text, "God created man in his own 
image." This clergyman says among 
other things : "In common with many 
other people I had been under the im- 
pression that evolution must be ac- 
cepted, at least in principle, by all in- 
telligent people, and I am astonished 
at the stjrength of the case you have 
made out. It has convinced me that 
evolution is still an unproved hypothe- 
sis and not an accepted fact. Hitherto 
I had supposed that the dissent to the 
seientifie dogma of transformism had 
for its apologists only the late Mr. 
Bryan and the Rev. John Roach 
vStratou, and I could not subscribe to 
the sort of argument they pre- 
sented. But I now recognize 
tliat you are also a scientific thinker, j 
and that I need not stultify my intelli- 
gence in accepting your conclusions. 
Moreover, I am particularly pleased 
with the highminded attitude you take 
towards your opponents ; the whole 
character of your disputation is pleas- 
antly irenic. If to overstate the po- 
sition of your antagonist rather than 
to understate it, be indeed a tradition 
among Roman Catholic controversial- 
ists, the rule is a noble one, and some 
Protestant polemics might adopt it to 
advantage." 



1926 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

The Boy Scout Problem 

By F. W. Heckenkamp, Jr., Supreme President of the Western Catholic 
Union, Quincy, 111. 



217 



The article on the Boy Scout ques- 
tion in the April 15th F. R. has in- 
terested me very much, and since yon 
solicit expressions of opinion, I take 
tlie liberty to Avrite yon about my ex- 
perience with this movement. 

About seven years ago the Rotary 
Club of Quincy, 111., of which I am a 
member, appointed a committee on pub- 
lic welfare to look into the merits of 
the Boy Scout movement. A gentle- 
man was sent here who had a great 
deal of experience in leadership of 
Catliolic troops, and after holding a 
conference with the clerg-y and this 
gentleman, I came to the conclusion 
that there was a promising future for 
Scoutism here, and if it did not de- 
generate, it would be a good thing for 
our Catholic boys. 

The result of this was that we rec- 
ommended the establishment of Boy 
Scouts, which was approved by the 
Rotary Club. I was made the first 
president and filled this office for three 
years, during which time we rounded 
up some 550 Boy Scouts in Quinc}*. 
We raised the sum of $16,500 to take 
care of the expenses necessary to con- 
duct the movement in our city. It was 
very successful from the beginning. 

Of all movements of this kind, I be- 
lieve that Boy Scouts is the one we 
Catholics can afford to back up. 

Boy Scouting as now organized does 
not prevent the unification of Catho- 
lic boys' work under the bishops and 
pastors, for it is the constant aim of 
the entire movement to keep the boys 
of the different religious denominations 
in. separate groups. Here in Quincy 
almost every Catholic parish had its 
troop, and the movement became so 
strong among the Catholics that there 
was some talk of it being "too Cath- 
olic." In order to dissipate this 
thought in the minds of the people, 
we elected a Congregational minister 
at the head of the movement in the 
fourth year of its existence. While he 



Avas a very fine gentleman and liked 
by everj^one who met him, still he 
lacked executive ability for work of 
this kind, and the movement began to 
go backward. It kept going back until 
the past year, when Ave elected a busi- 
iiess man, a manufacturer, at the head 
of it, and he is putting it over in fine 
shape. 

In order to get the correct concep- 
tion of the Boy Scout movement we 
must consider the character of the 
average boy. We all knoAv that the 
gang spirit seems to be born into every 
red-blooded boy. The Boy Scout's aim 
is to maintain this gang spirit, but to 
direct it- into proper channels. The 
merit badge s.ystem is one that appeals 
to every boy, and the Boy Scout in a 
Catholic parish, in order to compete 
Avith the other troops and to be able 
to secure the merit badge for his ae- 
tiA'ity, depends in a great measure up- 
on his actiA'ity in his OAvn school or in 
his OAvn religion ; thus, if a Catholic boy 
cannot bring good marks from his 
teacher or his pastor, he will simply 
be out of line Avith the other progres- 
siA^e troops. In other words the Cath- 
olic education of the boy is one of the 
paramount features of the movement. 

The greatest difficult}^ is to secure 
capable and enthusiastic Scout masters. 
Scout masters in Catholic troops should 
be, and are expected to be, representa- 
tive Catholics, middle-aged men, be- 
tAveen the ages of 25 and 35 years. 
While I Avas president, I was in close 
touch AAuth the entire workings of the 
moA^ement and found that this rule 
Avhich we applied here in Quincy was 
absolutelj^ universal. 

I agree Avith your correspondent that 
non-Catholics have an entirely different 
conception of non-sectarianism than 
we, and no doubt well-meaning non- 
Catholic Scout leaders oftentimes labor 
under this misapprehension ; but Scout- 
ing does not by word of mouth or in 
print officially hold that all religions 



218 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 






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are fundamentally the same, and I 
have never seen an official Scout maga- 
zine or edict that set up the claim that 
present-day religions are inadequate 
and ineffective. A local Scout publi- 
cation in some obscure place may have 
printed something along this line, but 
this is the exception rather than the 
rule. 

I am entirely out of sympathy with 
the third paragraph of your corres- 
pondent's article, for I know that 
Scouting is not presented as the solu- 
tion of religious education. I know 
there is an effort made to create a 
Catholic Boy Scout movement under 
a different name, but I believe this is 
a mistake. 

Your correspondent states that the 
present local council organization plan, 
Avhieh makes scouting responsible to 
the communit}^ "has many dangers " 
Almost any movement of any kind has 
an element of danger, and therefore 
I believe all the more that we should 
take an interest in this movement, so 
that is does not degenerate. Training 



of Catholic Seo"t leaders by a non-sec- 
tarian local council is not nearly as 
dangerors as it might appear, for the 
reason that local council training is 
governed by an accepted and pre-de- 
termined i^lan, o: tlined by the Nation- 
al Coi^ncil. 

As to exclusive Catholic Sco- t camns 
not being enco"^raged, I failed to see 
this during my th"ee years in office. 
The Church authority is be'ng main- 
tained and is acknowledged by the 
National Council. Thii i-i itself ^h^-^^-s 
clearly what the real attitude of the 
movement is, as far as we Catholics are 
concerned. 

Does Scouting in' erf ere witli our 
sodalities for bo^-s? I do not believe 
there is a man living who is mor-^ en- 
thusiasti • about Catholic sodalities than 
the Avriter. At the ' ame time I m^ist 
confess that very I'tte headway has 
been made in this regard with orr boys. 
I contend, now more than ever, that 
any group of boys, or of men or women, 
that is organized and has an ideal, 
must, in order to sustain life, have 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



219 



some material benefit connected with 
it. Organization work depends upon 
the interest that is taken by the mem- 
bers, and an organization that cannot 
induce its members to attend meetings 
can accomplish little ; but organizations 
that are alive and able to intere-;t the 
members to the extent of getting them 
to attend meetings, do accomplish 
things 

Boy Scouting, to my mind looks like 
a solution of the problem of bringing 
our Catholic bovs together, inculcating 
into them the ideals of our religion, and 
giving them a good moral training, and 
it also takes care in a material wav of 
the de ires of the average boy, taking 
him as he is and directing his aspira- 
tions into the proper channels. 

xhe efPe'-t of the Boy Scout move- 
ment in Quincy is already ver}' notice- 
able. Our expeiience here is that a 
good Boy Scont in a parish eventually 
becomes an adive and interested mem- 
ber of the parish. 



Military Training in American Schools 

To the Editor :— 

The article on military training in 
American schools in No. 8 of the F. 
R. was very timel.y. Must not the 
angels weep when the.y see young men 
at s'bool comnelled to learn the art 
of killing their brothers? Does not 
such training eave s.ars upon the souls 
of these youthfal pupils? Should not 
homes and schools rather make arms 
and powder and poison gas detestable? 

The American people do not want 
war. Why then teach it to the rising 
generation? Is this world intended for 
a h^man sla"'ghter-house? Christ 
never 1ired of addressing His Apostles 
with th? words: "Peace be with you!" 
Training children for war and sla-ght- 
er cannot be reconciled with the wishes 
of the Prince of Peace Let the F. R. 
continue its condemnation of military 
training in the American schools, and 
let the whole Catholic press join in ! 
(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 



God forgives all our sins save 
despair. 



"Scholastik" — A New Quarterly 

The first number of Scholastik, the 
heralded new quarterly for Scholastic 
philosophy and theology has appeared. 
It is edited by the Jesuit Fathers of St. 
Ignatius College, Valkenburg, Holland, 
and published by H'^rder. The intro- 
ductory article speaks of the double 
current in present speculative thought : 
back to the teachings and views of the 
past, and onward to new facts and 
problems. This undoubtedly exnress^s 
the sentiments inspiring the publication 
of the new q^^arterlv which is to st-idy 
problems in the light of living Scho- 
lastic principles. 

The makeup of the new magazine is 
good, excelling that of the ordinary 
{jrerman review, particularly in its 
easily legible print. As to matter, the 
names of Christian Pesch and Franz 
Pels^er vndr two of the three main 
articles sneak for themselves. The late 
Father Pe ch's artide on the distinc- 
tion lietween essence and existence 
shows its comprehension of the modern 
tack in the question in the very title: 
"Is the acceptance of a real distinc- 
tion between essence and existence in 
creatures the necessarv basis of all 
philosophy and speculative theology?" 
The indefatigable Father Pelster, with 
Grabmann the foremost a^Tthority 
on thirteenth century manuscript re- 
search, contributes an interesting dis- 
cussion on the earliest Oxford Fran- 
ciscan commentar}^ on the "Books of 
Sentences." 

The third major article is a timely 
discussion based on Meyer's "Ge- 
schi hte der alten Philo O' hie." The 
book reviews, all of excellent quality, 
are further enhanced by the name of 
Father Froebes. A notable feature of 
this first number is the li^t of contem- 
porar}' periodical article-, with a brief 
critical summary of eaih, after the 
manner of the excellent lists that fea- 
ture in the Italian Divus Thomas. In 
general the analytical qualities of the 
first number are of the highest order. 

May- we express the wish that Schol- 
astik will also find room for some of 



220 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



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The Seal of Confession, Upheld 

We see from the London Univer.se, 
one of our best-informed and most in- 
teresting exchanges, that the seal of the 
confessional was upheld by a Criminal 
Court of Essen, Germany, recently, 
when counsel for the prosecution in a 
burglary case insisted on calling upon 
a priest as a witness. A young man 
Avas charged with the theft of a ring 
with a precious stone. He sold it to 
a jeweler, who resold it to a girl, but 
wdien the police traced the ring, it had 
onl^'- a cheap stone. While the judge 
was trying to decide Avhether the 
jeweler was guilty of concealing stolen 
goods, or of stealing the valuable stone, 
a police officer presented himself with 
the original jewel, saying that a priest 
had given it to him on condition that he 
should not be called upon to say from 
whom he received it. The priest had 
had the stone given to him in the con- 
fessional. Prosecuting counsel de- 
manded the presence of the priest as 
a witness, but the court, after consulta- 
tion, decided against him on the ground 
that the priest was bound to secrecy. 



A new picture by Fra Angelico has 
been discovered in a small church at 
Pontassieve, near Florence. It repre- 
sents a Madonna and child painted on 
wood measuring less than three feet in 
height. The Madonna is seated on a 
throne covered with deep red silk and 
decorated v/itli gold, supporting the 
child • on the left arm. The painting 
Avas brought to Florence to be restored 
and will probably be placed in 
the Uffizi Galler3^ Many art connois- 
seurs have been to see it, and accord- 
ing to M. Schneider, the French critic, 
Fra Angelico must have painted this 
picture between 1425 and 1430. 



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1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



221 



Sir J. G. Frazer on Nature Worship 

The redoubtable Sir J. G. Frazer 
has made another huge collection of 
interesting facts and stories from the 
whole Avide world, from nations an- 
cient and modern. Oriental and Oc- 
cidental, on their worship of nature. 
The congeries follows the well-known 
plan <dl "The Golden Bough" and 
"Folklore in the Old Testament." 
First, a vast mass of "parallel data," 
and then the "presupposed conclu- 
sion." The more we become acquaint- 
ed with Frazerian methodology and 
his collecting mania, the more we 
wonder whether some future disciple 
of Freud (if Freud will live in the fu- 
ture) will not put down Frazer as the 
victim of a new type of "complex" — 
the "collecting complex." For verily, 
if any man .ever had and showed the 
penchant for unearthing what may be 
called the archeology of the mind, 
Frazer is that man. 

To the classic scholar and to the 
reader of modern folklore there is 
really nothing verj^ new in the collec- 
tion before us. In fact, the English 
Vv'Hter goes over well-travelled ground. 
Only his method (and self-assurance) 
are new. Of course, there is also the cap- 
tivating style and the charming de- 
scription scattered up and down the 
tome. 

But the worship of nature is so trite 
and commonplace a subject, so uni- 
versal, so well-known to every student 
of history, and withal, so readily ex- 
plainable, that we ask whether it is 
worth while to elaborate the theme in 
such a huge volume. A person might 
as well write a book on "The Eating 
of Bread" of "The Wearing of Shoes," 
and illustrate his theme by proofs that 
as a matter of fact all people eat bread 
(or a substitute) and wear some kind of 
footgear. But the question arises. 
"quid mde"f We can onl}^ infer that 
man needs food and that he will find 
some way to protect the soles of his 
feet. So in the same way, if man 
knows not the true God, he will follow 
the will-o'-the-wisp of false gods and 
the lure of idolatry. 



There is more sound philosophy in 
three verses of St. Paul to the Romans 
on "the worship of nature" than in 
fifty pages of Frazer 's parallelims and 
foot-notes. We read the following 
wholesome reflections in the Epistle 
of St. Paul to the Romans (I, 
21-25) : "Because that, when they knew 
God, they have not glorified him as 
God, or given thanks : but became vain 
in tlieir thoughts, and their foolish 
heart was darkened. . . . And they 
chaiiged the glory of the incorruptible 
God into the likeness of the image of 
corruptible man, and of birds, and of 
fourfooted beasts, and of creeping 
things." And these verses, as well as 
the Avhole of the first chapter, hint 
Avhy man fell to Avorship inanimate 
nature. 

Father W. Schmidt, S. V. D., long 
ago pointed out the Aveakness of Fraz- 
erian procedure. And other ethnologists 
have accepted the verdict of the Ger- 
man scholar or have arrived at it by 
their oaa^i study of Frazer. Father 
Schmidt says : " It is a psychological 
enigma to me ^\'h.y Mr. Frazer, ready 
to give up so many theories that he 
might be called an absolute skeptic, 
is so enthusiastic in defending abso- 
lute truth in one direction? If Mr. 
Frazer himself has so many times 
changed the direction of his guns, Avhy 
should it not be possible to direct them 
also in a direction quite opposed to 
that in Avhich he intended to direct 
them formerly ? ' ' The scholarly found- 
er of Anthropos here refers to a well- 
knoAA'n fact, — namely that Frazer him- 
self must admit both the precarious 
substratum of his argumentation and 
that his data can lead to a variety of 
interpretations. 

HoAA'ever, this is only a preliminary 
notice of a Avork which wall no doubt, 
call forth a great deal of varied com- 
ment from the critical journals. So 
Ave shall give a full analysis of the vol- 
ume, AAdth further criticism, in a future 
number of the Fortnightly Review. 
Albert Muntsch, S. J. 



Some men grow under responsibility, 
AA'hile others merely swell up. 



222 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



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To the Editor:— 

Father Rothensteiner's remark in 
No. 8 of th- F. R (n. 179) about the 
"La"da Sion Salvatorem" reminded 
me of the meetin'? of the St. Cecilia 
Society held at Milwa kee nearly f orty- 
fo r years a^o. The combined choirs 
of the Salesiannm and Pio Nono Col- 
leo;e Fang several n"';mbers under the 
direction of the late Prof. John S'ng- 
enl ero': r in the Ca hedral, and the first 
B';::h-o of Davem^ort, Dr. McLI^llen, 
preached The plain chant "Lauda 
Si'tn Snb/atorem" v;as cne of the nnn- 
l,e s, and it Avas f^uj^?)' v:ith such for e 
and ardor that member.3 of the N. A. 
S''ngerbund, \vho ^- ere in session at 
Ih ' same time in Mi "waukee, de3lared 
that they could re er compete with 
S- ch majestic singirg. 

Perhaps the sen of the late Profes- 
sor, Mr. Otto A. Singenberger, can give 
rs for the lit'^rgical services of the 
coming Eucharistic Con'i'ress the same 
grand "Lauda Sion Salvatorem". If 



feasible, the choirs of the Salejianum 
and neighboring instit- tions might as- 
sist the choir at Mundelein. 

T. H. 



1920 — 1924 
(For W. A. D.) 



By Clmrles J. Quirk, S. J. 



The loom of English cliffs through mistv day; 
Memory keeps and guards these visions — yet 
U"fordian courts in vernal velvet set, 
riarh'"' :-v:\ cocl, fr-^ui e'r^'-.'s roar ;h-it 

away; 
Springtime in Paris from the hijjh Etoile: 
Boneath, the city's lovely tapestry, 
Afar, the Sacre Coeur's white pinnacle — - 
Prayer's trysting-place for all French 

chivalry. 

Then, up the castled Ehine, amid the fires 
Of pageant Day; the Cathedral of Cologne, 
Glimpsing against the stars its peerless 

spires ; 
Caerulean days within Lac Leman 's zone . . . 
And at the last! — after these exile-years — 
The huge bronze form of Liberty appears! 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



223 



The Second National Tertiary 
Congress 

The first national gathering of the 
Tertiaries of St. Francis of Assisi at 
Chicago, in 1921, was the beginning of 
a movement the results of which can 
hardly be foreseen. There are now 
seven Tertiary provinces, spread like 
an almrst complete network over the 
land. These provinces in the past five 
years have held as many provincial 
conventions as preludes to the second 
national convention, which has been 
called for Oct. 3-5, 1926, in New 
York City. With the improved organ- 
ization of the Third Order the second 
national congress should have a regis- 
tration far in excess of the first. 

Among the subjects to be discussed 
are the establishment of a central bu- 
reau for the sake of information, pub- 
licity, and propaganda ; the publica- 
tion of a uniform English translation of 
the Rule of the Third Order; the es- 
tablishment of separate fraternities 
for men and young men, and a nation- 
wide propaganda for the spread of the 
Tliird Order, enlisting the clergy and 
laity in the ideals of St. Francis of 
Assisi. 

Are Controversies "Bootless"? 

The Catholic Transcript having con- 
demned such controversies as that be- 
tween Fr. 'Toole and Fr. Richarz in 
the F. R. as "bootless," the Catholic 
Citizen (Vol. 56, No. 22) says w^hile 
it may be true that there is much fu- 
tility in debates of this sort, they nev- 
ertheless serve a good purpose. "There 
is such a uniformity of editorial opin- 
ion," says our contemporary, "that 
we seem to be getting standardized in 
this as well as in the syndicated news 
features provided bv the N. C. W. C. 
There are some Catholic, questions up- 
on which a little difference and debate 
world prove enlightening. We slip 
into the obvious or the edifying view, 
where we might serve the cause better 
by bringing out all the accompanying 
facts." 

For our part we believe that almost 
any sort of controversv is preferable 
to the intellectual apathy that has set 



in among the Catholics of the U. S., 
largely in consequence of the "stand- 
ardization" of their press through the 
N. C. W. C. 

The New Messias of the Theosophists 

Mrs. Besant's new Messiah, J. 
Krishnamurti (cfr. F. R., XXXIII, 8, 
164), announces that he Avill come Avith 
his patroness to the United States next 
August. As a preparation for this visit, 
an American disciple, Mr. Fritz Kunz, 
aunounces that the new prophet has 
' ' no aversion to sinners as such ; ' ' that 
"he will communicate by wireless, will 
ride in motor cars, will live in sky- 
scraper hotels, will travel overland in 
a drawing-room and wear spats." Also 
that he has never eaten meat or tasted 
alcoholic drinks, and has already writ- 
ten "the most liberal and wonderful 
book of the century." 

It is significant that Mr. Kunz hails 
from Hollywood, where the sensational 
films are made, and that he chose two 
New York theatres as the scenes of 
his announcements. 

Mr. Krishnamurti 's visit will be 
under the auspices of the "Liberal 
Catholic Church," a scion of the "Old 
Catholic" sect. It is to be feared that 
this affair will bring deep pain to all 
trulv religious men. 



A Modem Apost'e of Chau-ity 

We are indebted to the Buffalo Cath- 
olic Union and Times for a copy of 
"A Modern Apostle of Charity: Father 
Baker and His 'Ladv of Victory Char- 
ities', bv the Rev. Thomas A. Galvin, 
C. SS. 'R. (One of Father Baker's 
Boys)." The work has no literary 
value, and as a panegyric it is consider- 
ably overdone, especially taking into 
conskleration the fact that the "vic- 
tim" of all this laudation, the Rt. 
Rev. Nelson H Baker, is still among 
the living. His charities, located at 
Lackawanna, near B' ffalo, are in- 
deed remarkable, consisting of an or- 
phan asvlum, a protectory, a working 
boys' home, an infants' home, and a 
maternity hospital which also serves 
as a general hospital for the commun- 



224 



THE FORTNIGHTLY HE VIEW 



Mav 15 



ity. This is the 50tli year of the Moii- 
sigin)]-"s charitable activities, and in 
comjiieinoratioii thereof his friends are 
Ijuihliiiu for him and his charg'es a 
"National Shrine of our Lady of Vic- 
Tory" ill white Georo'ia marble, for 
\\hicli the Holy >See has granted tliree 
pi'ivileyx'd altars. 



Notes and Gleanings 



Josephine Van Dyke Brownson, a 
granddaughter of the late Dr. Orestes 

A. Brownson, is not of the number of 
those who believe that our "leakage" 
is a myth. Under the title, "Stopping 
the Leak," the Central Bureau of the 
Catholic Central Society has published 
a pamphlet from her pen, in which she 
describes the work of the Catholic 
Instruction League, in which Miss 
Brownson is deeply interested. This 
organization, as our readers are aware, 
supplies the place of the Catholic 
school to those Catholic children, — Miss 

B. ssiys there are "'hundreds of thous- 
ands" of them,— who are being lost 
to the Church through inadequate re- 
ligious instruction. It is a noble work, 
and Miss B.'s enthusiastic description 
of its details is calculated to enlist in 
it many wdio have been hitherto apa- 
thetic, though well able to help. "Stop- 
ping the Leak" is perhaps the most 
effective plea yet put forth for this 
movement, though Fr. Lyons, the 
founder, publishes a monthly C. I. L. 
Bulletin in Chicago, which we always 
read with interest and sympathy. 



AVriting in the Osservatore Romano 
on the establishment of the feast of 
Jesus Christ as the Universal King of 
Society, Fr. Ignatius Beschin, 0. F. M., 
sees in it a vindication of the Scotistic 
doctrine that Christ would have be- 
come man even if man had not sinned. 



The author of the "Gloria in Ex- 
celsis" is unknown, but it is found in 
a form almost identical with the one 
we have in our Missal in the Apostolic 
Constitutions, a work of the third cen- 
tury. Only by degrees did it assume 




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1926 



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its present place in the Mass. At first 
it held a position more resembling that 
of the ' ' Te Deum ' ' to-day. St. Gregory 
of Tours tells ns that it was said after 
Mass in thanksgiving ; and we know 
tliat it was recited on occasions of pub- 
lic re.ioicing, e. g., after the Sixth Gen- 
eral Council. In the usage of the 
Roman Church the Gloria was sung 
at ]\rass first of all on Christmas Day, 
being intoned in Greek at the first 
Mass, and in Latin at the second. A 
little later on bishops were allowed to 
say it at Mass on Sundays and feasts, 
priests, only on Easter Day ; this rule 
appears in the Gregorian Sacrament- 
ary. 

Tlie editor is always pleased to re- 
ceive commendatory letters; but the 
highest commendation, and the kind 
most appreciated, is active co-operaiion 
in spreading the Fortnightly Re\'iew. 
Unfortunately, but few readers think 
of this simple and easy means of assist- 
ing in the good work to which the F. R. 
is devoted. It is only through the 
active co-operation of its subscribers 
tliat the magazine can be kept alive. 
Have you shown your appreciation of 
our efforts in a practical way, dear 
reader ? If not, why not get us that 
new subscriber to-day or else send us 
two dollars for a year's subscription, at 
the reduced rate ($2.00) for some pub- 
lic library or charitable institution, or 
some poor missionary unable to pay for 
himself ? 



Under the title, "La Legenda An- 
tiqua S. Francisci,'' Fr. F. M. Pelorme, 
0. F. M., has edited the manuscript 
of an old legend of St. Francis discov- 
ered by him and described at some 
length in the Archivum Franciscanmn 
Historiciim for 1922. It is partly 
identical with II Celano and the 
"Speculum Perf ectionis. " Fr. De- 
lorme thinks it is the work of Brother 
Leo of Assisi, w^hich opinion, however, 
is not shared by Fr. L. Lemmens and 
others. Needless to say, even if the 
"Legenda Antiqua" were the work of 
Brother Leo, it would necessitate no 
important change in the record of the 
Poverello as known to us from other 



226 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



authentic sources. (Editions de la 
France Franciscaine, III ; 9, Rue 
Marie-Rose, XlVe, Paris, France). 

Two months of systematic excava- 
tion in the famous grotto of the Sibyl 
at Cuniffi, the most ancient Greek colony 
in Italy, have yielded an important 
archaeological find : a grotto which has 
a great number of subterranean pas- 
sages and lateral openings, and is be- 
lieved to correspond witli the descrip- 
tion given by the poet Virgil in his 
^Eneid. In this grotto, "whence re- 
sound as many voices, the oracles of the 
prophetess,"- weapons of the Stone Age 
were discovered and further excava- 
tion work, it is believed, will throw 
more light on the first Greek settlers 
on Italian soil. 



The new Italian postage stamps in 
commemoration of the seventli centen- 
ai\v of St. Francis' death are five in 
number, from 20 centimes to 5 lire in 
value. The first represents the vision 
of Jerusalem, the second the Convent 
of San Damiano, near Assisi, the third 
the Sacro Convento and the Basilica 
of St. Francis, the fourth depicts the 
death of the Saint, the fifth is a copy 
of the likeness of the saint according 
to Luca della Robbia, with the Chapel 
of the Portiuncula as a background. 
The designs reflect great credit on the 
artists engaged to produce them. 

The reverend editor of the New Zea- 
land Tablet says (Vol. 53, No. 11) : 

"No doubt some of the brethren 
would say that laymen have no business 
to criticise us, but that laymen do as 
a fact, and that it is as Avell for us to 
know what they sav is another fact." 



High school principals and educa- 
tional authorities in Massachusetts have 
voted 300 to 9 against the continuance 
of military training in the schools of 
that state. The newspapers record this 
as "a staggering blow" to the cause 
of military training in this country. 



A Societ.v of St. John Chrysostom 
has been established among the Cath- 
olics of England. It will obtain and 
disseminate knowledge rather than en- 



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1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



227 



gasre in disputes with non-Catholics. 
"This means," says the Tablet (No. 
4, 481), "that the thankless task of 
controversy will be left to those of us 
who are already hardened to it. But 
our Anglo-Orthodox friends may be 
sure that, unless they circulate defec- 
tive information respecting the Eastern 
Churches or place before the public 
unsound interpretations of Orthodox 
facts and events, they will hear from 
us little and seldom in the way of con- 
troversy. ' ' 

The Holy Father, in a letter ad- 
dressed through Cardinal Gasparri to 
Dom P. Subercaseaux Errazuriz, 0. S. 
B., of Quarr Abbey, under date of 
March 26th, gives high praise to that 
artist's splendid pictorial life of St. 
Francis of Assisi, which we warmly 
recommended to our readers in No. 8 
(p. 180) of the F. R. "By its lofty 
inspiration, which makes of the book a 
work of high spirituality and raises it 
above- so man}^ current productions in 
which the author easily descends to vul- 
garity or to strangeness of conception," 
we read in the Cardinal's letter, "this 
publication offers a contribution of the 
first rank to the study of the soul and 
the true spirit of St. Francis ; as the 
elegance and perfect correctness of de- 
sign in the illustrations make of it a 
gem of exquisite art." Such worthy 
productions of Christian art as this 
pictorial life of St. Francis should be 
patronized by all Avho have the means 
to do so. 

It is commonly believed and stated 
even in such scholarly books as Grupp 's 
"Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters," 
that the Spaniards brought syphilis 
from America to Europe in the 15th 
century. In matter of fact, as Dr. 
James J. AValsh points out in a letter 
addressed to the editor of the Journal 
of the Iowa State Medical Society, ac- 
cording to the greatest living historian 
of medicine. Professor Karl Sudhoff, 
of Leipzig, syphilis was in existence in 
Europe for centuries and probably for 
thousands of years before that time. 
Dr. Walsh thinks it "very probable 
that the greatest therapeutic discovery 



that was ever made was the proper use 
of mercury for syphilis, and that dis- 
covery and the proper dosage of mer- 
cury was worked out by the great sur- 
geons of the thirteenth century in Italy, 
who boasted of getting union by first 
intention and who used anesthetics 
and wrote wonderful text-books of 
surgerv that have come down to us.'" 



BOOK REVIEWS 



— Professor John M. Cooney, of Notre 
Dame University, a Keutuckian by birth, has 
written an entertaining story about the moun- 
tain folk of his native State and their do- 
ings. The heroine. Miss Willie Pat. A\ho 
nirija':'-es her father's estate in the latter 'a 
absence, hires a new farm hand, an A. E. P. 
veteran and a college student, Danny Lacey, 
who is thus thrown into a new life Avith a 
curious A'arietv of characters and coincidences. 
Incidentally light is thrown upon the evils 
of prohibition. The story is cleverly written 
and full of mystery, love, and adventure. This 
tale of illicit distilling, in the words of Father 
Will W. Whalen, who is no mean novelist 
himself, "is ready at a moment's notice to 
reel right off into a stirring motion picture," 
and that, in these days of action, action, 
action, is the supreme test of excellence in 
a story. (The Abbey Press, St. Meinrad, Ind.) 

— The interesting popular life of St. John 
Francis Regis of the Society of Jesus by 
Sigmund Nachbaur, S. J. ("Der heilige Jo- 
hannes FranzJskus Regis," Herder & Co.) 
contains two points of special value. Be- 
cause of tlie rugged simplicity of his in- 
structions, his winning sweetness of manner, 
his prevailing occupation of preaching the 
gospel to the poor, and his outstanding holi- 
ness, the life of St. Francis Regis is of dis- 
tinct apologetic importance; doubly so in 
that it reacted precisely in that sense on 
his Huguenot surroundings in the mountain 
fastnesses of Southern France. The second 
advantage of the author's sketch is the clear 
refutation he gives of the myth that St. 
Regis was ejected from the Society of Jesus 
before his death. This is shown to be a 
crude invention of the vicious Jansenists of 
that day. 

— A welcome contribution to the Francis- 
can centeaary is Fr. Berchmans Bittle's 
O. M. Cap. translation of Fr. Hilarin Felder's 
book on * ' The Ideals of St. Francis of 
Assisi" (Benziger Brothers). It is a piece 
cf fine scholarship, pleasingly translated. The 
ideals of the Seraphic Father are, of course, 
his virtues — his otherAVorldliness, his love of 
Christ and the Church, his love of poverty, 
his humility, his obedience and simplicity, 
his chastity and spirit of penance, his joy 



2 lis 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 




^IMlMIMIMI^IiyjIMIMIMIM^IiyjIiLL^ 



Hil ls of Rest 

hy 
John M. Cooney 

r I ^ H K lest ot a p()j)ular no\el nowadays is 
JL action, action and more action. Pro- 
fessor Coone\''s book stands up well 
under that test. But action isn't its onK* 
merit. It possesses vi\id descriptions of nature, 
deft characterization, and a cjuite lovable 
hero and heroine. The story grips one from 
the opening chapter. — Father Whalen in 

Daily American Tribune 
Price $L50 
For sale at all Book Stores or at 
Abbey Press St. Meinrad, Indiana 



R?i?7^iyffiff^ifrrtiff^i>7^if?^iff^ityrti>T^ity^ir7^i>nTirTrTif^^^ 



and l)rotlierliness, his charity and love of 
peaci'. These ideals created the Franciscan 
century ; they are still powerful enough to 
cure present-day society of its almost fatal 
ills. This admirable book deserves the widest 
possible circulation. 

— A book which will be hailed with delight 
by the lovers of stories from foreign lands 
and also hj those who desire to have sound 
and reliable information on the life and cus- 
toms of other people, is "Indische Erzah- 
lungen, ' ' a uuicjue collection of miscellanea 
edited by the Rev. Dr. C. Becker, S. D. S. 
The sketches and descriptions bear the hall- 
mark of authenticity, for they were written 
by men "in the field.'' There are chapters 
on "A Bengalese Marriage," "An Elephant 
Hunt in Assam, " " White Ants, " " Indian 
Child Widows," "The Market Life of the 
Khasi, ' ' " Festivities in Honor of the God 
Durga, " "Headhunters, " etc. These titles 
indicate the rich bill of exotic fare spread for 
the readers of this booklet. It is a pity- to 
see many of our people deceived by the weird 
tales of globe-trotters, who write out of their 
imagination and do not know strange tribes 
half as well as the missionary who spends 
his life with the people and knows them in- 
timately. And besides, these chapters treat 
of a real out-of-the-way corner of romantic 
India — of Assam, situated in the Bramaputra 
valley, at the foot of the Himalayas. It is 



more than a pity, it is an outrage, that the 
zealous Salvatorian Fathers, who have done 
untold good in that distant corner of Christ's 
vineyard,' should have been banished from 
the field, as "a war measure." Those who 
procure this charming and entertaining work 
will not only find rich delight and instruction, 
but will also help to spread a better under- 
standing of the splendid missionary work of 
the Church. (Salva.torian Fathers, St. Nazianz, 
Wis.) 

— The second edition of Fr. Joseph Braun's 
" Liturgisches Handlexikon" has been care- 
fully revised and considerably augmented. 
In turning its 400 pages, replete with succinct 
and authentic information on a multitude 
of liturgical subjects, from Al^acus to 
Zuechetto, we cannot but regret that the 
nascent ' ' liturgical movement ' ' in English- 
speaking countries has no such powerful aid 
as this lexicon of the learned German Jesuit, 
who has not overlooked a single subject re- 
garding which the ordinary student would 
be apt to have recourse to his work, which, 
besides being written with scholarly care and 
attractively printed and bound, has the ad- 
ditional advantage of selling at a very reas- 
onable price. Until we get something like 
this splendid liturgical dictionary in English, 
Fr. Braun's "Handlexikon" will be indis- 
pensable to the student of the sacred litur- 
gy and cognate subjects. The last twenty 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



229 



pages contain a very full bibliography. 
(Eatisbon: Jos. Kosel & Fr. Pustet K.-G!) 

— The ' ' Spiritual Guide for Eeligious ' ' 
compiled by an anonymous author and pub- 
lished by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart, 
of Metuchen, N. J., consists largely of 
quotations from Sacred Scripture and is pe- 
culiarly adapted to the needs of male re- 
ligious. There is an appendix of devo- 
tions, to the Sacred Heart, to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, to St. Joseph, to the Guardian 
Angels, and on behalf of the Poor Souls in 
Purgatory. 

— The Eev. A. M. Grussi has republished 
iu book form, from the Young Crusader and 
the Beehive, some of his "Chats on Christian 
Names, ' ' one for each day of the year and 
an extra one for leap years. The significa- 
tion of each name is briefly explained and a 
practical application made of the meaning 
to the teachings of the Catholic faith. The 
book is intended chiefly for spiritual read- 
ing, not only in the houje, but also in schools, 
colleges, and academies, for which purpose 
it seems to us well adapted. (Boston: The 
Stratford Co.), 

—The V. Eev. H. A. Ayrinhac, S. S., 
Eector of St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo 
Park, Cal., follows up his previous volumes 
on ' ' General Legislation, " " Penal Legisla- 
tion, " and "Marriage Legislation" by a 
fourth, entitled ' ' Constitution of the Church 
in the New Code of Canon Law." It is 
a running commentary, specially adapted to 
American use, of canons 215 to 486. The 
method followed in this volume is the same 
as in the previous ones, partly historical and 
partly positive. Evidently Dr. Ayrinhac in- 
tends to write a commentary on the entire 
Code, and there is no doubt that it will be 
both interesting and valuable when completed. 
(Blase Benziger & Co., Inc.) 

New Books Received 

Prophets, Priests and PiMicans. Character 

Sketches and Problems from the Gospels. 

By J. P. Arendzen. 336 pp. 12mo. Sands & 

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The Boole of Life. By Benedict Williamson. 

With a Foreword by the Et. Eev. H. G. 

Graham, Bishop of Tipasa. viii & 279 j)p. 

8vo. Kegan Paul and B. Herder Book 

Co. $3.25 net. 
S. Thomae Aguinatis in Metaphysicam Aris- 

totelis Commentaria. Cura et Studio P. 

Fr. M.-E. Cathala, O. P. Altera Editio 

attente Eeeognita. xii & 798 pp. 8vo. Turin: 

Libraria Marietti. L. 30 net (Wrapper.) 
Institutiones Theologiae Bogmaticae in Usum 

Scholarum Auctore Ludovico Lercher S. J. 

Vol. Ill: De Verbo Incarnato (de B. M. V. 

Cultu et Sanctorum) ; De Gratia Christi. 

611 pp. Svo. Innsbruck: Fel. Eauch. For 

sale in the U. S. by Fr. Pustet Co., Inc. 



Supplementum Continens Disputationes Ee- 
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large German-English parish in 
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ed. Address R., c. o. Fortnightly Re- 
view. 

FOR SALE: A well preserved copy of 
F. X. Kraus, Realenzyklopadie der Christ- 
lichen Altertiimer, Freiburg, Herder, I 882, 
tw^o volumes. This vs^ork has never been 
reprinted, and sets of it are scarce. Please 
make an offer. Gottfried Schiller, 4011 
Magnolia Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

FOR SALE: A Two Manual 'Tracker Action 
Pipe Organ, of about fifteen stops, in good 
condition. Can be rebuilt to suit space, 
and if given electro-pneumatic action, w^ould 
be worth three thousand six hundred dol- 
lars. Pipes and chests in first class con- 
dition. For further information write un- 
dersigned. Must be moved to make room 
for a new Symphonic organ of most modern 
construction. ADOLPH B. SUESS, Art 
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230 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



With Mary His Mother. By a Religious of 
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JUST PUBLISHED 

THE GREAT SECRET OF 
THE SAINTS 

By 
FRANZ RUEMMER 

Translated from the German by 

ISABEL GARAHAN, B. A. 

Cloth, 8vo.. XII & 120 Pages. 

Net $1.25 

Many books have been written on the 
subject of what the present author, the 
Eev. Franz Ruemmer, calls the ' ' Great 
Secret of the Saints, ' ' but a ncAv and 
interesting form is given here to thoughts 
that have filled all mystical minds from 
"The Age of the Great Miracles" doAvn 
to our present generation. The spirit 
of Christ lives and acts in His loving 
Disciples, and the more they love the 
Master crowned with thorns and humbled 
with a great desire of His own, on the 
cross of ignominy, the more they long- 
to reproduce in themselves, as far as 
human frailty allows, the unattainable, 
despairingly perfect characteristics of 
their Divine Model. 

This little book, translated by Miss 
Isabel Garahan, brings us into closer 
association with our holy brothers and 
sisters. It shows how humility forms 
that delicate conscience which makes 
them aware and ashamed of their small- 
est faults; how true wisdom leads them 
to the way of the cross ; how godliness, 
the sweetness of divine intercourse, is 
a child of their cherished virtue and 
how finally they reach a state of divine 
contentment in trials and sufferings — 
food for serious thought in our age of 
unrest where proud and pleasure-seek- 
ing man is so easily led to be a wolf to 
his fellowman. 

The spirit of Christ is the spirit of the 
Saints and the words of St. Bonaventure 
to an aspirant to the perfect disciple- 
hood remain true for ever: "Thou 
shalt never be more humble than Jesus 
Christ: Humilior Christo nou eris. " 



B. Herder Book Co. 

17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



1926 



TEE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



231 



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Die Quellen. Erster Teil. Eatschliige fiir 
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The train was approaching Eurelia. At 
one end of the car, the conductor appeared 
and called, "You're a liar! You're a liar! " 
Then, from the other end, the brakeman 
opened the door and cried, ''You really are! 
You really are! " ■ 



232 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



The difference bet-\veeii a FniulHinentalist 
and a Modernist is this: the Fundamentalist 
savs, "There is a hell;" the Modernist an- 
swers, "Oh, hell, there ain't." 



Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria, vure 
came with a prefect to Abbot Arsi'nius. He 
asked the old man to give him an apophthegni. 
Arsenius was silent for a while, and finally 
said : "If I tell you one, will you observe 
it?" They promised. Then the old Abbot 
said to them: "If you hear that Arsenius 
is anvwhere, do not go there to visit him. ' ' 
(Migiie, P. G., LXV,'p. 71). 



Archbishop Theophilus once came to Scetis 
(the Nitriam Desert). The brethren assem- 
bled and asked Abbot Pambo : "Tell the 
bishop something from which he may profit. ' ' 
The Abbot said: "If he cannot profit from 
my silence, my words will not be of any use 
to him. ' ' 



Henry was of American parentage and 
American ancestry, but because he had hap- 
pened to be born in England, declared him- 
self to be English. Pat had been trying to 
convince him that he was an American just 
the same. He tried and tried to prove to Henry 
his proper nationality. At last he said : ' ' Faith 
and Begorra! If a cat had her kittens in 
the oven, would they be biscuits'?" 



Louis Veuillot, the famous French writer 
was a man of the people. His father was a 
poor traveling cooper, his mother a peasant 
girl, who brought as her marriage dowry onlv 
"the treasures of her youth and goodness." 
Veuillot loved to speak of his humble birth, 
in spite of which he rose to national prom- 
inence. One day an aristocratic colleague of 
his made a remark in which Veuillot detected 
a veiled insolence. He replied: "I have 
risen from a cooper's family, monsieur, it is 
true. From whence do you descend?" 



An American tourist, thinking to get a 
rise out of an old Highland minister, re- 
marked: "Don't you think if a man left 
enough money to your church, he 'd get into- 
Heaven ? ' ' — ' ' Aweel, ' ' was the cautious re- 
ply, "I wadna say that for a fact, but it's 
well worth tryin '. ' ' 



A back countryman was paying his first 
visit to the seashore. He inquired of a boat- 
man if he could have a bottle of sea water 
to take home with him, as his wife had heard 
that it was good for rheumatism. ' ' Cer- 
tainly, ' ' replied the boatman, and charged 
him a quarter. Later, when the tide had 
receded, the farmer returned for another 
bottle, and exclaimed: "Gosh! you must 
have done a big business since I was here. ' ' 



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Seisenberger, M. A Practical Handbook 

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Bible Literature. Tr. by A. M. Buchan- 
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THE ECHO 

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"Christian Denominations" 

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Published by 

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234 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



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SAINT ANTHONY'S AD. 

For centuries St. Anthony of Padua has proven 
himself the Friend of the Poor the wide world 
over. We often hear it said that ' ' God helps 
them that help themselves. " To a certain degree 
this is true but oftentimes the saying is used as 
a cloak for selfishness and as an excuse for not 
helping those who really are not in a position to 
help themselves. 

St. Anthony, as the champion and friend of the 
need}', serves notice upon his clients that if they 
would employ him as their heavenly advocate, 
they must pay him a fee in the form of Bread for 
his poor. In a word St. Anthony helps those who 
help the poor. 

During the past three months The Friars of the 
Atonement have given board and lodging free to 
as many as sixty-five homeless, jobless men in 
a single day. It was St. Anthony who paid the 
huge bread and meat bills through the medium 
of those who had recourse to his intercession in 
the perpetual Novena conducted at Graymoor to 
the Wonder- Worker of Padua. That St. Anthony 
helps those who promise to help him feed and lodge his Graymoor dependents, witness 
the following testimonials : 

R. S., Long Island, N. Y. : "On December 28th, I received your acknowledgement 
of mv petition and on January 8th I secured work after having been idle more than 
nine months. My Novena was for a steady job with remunerative wages, and I have 
fared better than I expected. The place of work is within ten minutes of my home, 
saviue me the inconvenience of travel and the expense of carfare and lunch money. 
Everything has worked in my favor and to such an extent that my wife and I are 
dumbfounded. I gratefully enclose check for my first week's wages as promised." 

"Grateful," Wisconsin: "I recently lost twenty dollars which I could ill afford 
to lose. After praying to St. Anthony it was returned in a most unexpected manner. ' ' 

E. D., Kansas: "I promised the enclosed offering last summer if my daughter 
would come back to the Church. Thanks be to God and St. Anthony, she has 
come back ; and I very gladly and gratefully fulfill my promise. ' ' 

M. H. S., Washington, D. C. : "The Money-Order enclosed is sent in honor of 
St. Anthony for his Bread Box. This offering is made in Thanksgiving for the re- 
covery of a sick person, and that an operation was averted." 

Mrs. G. M., Penn. : ' ' Enclosed please find offering for St. Anthony 's Bread in 
thanksgiving for finding my diamond ring." 

Address all petitions to 
ST. ANTHONY'S GRAYMOOR SHRINE, THE FRIARS OF THE ATONEMENT 
BOX 316, PEEKSKILL, N. Y. . 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXXIII, No. 11 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 1st, 1926 



EUCK 

By the Rev. Henry J. He 

Vox Christi: 


[ARISTICA 


'ck, of the PontificaJ College Josephinum, 
Columbus, O. 


Panem vobis ego dabo, 
Carnem meam; suave Cor 
Caritatem demonstrabo ; 
Vos reficiat Amor. 


Vox Ecclesiae: 


En, quam dulcis spiritalis 
Animae nutritio! 
Quam cum Christo filialis 
Intima coniunctio! 




Fugans omnes temporales 
Vitae querimonias 
Praestat Deltas regales 
Animae delicias. 


Vox Chicagiensis : 


Urbs Lacensis vos invitat 
Ad caenam caelestium, 
Comedens se contra ditat 
Vilia terrestrium. 


Vox Fidelium: 


Peregrini salutemus 
Sacramentum mysticum; 
Pio corde manducemus 
Corpus eucharisticum. 


Vox Discipuli: 


Vela videns, ecce, miror 
Quaenam sit praesentia; 
Fidens Velato conquiror 
Quanta Sapiential 



f^i i tTKffr^iff^trwtrffltnffiTfflrK i rKiTTK 



236 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



A New Philosophy of History 



Volume one of Oswald Spengler's 
much-discussed book, ''Der Untergang 
des Abendlandes, " has now been made 
available to the English-reading pub- 
lic. The translation is entitled, "The 
Decline of the West," and is pub- 
lished in America by Alfred A. Knopf. 
The book has had an enormous sale in 
Germany, and because Germany is 
again influencing England, and Eng- 
land still leads non-C'atholic America 
philosophically, it is to be expected that 
Spengler's theories will exert a certain 
influence also among us. 

Spengler denies the unit}' of history 
and the progressive evolution of man- 
kind. In the 6,000 years, more or less, 
covered by historical records or monu- 
ments, he discovers eight great cul- 
tures — Indian, Egyptian, Chinese, 
Babylonian, Grecian and Graeco-Ro- 
man, Arabian, Mayan, and, finally, 
modern European. These he passes in 
review and finds them absolutely alike 
in the laws of their development, but 
essentially independent of one another. 
Such evolution as he admits is entirely 
within the cycles, and is followed by 
an inevitable return to an undefined 
condition of "Urseelentum" (primor- 
dial soul-state), when the vast organism 
that is called a culture disintegrates 
and returns to the inorganic state. 
Cultures move along parallel lines that 
never meet, or rather they describe 
parabolas, like starshells from the 
same trajector, which are measured by 
the same formula and accomplish the 
same course, but are otherwise unre- 
lated. 

To the obvious objection that these 
cycles did in matter of fact in some 
instances meet, overlap, and apparent- 
ly interact on one another, borrowing 
and handing on, Spengler answers that 
the souls of the various cultures are 
fundamentally dififerent, and what- 
ever is taken over, is transformed into 
something quite new. Only surface 
phenomena — words, formulae, symbols, 
external rites and usages — are bor- 
rowed. The difference of soul gives 
them a completely new meaning. 



Of considerable importance for 
Spengler's theorj' is the distinction he 
draws between culture and civilization. 
Culture is "das Werdende," the be- 
coming, that which is in fieri, as the 
Scholastics w^ould say ; civilization is 
"fZfl.s Gewordene," that which has be- 
come, or the result m facto esse, which 
is likewise "cZas Erstarrende," the 
stiffening, rigidifying or atrophying 
element in history. Civilization is 
consequently the autumn and early 
Avinter of the process. Culture is 
spontaneous, unconscious, organic, 
dominated bj^ the idea of destiny 
(Schicksalsidee) . Civilization is arti- 
ficial, intellectual, mechanical, and un- 
der the sway of the principle of caus- 
ality. Its home is the vast world-city, 
where man grows materialistic, intro- 
spective, sceptical, tired, and loses all 
joy in life. The West is far advanced 
in this stage ; hence the title of the 
book. 

The reader may wonder how so fan- 
tastic a mind product could create a 
furore in such a highly intellectual land 
as German.y. The fact that the Ger- 
man race was in the valley of humilia- 
tion counted for a good deal. Doubt- 
less, also, German metaphysics since 
Kant had prepared the ground for 
Spengler's theory. The "Critique of 
Pure Reason" struck a deadly blow 
at the objective value of the conclu- 
sions arrived at by reason. Since that 
time philosophy in the "Fatherland" 
has been raising its structures on quick- 
sand. Many of the critics who assailed 
Spengler had no logical right to do so. 
Catholic Germany alone has solid 
ground beneath its feet and is strictly 
justified in repudiating his whole in- 
terpretation of life and of history. 
Repudiated, indeed, Spengler's new 
])hilosophy of histor\' deserves to be, 
for it robs life of any adequate pur- 
pose or satisfactory meaning. 

If the English edition of Spengler's 
book is widely read and makes an im- 
pression in this country, no doubt some 
of the Catholic criticisms of his theory 
will be translated from the German. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



237 



Mean-while we would refer the student 
to the article "The Downfall of the 
West," by Fr. Patrick J. Gannon, S. J., 



in No. 47 of the Irish quarterly Studies, 
from which we have freely borrowed 
in this paper. 



The Decree of the Holy Office on Bible Reading in the Public Schools 

By Fr. A. Wagfner, Shelby, Nebr. 



By special request the F. R. in its 
issue of April 15th (Vol. XXXIII, No. 
8, p. 170) printed the reply of the Su- 
preme Congregation of the Holy Office, 
approved by the Holy Father, to an 
inquiry by the episcopate of the U. S. 
in regard to the reading of the Bible 
in the public schools. His Eminence 
the Cardinal Secretary therein stated 
the quaestio facti as presented to him 
in the following terms : 

"that it is the custom or estab- 
lished law in some parts of the 
United States to read as part of 
the curriculum in public schools, 
which are attended by many Cath- 
olic pupils, the Protestant Bible, 
and without comment." 

As a matter of fact the Protestant 
Bible may be or is being read: (1) as 
a textbook of supernatural religion, 
as in the State of Maine; (2) as a 
textbook of moral philosophy, as in 
Massachusetts; (3) as a textbook of 
literature, history or science, as in 
Nebraska ; — in each variety either with 
or without comment, according to the 
constitution or court decisions of the 
respective States. 

The answer of the Holy Office cover- 
ing No. 1 and probably No. 2 is to the 
effect that the Protestant Bible may 
be read to Catholic children with the 
threefold precaution of (1) employing 
authorized teachers, who (2) use au- 
thentic and integral texts, with (3) 
the opportune explanations. This is 
but the extension to the pupils of pub- 
lic schools of canon 1400 of the Code, 
which grants the privilege of reading 
heretical versions of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures to theological and biblical stu- 
dents. It is, indeed, a generous con- 
cession. Practically, however, the im- 
posed conditions, required by natural 
law, can be complied with in compara- 



tively but few schools in this country: 
But what is to be said with regard 
to point No. 3? Nos. 1 and 2 presume 
the reading of the Bible as what it is, 
namely, a medium of religious instruct 
tion. In the last case, however, it is 
looked upon merely as a textbook of 
literature, history or science. The truth 
in the matter is that James Stuart's 
translation of the Bible with its omis- 
sions and numerous mistranslations is 
seized upon as the idolized vehicle of 
English-speaking Protestantism. It 
may be conceded that the King James 
version (not to mention Cardinal New- 
man's lifelong predilection for it) is a 
more idiomatic rendition of the text 
in the Anglo-Saxon tongue than Bishop 
Challoner's, though its advantages are 
purchased at the expense of revealed 
truth. The question, therefore, arises, 
whether Catholic children of immature 
age and plastic mind are to be indoc- 
trinated with heretical error for the 
sake of the King's English. Is the dis- 
tinction between the Bible as a textbook 
of supernatural religion and its dog- 
matically faulty but linguistically pref- 
erable translation admissible accord- 
ing to Catholic principles? 

The Holy Office naturally refrained 
from taking an attitude in the matter, 
as the letter of inquiry did not request 
it. There is no presumption for it to 
be discovered in the Code. There is, 
however, extant a decree by the Sacred 
Congregation of the Index, of May 23d, 
1898, expressly excluding from this 
privilege those who read the Hebrew 
and Greek texts of Sacred Scripture 
without reference to theological studies. 
By a legitimate parity of reasoning it 
seems inferable that, for a like reason, 
pupils of the public schools are exclud- 
ed from the use of this privilege. The 
matter of the comment in itself is ir- 
relevant. 



238 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



In case the above mentioned provi- 
sions cannot be complied with and local 
laws permit the absence of Catholic 
children, the Holy Office peremptorily 
enjoins the withdrawal of them by 
Catholic parents or what amounts 
to voluntary eviction of Catho- 
lic children from the public schools. 
The phraseology employed in this 
part of the reply clearh' indicates 
that the Holy Office does not look up- 
on this mode of procedure as a solution 
of the difficulty in principle, or even 
the toleration of impossible conditions, 
but as a solemn protest giving im- 
mediate, though only temporary relief, 
with the implied direction of seeking 
permanent relief measures. 

The Holy Office does not indicate the 
nature of these measures, but they can- 
not be other than serious efforts on the 
part of Catholics to acquaint members 
of the legislature and school boards 
with the justice of their stand, and if 
necessary, the only relief will be an 
appeal to a court of last resort. It 
should not require a great deal of legal 
talent to demonstrate that conditions 
calling for measures of this kind on 
the part of Catholic parents are tanta- 
mount to the abolition of parental 
authority, the infringement of religious 
liberty, the disfranchisement of Cath- 
olic citizens, and the confiscation of 
private property without due process 
of law. Too much has already been 
conceded by Catholics in the matter of 
school rights. May this agilration 
hasten the day when the mountaineers 
of Kentucky will be recognized and 
imitated as honest and intelligent leg- 
islators the country over, who with 
typical Yankee shrewdness have in- 
serted in the bill of rights of their 
commonwealth the wisest thought they 
ever conceived, namely, ,that no man 
shall ever "be compelled to send his 
child to any school to which he may be 
conscientiously opposed. ' ' 

To the careful observer it is evident 
that this movement is being sponsored 
on the one hand by well-meaning re- 
ligious reformers, and on the other 
hand by certain elements that regard 
it as a means of attacking the Church 



and her institutions. The latter seems 
to be the case in the State of Nebraska. 
In the hectie days of 1919 the Nebraska 
legislature passed the odious anti- 
foreign language bill, which, though it 
has been declared unconstitutional by 
the U. S. Supreme Court thirty-five 
months ago, is still carried on the 
register of the school laws for 1926 by 
the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. This bill in effect abol- 
ished parental authority over children 
and in principle established the notor- 
ious anti-parochial Oregon school leg- 
islation, likewise of unsavory memory. 
In point of fact the adoption of such 
a radical measure by the same legis- 
lature of the State of Nebraska in 1919 
was narrowly averted only at consid- 
erable monetary expense, by the rous- 
ing of Catholic and sympathetic re- 
sistance, but mainly by a heaping mea- 
sure of compromise graciously tendered 
hy Catholic politicians. Let us also 
not overlook the fact that Nebraska 
lies within the boundary lines of the 
Southern jurisdiction of Scottish Rite 
Masonry, which at Lincoln, Nov. 17- 
20th, 1925, went on record as endors- 
ing the demand of the Supreme Coun- 
cil for "federal aid for public school 
purposes, under the absolute control 
of the State." 

Local pride may incline one to dis- 
parage these observations as "alarm- 
ist reports" or "hysterical imagin- 
ings," but the right course of action 
is prudently advised hy the words en- 
graved upon a panel above the main 
entrance to the State Capitol now 
building at Lincoln: "The salvation 
of the State is watchfulness in the citi- 
zen." 



THE STEANGEES 



By Charles J. Quirk, S. J. 

Upon the streets of Heaven, met 

Two newly risen dead. 
"Who art thou, friend?" the elder asked. 

The other, smiling, said: 

"A stranger, I? Yea, we are changed, 

Still I remember thee : 
I hated and I wronged thee once — 

I was thine enemy ! ' ' 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



239 



Catholic Participation in Boy Scouting 

By Observer 



The question of Catholic participa- 
tion in the boy scout movement has 
been disputed ever since the scout idea 
was introduced into the United States, 
sixteen j^ears ago. Some of the long- 
standing objections still persist, al- 
though Catholic scouting has made con- 
siderable progress in the past few years. 

Today most Catholic boy workers 
recognize the value of the scouting edu- 
cational-recreational programme for 
the younger boy. Scouting directs 
and develops the group instinct and 
opens up a wide range of worth-while 
leisure-time interests, while the degree 
and merit badge system is an excellent 
incentive to progress in each activity. 
There is no doubt that scouting under 
competent leadership helps to develop 
natural and civic virtues. The move- 
ment has been accepted in many locali- 
ties as an important unit of Catholic 
boy work. 

The usual difficulties of co-operating 
with non-Catholics on a non-sectarian 
basis in any social enterprise, have 
arisen in connection with scouting, al- 
though it must be said that the Na- 
tional Council of the Boy Scouts of 
America has taken care to safeguard 
Catholic interests. The abuses that 
have come up from time to time in 
various communities cannot be fairly 
charged up to the National Council, 
since the present form of organization 
precludes close and complete supervi- 
sion of scouting in the community by 
the national headquarters. 

Arguments for and against Catholic 
participation in scouting have too often 
been based on prevailing conditions 
in particular communities, while the 
vital issues affecting the movement as a 
whole, have been frequently ignored. 
Many of the objections against Cath- 
olic participation become more intel- 
ligible in the light of the following con- 
siderations. 

1. Catholics and non-Catholics do 
not stand on common ground on the 
fundamental interpretation of the non- 
sectarian policy of scouting. The 



Catholic scout leader holds the prin- 
ciple of one true religion ; the non- 
Catholic usually maintains that reli- 
gious differences are more or less ac- 
cidental. This difference enters neces- 
sarily into the explanations of the 
policy of the movement. 

2. Catholics and non-Catholics do 
not agree in the important matter of 
evaluating- scouting as a plan of char- 
acter building. Catholics cannot ac- 
cept the theory, sometimes proposed, 
that all that is needed to keep a boy 
out of trouble is to keep him occupied. 
The Catholic scout leader knows that 
there is no morality without religion 
and that the only religion that can 
train character perfectly is the one su- 
pernatural religion instituted b.y Jesus 
Christ, with its great sources of divine 
grace. The Catholic boy worker rea- 
lizes that the highest natural ethical 
standards at best only point the way 
to Christian truth. Non-Catholic the- 
ories give no consideration to the work- 
ings of divine grace, and frequently 
present the merely natural as the ideal. 

3. How to provide more religious 
education for children is fast becoming 
one of the most important questions 
of the day, and it is at once evident 
that there is no basis for co-operation 
M'ith non-Catholics in the way of ac- 
cepting scouting as a form of religious 
education. 

4. As character training is insepar- 
able from religion, in many things the 
Catholic leader is bound by the teach- 
ings of the Church, whereas the non- 
Catholic scout official holds as a funda- 
mental principle the right of the in- 
dividual to interpret for himself in 
everything pertaining to religion, and 
he feels f)erfectly free on this principle 
of Liberalism to devise and propagate 
his own views on scouting in the com- 
munity. 

5. The argument might be advanced 
by some Catholic leaders that this very 
freedom gives them the opportunity 
to spread Catholic principles. It is 
easily seen that such a stand leaves 



240 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



them with very little to say when non- 
Catholics employ the same tactics. 

It is not surprising' to find that the 
portions of official scout literature 
which deal with religion and character 
formation are the source of many Cath- 
olic objections. These explanations 
are as a rule distinctly non-Catholic. 
This situation could be remedied by 
distinctly Catholic scout literature for 
Catholic scouts. 

The greatest source of difficulty is 
the present local council form of or- 
ganization. By this arangement scout- 
ing in each community is controlled by 
the local council without any adequate 
supervision by the National Council. 
Where the local executive insists upon 
interpreting scouting according to his 
own ideas, it is possible for him to 
keep interest in Catholic extension very 
low, by manipulating matters so that 
really representative Catholics, who un- 
derstand the position of the Church, 
are kept off the local council. Cath- 
olic field organizers can be excluded 
from the staff, and if the local execu- 
tive does not take kindly to the idea 
of sharing his authority, he can pre- 
vent the appointment of a Catholic 
man to look after Catholic organization 
Avork. Catholics are thus placed in 
the position of supporting the move- 
ment Avithout deriving any benefits 
from it. 

Fortunately the local council leader- 
ship school problem seems to be in a 
fair way of being solved. Courses 
Avhich stress "Catholic boyology" are 
conducted in several Catholic colleges. 
But where the local scout leaders in- 
sist on advertising their courses as non- 
sectarian without distinction, and so- 
liciting Catholic enrollment and sup- 
port, and at the same time include lec- 
tures on such subjects as religious edu- 
cation, the difficulty remains. 

The summer camp question is farther 
from solution than ever. Sentiment 
among Catholic scout officials seems to 
have changed completely on this mat- 
ter. They started out with the idea 
of distinctly Catholic scout camps for 
Catholic boys. To-day they hold that 
the sectarian scout camp is not de- 



sirable. The reason alleged is the great 
need of inculcating religious tolerance, 
which, we are assured, can be done so 
successfully in the non-sectarian camp, 
that it is now the most important ob- 
jective. Such an argument certainly 
has no weight against exclusively Cath- 
olic camps. Why not return to the 
distinctly Catholic camp and avoid dif- 
ficulties? 

Many Catholics receive wrong no- 
tions about scouting in localities where 
an energetic non-Catholic scout execu- 
tive supplies material to the newspapers 
and edits a local council bulletin, touch- 
ing often on such subjects as "Scout- 
ing and Religion" and "Scouting and 
Character Building," using the terms 
Church and religion without any de- 
nominational distinctions. 

This is especially noticeable Avhen 
the value of the scout code is stressed. 
That this purely ethical standard can 
help under competent leadership to 
inculcate natural virtues, which 
strengthen character and furnish a good 
basis for supernatural virtue, Catholics 
readily admit. But w^hen it is given 
an extravagant and disproportionate 
rating in reference to religion and re- 
ligious education, there is danger that 
Catholics may be deceived, especially 
Avhen the implication is present that 
the Church has approved the move- 
ment as explained. That the scout 
code would be profitable to one with- 
out any definite standards is easily 
seen, but the question changes entirely 
when those to Ijcnefit already recognize 
the far higher plane of positive and 
definite obligation imposed by the re- 
ligion of Christ. The Catholic boy 
does not belong in the class of those 
who are without definite religious 
standards, and he surely does not need 
scouting to teach him his duty to God 
and the Church. Any attempt to pre- 
sent the scout code as anything more 
than a guide to the hig"her standard 
of conduct demanded by the Church of 
Christ will surely mislead. 

The question becomes more intri- 
cate when non-Catholic scout officials 
present scouting as a substitute for re- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



241 



ligious education. A review of the 
non-Catholie works on religious educa- 
tion as well as the reports of non-Cath- 
olic religious educational societies, 
shows clearly that scouting is being 
heralded as a means to remedy de- 
fects in the day school and Sunday 
school teaching. In localities where 
scouting is supported by community 
drives, Catholics are placed in a very 
peculiar position when the movement 
is presented in this way. 

Diocesan supervision of Catholic 
scouting as a part of diocesan boy 
work seems to be the only way out of 
these difficulties short of forming an 
entirely new organization. Since scout- 
ing is more of a movement than an or- 
ganization, there seems to be no solid 



reason against Catholics supervising 
their own scout work, retaining affilia- 
tion with the National Council to in- 
sure correct standards in using the 
scout programme, but with entire in- 
dependence in everj'thing touching on 
religion directly or indirectly. 

It is to be hoped that some definite 
developments will take place in this 
matter in the near future. The lack 
of definite standards causes confusion, 
and a different method of handling 
these situations in each locality will 
bring us nowhere. Catholic boy work- 
ers who appreciate the scout pro- 
gramme will be earnest in their eft^orts 
to remedy conditions that threaten to 
hinder seriously the extension of the 
movement among our youth. 



A Problem in Connection With Holy Orders 

By the Rev. John Lenhart, O. M. Cap. 



As I pointed out in the F. R. of 
March 1, 1917, the genuineness of the 
Bull of Innocent VIII granting to cer- 
tain Cistercian abbots the privilege to 
confer deaconship, is now fully estab- 
lished. What Dr. Pohle wrote'in 1910 
in his "Lehrbuch der Dogmatik" (Vol. 
Ill, pp. 587 sq.) had been antiquated 
even then by the researches of the 
Capuchin Pius Sabadel, and it is a pity 
that this great theologian did not take 
note of these researches. Dr. Pohle 
wrote : ' ' The authenticity of this Bull 
is doubtful. Its earliest witness is 
Caramuel (1640)." But this was an 
error. The Bull was printed two years 
after its issue, in 1491, in the "Col- 
lectio Privilegiorum Ordinis Cister- 
ciensium." This fact disposes of Dr. 
Pohle 's other statement that "the text 
is contained in none of the official col- 
lections. " Cardinal Gasparri states 
(1893) that a copy is found in Rome 
without mention of the privilege of 
conferring the diaconate. But in 1901, 
Fr. Pius Sabadel, 0. M. Cap., pointed 
out that the Cardinal was deceived by 
somebody, since there is no trace of this 
Bull to be found in Rome. Neither 
the original Bull, nor any transcript of 
the whole or any part, not even a 



minute, is to be found in Rome. This 
Bull, like hundreds of others, was not 
preserved at Rome, nor was it recorded 
in the papal archives ; but that does 
not militate against its genuineness. 

In the year 1490, the Abbot of Cluny 
hired the German printer Metlinger, 
who was a secular priest, to print a 
collection of the privileges of the Cis- 
tercian Order. Metlinger finished his 
work in 1491. It contains twenty-one 
Bulls issued by Pope Innocent VIII 
in favor of the Cistercians. The Bull 
in question is No. 16 of this series. The 
last Bull printed is dated August 8, 
1489. 

On folio 169-170 of Metlinger 's 
"Collectio" is printed the Bull of In- 
nocent VIII, "Exposcit," in which he 
grants to the Abbot of Cluny and four 
other abbots and to their successors, 
the privilege of conferring the orders 
of subdeaconship and deaconship. Be- 
fore Caramuel — according to Pohle ihe 
earliest witness, — Hallier ("De Sacris 
Electionibus," 1636) and Rodericus 
("Quaestiones Regulares, " 1613) had 
referred to this printed edition. Since 
this Bull was printed during the life- 
time of Innocent VIII, it cannot be re- 
garded as spurious. Moreover, the Cis- 



242 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



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LOUIS PREUSS 

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tercian abbots made use of the privilege 
thus granted as is evidenced by the fact 
that the rituals of their order invari- 
ably contained the rite for the ordina- 
tion of deacons, down to the last edi- 
tion printed in 1901. 

In the preface to Metlinger 's ' ' Col- 
lectio" Abbot John de Cirey cautions 
the reader (fol. 3) not to give credence 
to any document printed in the collec- 
tion unless it has been verified by his 
secretary, Conrad of Leonberg, who 
vouched for the genuineness by setting 
an obelus to it. In the copy preserved in 
the National Library at Rome this 
obelus is found before the Bull "Ex- 
poscit" of Innocent VIII. Consequent- 
ly no scholar can set this Bull aside 
as spurious, so far as external proofs 
are concerned. 

P"'rom internal evidence Fr. Timothy, 
0. M. Cap., tried, in 1902, to prove 
that the Bull must be spurious because 
the response grants more than 
was asked for in the supplica. But 
the Pope in this Bull also grants the 
privilege of saying Mass at night, al- 



though nothing is found about that in 
the petition. P'r. Timothy adduces as 
a second proof against the Bull that 
the Pope refuses the privilege to con- 
secrate chalices and altars and to recon- 
cile churches, and therefore could not 
grant what is an even greater privilege, 
namel.y, the power to ordain deacons. 
The obvious answer to this is that popes 
do not always act as logically as the- 
ologians would have them do. But 
apart from that. Pope Innocent tells us 
plainly why he granted the greater 
privilege and refused the smaller, viz. : 
" n€ Monachi dicti ordinis pro sus- 
cipipiulifi suhdiaconatus et diaconatus 
07xlinil}us extra claustrum hinc inde 
discurrere cogantur." (Fr. Timothy's 
article is in the Etudes Frmiciscaines, 
Vol. VII, Paris, 1902, pp. 568-572). 

In the F. R. of March 1, 1917, I also 
called attention to the famous Bull of 
Boniface IX, of the year 1400, grant- 
ing the power to ordain priests to an 
abbot. This Bull was discovered in 
the Vatican archives by Twemlow about 
the year 1890, and was first published 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



243 



in 1911 in the English Historical Re- 
vieiv (Vol. XXVI, 1911, pp. 125-127) 
by Mr. Eg^erton Beck. But the the- 
ologians did not take any notice of 
this important discovery, though the 
F. R. promptly mentioned the find. 
In 1924, Abbot Frederick Fofi ''redis- 
covered" the Bull in the same place in 
the Vatican archives, and published 
it again, under the impression that it 
had never been published before. Then 
the theologians got busy. 

As Mr. Beck had pointed out in 
1911, this Bull of Boniface IX must 
be regarded as authentic beyond any 
doubt. It is registered twice in the 
papal archives and is quoted in 1403 
by the Pope in a Bull revoking the 
privilege. The writer in the F. R. for 
April 15, 1926, has completely over- 
looked the fact that the Abbot of St. 
Osyth was not a Benedictine, but an 
Augustinian Canon, as is plainly stated 
in the Bull itself: " Ahbas Sanctae 
sitae Ordinis Sancti Augustini Lon~ 
doniensis Dioecesis" (cfr. F. R., 1 
March, 1917). That this abbot was 
no bishop is plain. The curial style 
required mention of all titles. Had 
the abbot been, e. g., a retired bishop, 
or an ordinary, this distinction would 
have been mentioned in the Bull. More- 
over the abbot of St. Osyth in 1397 
received the privilege of using ponti- 
ficals, which indicates that he was not 
a bishop. The latter privilege, like the 
privilege to ordain priests, was re- 
voked on account of the remonstrances 
made by the bishop of London against 
the use of these extraordinary powers. 

This revocation was no strange 
thing. Church history records many 
instances where bishops tried to shear 
abbots of their privileges. An abbot 
of Cluny in those days was more power- 
ful than a dozen bishops combined. 
There w^ere quite frequently conten- 
tions between such abbots and the dio- 
cesan bishops. When the time for 
ordinations came, it was sometimes 
hard for these abbots to find a friendly 
bishop who would ordain their sub- 
jects. Hence the ^' discurrere hinc 
inde," of which Innocent VIII speaks 
in his Bull. It was quite natural, un- 



der these circumstances, that abbots 
should try to obtain as many powers 
as possible in order to become more in- 
dependent of the bishops. The bishops 
on their part endeavored to have those 
exemptions revoked by the Holy See. 
Abbot John de Cirey describes all this 
in his preface to the "Collectio Priv- 
ilegiorum Ordinis Cisterciensium" 
(Cluny, 1491, fol. 2.) in these words: 
"Ne quicunque ordinis adversarii, cum 
monasteria in comniendam arripere 
sen privilegia aliter inf ringer e machin- 
antnr, ex praesenti puhlicatione malig- 
na ndi occasioncm adversus ordinem 
accipere sen privilegiormn revoca- 
tionem aut infractionem impetrare 
valeant, prohihemus, ne extra inevit- 
ahileni processuum necessitatem ex- 
traneis coUectam ipsam sen privilegia 
in ea contenta communicare praesu- 
mat." 

Accordingly, the revocation, in 1403, 
of the extraordinary privilege of the 
Abbot of St. Osyth is another proof 
that he Avas not a bishop, but a simple 
priest. 

Some authors state that other orders 
had similar privileges to ordain dea- 
cons, like the abbot of St. Denis and 
the Franciscans in India; but such 
statements have not yet been verified 
by documentary evidence. May be at 
some future time similar grants will 
yet be discovered. 

In 1901 the Capuchin Fr. Pius Saba- 
del a Langonio formulated the thesis 
that the bishop is the ordinary minister 
of major orders and a simple priest by 
papal delegation the extraordinary 
minister (Etud. Franc, Vol. V. pp. 
147 sq.). Abbot Fofi favors this view. 
Prof. J. Pohle wrote in 1905 ("Lehr- 
buch d. Dogmatik," Vol. Ill, Preface, 
p. vi.) : "I bow^ to ascertained facts to 
such an extent that I would rather 
adjust theological theories to facts than 
vice versa." I believe this is a case 
where a readjustment of theological 
theories is called for. 



No sensible man ever imputes in- 
consistency to another for changing 
his mind when he has good reasons for 
doing so. 



244 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



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The Society of Mary 

A "Prospectus of the Society of 
Mary (Marianists) " gives interesting 
information about the history, char- 
acter, and work of that admirable so- 
ciety of priests and brothers which 
was founded in 1817 by Father W. J. 
Chaminade in France, and has at the 
present time five provinces in Europe 
and two provinces in this country, with 
more than 600 religious members en- 
gaged in educating some 15,000 boys 
and young men in parochial schools, 
high schools, colleges, and normal 
schools, including the University of 
Dayton at Daj^ton, 0., Chaminade Col- 
lege near St. Louis, St. Mary 's Acad- 
emy and St. Mary's College at San An- 
tonio, Texas. 

The handsomely illustrated "Pros- 
pectus" is designed to meet the in- 
quiries of those who feel called to join 
this splendid religious organization, 
whose members, by the way, contrary 
to a common notion, are not all engaged 
in teaching. Some of them devote their 
lives to the service of God in the So- 
ciety by prayer and the performance 
of such manual labor as is suited to 
their talent or capacity. Some are em- 
ployed as secretaries, treasurers, and 
stewards, w^hile others render service 
as porters, cooks, infirmarians, etc., or 



are engaged in various employments 
incidental to the maintenance of edu- 
cational establishments. "Priests and 
brothers enjoy the same privileges in 
the Society of Mary. They have the 
same representation in the administra- 
tion of the Society, and can hold the 
same positions, except such as are re- 
served to the priests by Canon Law. 
They live together, take their meals to- 
gether, and spend their recreations to- 
gether. This constant fraternal inter- 
course is mutually beneficial both for 
the success of their professional work as 
teachers, and for their individual well- 
being as religious" (p. 39). 

Those who are interested in this 
noble vocation are advised to apply to 
the Society of Mary at one of their 
"postulates," Mount St. John, Day- 
ton, O. ; Maryhurst Normal, Kirkwood, 
Mo. ; Marianist Preparatory, Beacon- 
on-Hudson, N. Y., or Marianist Junior- 
ate, St. Jean Baptiste, Man., Canada. 



TWILIGHT IN MID-OCEAN 
By Charles J. Quirk, S. J. 



The sea lay all before me, 
Clear-cut and breathless-still, 

As a cherub-star's white radiancy 
Peeped from Heaven 's window-sill. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



245 



A Popular Liturgical Library 

The awakening of the liturgical 
spirit in our country is owing mainly 
to inspiration from abroad. In var- 
ious parts of continental Europe a 
liturgical movement has flowered forth 
from the seed sown by the sainted pon- 
tiff, Pius X, and is scenting the atmos- 
phere of religion with the sweet and 
attractive odors of unadulterated 
Christian piety. We Americans are for- 
tunate in being able to profit by .the 
experience of others in the successful 
cultivation of this mystic flower. The 
Benedictines of St. John's Abbey at 
Collegeville, Minn., are taking advan- 
tage of this condition of affairs in start- 
ing their new "Popular Liturgical Li- 
brary" w'ith a translation from the 
French of "Liturgy in the Life of 
the Church" by Dom Lambert Beau- 
duin, O. S. B. The booklet, translated 
into good English by Father Virgil 
Michel, 0. S. B., contains expert in- 
formation about the nature and fruits 
)f the liturgical life, which have al- 
ready been surprisingly bounteous 
tvherever the seed fell on good soil. 
This No. 1 of Series I of the "Pop- 
ular Liturgical Library" is therefore 
well calculated to stimulate interest 
in the movement. The language of the 
treatise is not too technical for the 
average mind, although the author's 
compact and logical style demands ser- 
ious and attentive reading. 

The second number of the new Li- 
brary, No. 1 of Series III, is "Offer- 
amus : A Manual of the Ordinary of the 
Mass," by Cuthbert Goeb, 0. S. B. 
Since the Mass is the central function 
of the sacred liturgy, any manual or 
aid to a better understanding of its 
m.ysteries and to a more fruitful as- 
sistance at its celebration as the main- 
spring of sacramental life, must be 
heartily welcomed. Holy Mass, as a 
public act of worship, calls for active 
participation by the attending faithful. 
The difficulties which laymen find in 
using the Roman Missal, even in the 
vernacular, will be partly overcome 
when they have grown familiar with 
the Ordinary of the Mass, as set forth 
with ample explanations in "Offera- 



mus." Until the celebration of the 
august mysteries can again be conduct- 
ed in the manner of the early Church, 
when devout bystanders joined heart 
and voice with the officiating priest, the 
faithful must, individually and as a 
body, learn to follow the prayers and 
actions of the celebrant and to know 
their part in the mystic drama of the 
altar. ' ' Oft'eramus ' ' conveniently con- 
tains the prayers of the Mass in Latin 
and English, together with helpful 
directions and explanations. An ap- 
propriate form of thanksgiving after 
Holy Communion is added. This book- 
let is especially recommended to pas- 
tors as a manual for instructing chil- 
dren in collective participation in the 
Mass. B. A. S. 



In a review of Volume I of Dr. M. 
De AVulf's History of Medieval Phil- 
osophy, newly rendered into English 
by Dr. Messenger, Fr. W. H. Kent ex- 
presses satisfaction that the work is 
"entirely free from any trace of racial 
prejudice or narrow sectionalism" and 
that German authors are given due 
credit for the conspicuous work they 
have done in throAving light on the 
records of medieval Scholasticism. In- 
cidentally Fr. Kent draws attention 
to the fact that the world is indebted 
to a German scholar for the first crit- 
ical edition of the philosophical writ- 
ings of the famous English Bishop 
Robert Grosseteste. This edition forms 
part of the "Beitrage zur Geschichte 
der Philosophic des Mittelalters" and 
was prepared by L. Baur. Professor 
de Wulf gives an interesting account 
of Grosseteste 's philosophical teaching, 
based on Baur's researches, as set forth 
in the ninth and eighteenth volumes of 
the "Beitrage." It seems that Al- 
bertus Magnus and St. Thomas owed 
a good deal of the knowledge of Greek 
displayed in their writings to the notes 
which Grosseteste appended to his ver- 
sion of the Nichomacheaiv Ethics and 
of other Greek works. 



Nature has given us one tongue and 
two ears, that we may hear more than 
we speak. 



246 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



Not How Many --But 
How Well-- 

Has been the maxim of Kilgen craftsmen during 
three quarters of a century of organ building. 

In this memorable span more than 500 edifices of Catholic 
worship, from small Parish churches, to imposing Cathedrals — have 
installed Kilgen Pipe Organs. 

These noble instruments have kept faith with the Faith, so 
well that Prof. Renzi, Official Organist of the Vatican, recently 
said, "You are doing Mother Church a great service." 

liluilbcfa 

MA.M OFFICE & PLANT ^^ ^^B^^IS g^ LOUIS. MO. 

We invite you to visit our new plant at 4016 Union Blvd. 



A New Theory of Spiritism and the 
Book of Henoch 

To the Editor:— 

Fr. Herbert Thurston's quotations 
from the visions of Ann Catherine Em- 
merick (cfr. F. R., XXXIII, 9, pp. 
193 sq.) are found in the apocryphal 
Book of Henoch, which Clemens Bren- 
tano probably used as one of his 
"sources" in compiling his account of 
the alleged visions of the Westplialian 
nun. 

The Book of Henoch was extensively 
quoted by the Fathers and other early 
Christian writers. Lactantius, Rufinus, 
and many others cite long passages 
from it in their writings. The erron- 
eous interpretation of Genesis, that 
the sons of God w^ho married the 
daughters of men Avere angels, seems 
to have been based on Henoch. Tertul- 
lian (De Virginibus Celandis, vii) ex- 
plains the words of St. Paul that 
women should be veiled in church on 
account of the angels as referring to 
lewd angels who lost Heaven because 



of "concupiscentia feminarum." (Hen- 
och VI, xiv, 5). 

Authentic Scripture knows nothing 
of these alleged evil spirits. About 
those who die in original or in actual 
mortal sin, the Council of Florence says 
that they will "soon descend into hell" 
{"niox in infenuim descendere") . One 
is surprised to see such a keen critic 
as Fr. Thurston taken in by the "de- 
liramenta apoeryphorum. ' ' 

(A Catholic edition of the Book of 
Henoch and other apocrypha, with 
translation and notes, may be obtained 
from Letouzy & Ane, Paris). T. V. 



Only last week I secured in Egypt a 
curious royal scarab of the time of 
Rameses, long called the Pharoah of the 
oppression. It depicts Rameses, that 
master egotist, in the attitude of wor- 
shiping himself ! The old emblem is 
so true to our extremely "modern" 
life, that I could not forego acquiring 
it. — Wm. T. Ellis in International Sun- 
day School Lessons. 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



247 



Extremes in Popular Devotion 

To the Editor:— 

In criticizing extremes in popular 
devotion (cfr. F. R., XXXIII, 9, 199 
f.) is there not danger that we may 
fall into another extreme? Why should 
our people be criticized for honoring 
St. Therese of Lisieux more than other 
saints ? 

It is natural for us to honor St. 
Therese. She is a modern saint. We 
know about her parents and sisters ; we 
have photographs of her taken at var- 
ious ages ; she is nearer to us than the 
saints of other ages. 

What does an ordinary layman, if 
he be not French, know of St. Joan of 
Arc? What do most of us know of 
St. Peter Canisius? How can people 
be expected to honor saints whom they 
do not know? And Saint Therese is 
a great saint and deserves to be highly 
honored. It is the Providence of God 
that leads men to honor some saints 
more than others. Perhaps God wanted 
through her to draw the attention of 
our age to the contemplative life. 

There is change and "novelty" in 
the saints that are honored in the 
Church. Take St. Menas, for instance. 
He was once honored very highly and 
widely ; now hardly anyone knows even 
his name. And so it is with other 
saints. God places new examples of 
sanctity before us as the ages go on. 
One of the reasons why He works new 
miracles is to strike our attention by 
their newness. For the same reason 
He raises new saints to His altars, to 
attract us by their new example. And 
though imitation is the best way of 
honoring the saints, it is not the only 
way. The Church not only invokes the 
intercession of the saints on their regu- 
lar feast days, but by providing votive 
masses encourages us to honor them also 
on other days. If the people desire to 
honor St. Therese, let us be like St. 
Paul and say that we are glad if only 
God be honored in His saints, even if 
the saints that happen to be popular 
at the moment are not the ones we 
favor. 



Father Lord, S. J., undoubtedly 
blundered when he wrote the "jazz" 
passages of his booklet on the "Little 
Flower " ' ; but why go to the other ex- 
treme and criticize what is entirely 
legitimate? 

Pope Benedict XV, in a eulogy de- 
livered Aug. 14, 1921, said that the 
predictions made by St. Therese of 
Lisieux on her deathbed were made 
under the direct influence of a divine 
command. In this same eulog.y he de- 
clares that her promise to spend her 
heaven in doing good on earth has been 
kept by her. He also mentions the 
shower of roses with approval. And 
the decree of the S. Congr. of Rites 
concerning the heroic sanctity of St. 
Therese says that it is attributable to 
a special grace of God that devotion 
to her has spread over the entire Chris- 
tian world. (Rev.) T. V. 



"Central-Blatt & Social Justice" 

Central Blatf and Social Justice, the 
oldest Catholic periodical in the U. S. 
devoted exclusively, or at least primar- 
ily, to- the cause of Catholic social re- 
form, has entered upon its 19th year 
of uninterrupted publication. It is the 
official organ of the Catholic Central 
Verein and is edited and published by 
the staff of that organization's Central 
Bureau, located here in St. Louis. 

That this excellent and high-class 
monthly, under the editorship of Mr. 
F. P. Kenkel, has rounded out eighteen 
years of service without an essential 
change of policy, indicates a remark- 
able consistency and continuity of 
effort on the part of its editors and 
contributors, and a sincere devotion to 
the cause of Catholic social reform and 
action. 

As is unfortunately usual in all cases 
where the ideal outweigh the purely 
material aims, the response on the part 
of the public has not been commensur- 
ate with the efforts of the editors, and 
we feel that the Catholic public owes 
it to the devoted men who are issuing 
this magazine to double its subscription 
list. 



248 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEY IE W 



June 1 



Life and Letters of Bishop McQuaid 

The second volume of Dr. Frederick 
J. Zwierlein's "Life and Letters of 
Bishop McQuaid" (Rochester, N. Y. : 
The Art Print Shop) deals with that 
valiant prelate's early episcopate and 
the chief questions of church polity 
that engaged his attention, notably the 
fight for the parochial schools, the Irish 
Land League trouble, the Third Plen- 
ary Council of Baltimore, and the ques- 
tion of secret societies. As in the 
previous volume, Dr. Zwierlein goes 
to the sources for his information and 
gives us real biography instead of pane- 
gyric, which, as he justly observes in 
the foreword, has been the curse of 
church history. Let us hope that this 
excellent biography of one of the great- 
est American bishops will not only in- 
augurate a new era in church history 
writing, but will secure for Bishop B. 
J. McQuaid that eminent place in our 
history Avhich he deserves for his cham- 
pionship of the Catholic parochial 
school, which he defended on the fund- 
amental principle of the natural right 
of parents to control the education 
of their children, — a principle which 
has entered so largely into the recent 
decision of the U. S. Supreme Court 
in the Oregon case. 

The chapter on secret societies is also 
of great interest, and one cannot but 
wish that Bishop McQuaid 's rigorous 
attitude had been sustained. He fore- 
saw a great danger from the Knights 
of Columbus, and not all will agree 
with Dr. Zwierlein that the "excre- 
scences" to which he objected have all 
been "cut off." The somewhat ir- 
relevant fact mentioned by the author, 
that the K. of C. "became in a measure, 
the right arm of the American Cath- 
olic Church in the AVorld War to min- 
ister to soldier wants in many things" 
(p. 474), does not prove that Bishop 
McQuaid was wrong when he feared 
great danger to Catholics from the imi- 
tation of "all the forms and tomfool- 
ery of the Masons and Odd Fellows by 
these Catholic Knights, thus familiar- 
izing the rising generation with their 
dangerous customs and ways." Bishop 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



249 



McQuaid's apprehensions on this score 
were shared by a number of his fel- 
low-bishops, e. g., McCloskey of Louis- 
ville, Richter of Grand Rapids, Gal- 
lagher of Galveston, Janssen of Belle- 
ville, Ludden of Syracuse, from whom 
and several others the archives of the 
F. R. contain interesting letters on the 
subject. 

Catholics at Secular Universities 

Archbishop Curley, of Baltimore, 
contributes to the May number of 
Columbia an important paper, — "Do 
Catholics Oppose the Public School?" 
— in which he sets forth the Catholic 
idea of education and in conclusion 
says with plain reference to the Cath- 
olic Foundation Plan at certain State 
universities : 

"I am not suggesting that nothing 
should be done in a religious way for 
the thousands of our young men and 
women who are to-day frequenting our 
secular or State colleges and univer- 
sities. Every effort ought to be made to 
give to such Catholics a knowledge of 
their faith. But it is folly to assert 
that a glorified Sunday school erected 
near a State institution of learning 
is calculated to Christianize, for Cath- 
olics, the atmosphere of materialism 
that pervades such centers of secular- 
ism. At best our Catholic clubs are but 
semi-remedial in their work, attempt- 
ing to save Catholic students from the 
evil effects of the poisonous indifferent- 
ism, and, at times, of radical and posi- 
tive unbelief, that are to be met with 
in secular institutions of learning. The 
Catholic student body may be urged 
to attend Hol}^ Mass and approach the 
Sacraments. The young men and 
women may be invited to attend lec- 
tures on religion and ethics. All that 
is excellent as far as it goes. The fact 
remains, however, that the atmosphere, 
the dominant one, is anything but Cath- 
olic. The Catholic students listen to 
' specialists of note ' amongst the faculty 
who may be and, as a matter of fact, 
many times are, bitterly opposed to 
the teachings of the religion of Christ. 
In the schools of history Catholic stu- 
dents are forced to listen to vitriolic 



diatribes against their Church, the 
papacy, and Catholic religious life in 
general. In the school of sociology the 
professor may give out a teaching 
which is fundamentally opposed to 
Christian principles. There is scarce- 
ly a single subject, however remote it 
may seem from the subject of religion, 
which may not be made in one way or 
another, a vehicle of irreligion. The 
priests who are at work among the 
Catholic students in a State University 
are, or ought to be, trying to make the 
best of a bad job." 

The Sacramentary 

The "Sacramentary" of Abbot 
Schuster is an historical exposition of 
early Christian worship, and not a 
mere collection of mystical interpre- 
tations of the ceremonial of the Church. 
The second volume, which has just ap- 
peared in English (Benziger Bros.), 
covers the period from Septuage- 
sima to the end of the Paschal season. 
Both the third and fourth parts are 
followed by appendices, which give us 
some archaic types of prayers used at 
the Love Feast (Agape), and fragments 
of hj'mns, canticles, antiphons, and 
prayers. Part IV is introduced by the 
interesting liturgical study of "Bap- 
tism by the Spirit of Fire." This in- 
troduction to the Easter Cycle contains 
much that is new, especially the chap- 
ters on the "Eucharistia Lucernaris" 
and ' ' The Feast of Roses in the Roman 
Liturgy." In a simple, frank way, 
without a blatant display of learning, 
Abbot Schuster discusses the proper 
parts of the Mass of all the Sundays 
and greater feasts. 

On account of its scholarship and in- 
teresting exposition the "Sacramen- 
tary" should appeal not only to priests 
and seminarists, but also to the laity. 
It contains good history — herein lies its 
chief value, since it views the liturgy 
in its historical setting, — but also much 
matter that is apt to stimulate to a 
greater appreciation and more loving 
interest in the significance of the sacred 
liturgy. Cuthbert Goeb, 0. S. B. 



250 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



Notes and Gleanings 



Father Virgil Michel, 0. S. B., auth- 
or of the article "The Intellectual Con- 
fusion of To-day and the "Philosophia 
Perennis" in No. 10 of the F. R., writes 
to US: "Am I the first to call your 
attention to an unpardonable trick 
played on me by the associative mech- 
anism of mind, plus carelessness? Mill 
calls mind a series of states of con- 
sciousness aware of itself as a series. 
"Permanent possibility of sensations" 
is his definition of hody. His real 
definition of mind fits into my article 
better than the other. I noticed the 
lapse the moment the F. R. came into 
mv hand. Whv not before?" 



Fr. AVm. M. Markoe, S. J., has 
adapted to American conditions the 
"Discus Clandestinus" of Fr. Eugene 
A. Bork, S. J., by which it is possible 
to tell at a glance whether a clandestine 
marriage is valid or not. The "Dis- 
cus" has been printed on celluloid 
cards by the Vincentian Press of this 
city, with the imprimatur of Arch- 
bishoD Glennon. 



Selected for the 

Eucharistic Congress 

Chicago 

Vito Csurnevali 

Missa "Rosa Mystica" 

For Women's Voices 

(S. S. A.) 80 

Published also in an arrange- 
ment for Men's Voices 
(T. T. B.) 80 

In preparation 

For Mixed Voices 

(S. A. T. B.) 80 

Pietro A. Yon 

Missa Solemnis 

For Mixed Voices 

(S. A. T. B.) 80 

Published also in an arrange- 
ment for Men's Voices 
(T. T. B. B.) _ 80 

"Fischer Edition" publications are 

obtainable on approval 
Address 

J. Fischer & Bro. 

119 West 40th Street 

(Bet-ween Broadway and Sixth Avenue) 
New York 



The Vincentian Press has printed in 
the form of a chart (18x27 inches) a 
conspectus of the Patristic Age (Aetas 
Patrum), prepared for the use of stu- 
dents by the Rev. F. X. Mannhardt, 
S. J. It shows at a glance just when 
each Father of the Church and each 
Pope lived, and forms a helpful com- 
plement to every manual of patrology 
and church history. If this chart were 
carefully studied, we should not hear, 
e. rj., St. Polyearp, St. Gregory the 
Great, and St. Athanasius quoted as 
if they were contemporaries. 

Another useful chart, also published 
by the Vincentian Press, is "The 
Triumph of the Church," by the Rev. 
John P. Markoe, S. J. Based on re- 
liable statistics and drawn to scale, it 
represents in a graphic manner the 
origin and growth of the various 
churches that have claimed and, in some 
instances, still claim to be the true 
Church of Christ. The centuries of 
the Christian era are marked by ver- 



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1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



251 



NEW LOHMANN PUBLICATIONS 



EUCHARISTIA 

By the Rev. Joseph Kramp, S. J. 

Translated from the German by the Rev. 
Wm. Busch, Professor of Church History 

in the St. Paul Seminary. 

With the Imprimatur and a Foreword by 

the Most Rev. Augustine Dowling, D. D., 

Archbishop of St. Paul. 

225 pages 8vo. $1.50 net 

This book treats of the Holy 
Eucharist in its three aspects of 
Sacrifice, Sacrament, and Real 
Presence, with the special aim to 
present this threefold subject in 
right order and correct proportion 
and with practical application to 
the present liturgical revival. 

Archbishop Dowling writes: 
"There is refreshment and inspira- 
tion in these pages that will well 
repay perusal." 

Catholicism, Capitalism 

or Communism 

by 

Rev. J. C. Harrington, A.B., S.T.B. 

Professor of Moral Theology and Ethics 
in the St. Paul Seminary. 

445 pages large 8vo. $2.50 net 

To exhibit the principles and the 
definite Catholic view^point in social 
science and the body of conclusions 
w^hich logically and experimentally 
flow^ from them is the object of this 
book. It is a practical manual 
based on the lessons taught by 
economic history and the age-long 
experience of Catholicism; the ex- 
perience w^hich is embodied in the 
encyclical teachings of Pontiffs like 
Leo XIII. 

It would be hard to find any 
book better adapted to facilitate 
the instructional activities of the 
clergy on these matters. 



Order from the publishers 

The E. M. Lohmann Co. 

Saint Paul, Minn, 
or from any Catholic Bookstore 



tical lines. Horizontal lines represent 
the more important of the hundreds of 
religious denominations that have 
come into existence in the course of the 
last nineteen hundred years. These 
lines begin at the dates when the re- 
spective sects arose and continue 
throughout the years of their existence. 
The average approximate increase or 
decrease of a sect is shown by the 
width of its respective line. At the 
left of each line appears the name of 
the founder of the sect. The chart 
is helpful for study purposes and, in 
addition, has apologetic value. 



Commenting on the experiences of 
Mr. Thomas AV. Turner, president of 
the Federated Colored Catholics of 
America, on a tour through the Middle 
West, as described by him in No. 7 of 
the F. R., the Dubuque ^yitness (Vol. 
VI, No. 9) says: "Mr. Turner may be 
a trifle impatient. It takes time and 
thought to make racial adjustments. 
There is much justice, however, in his 
complaint. There would be no justi- 
fication for his strictures if [white] 
Catholics would think and act Cath- 
oliclv as regards their colored breth- 



ren. 

Several of our Catholic contempor- 
aries have expressed their agreement 
with the contention of the F. R. that 
the official prize hymn for the Inter- 
national Eueharistic Congress of Chi- 
cago is unworthy of the occasion. The 
Baltimore Catholic Review, among 
others, says : ' ' This poem selected 
among 3,000 entries, is stilted and in- 
volved and practically devoid of in- 
spiration. We are quite sure that it 
would not win a high place in any of 
the weekly or bi-weekly poetry compe- 
titions held in many of our Catholic 
colleges. Where were the Catholic 
poets of this country when the com- 
petition was held? Is it too late to 
substitute another poem for the one 
officially chosen?" One of our sub- 
scribers suggests that Father W. H. 
Walsh's beautiful verses on "The Gift 
of Love Divine," in No. 9 of the F. R., 
be substituted for the inane and un- 
worthy poem selected by the committee. 



252 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 




Current Literature 

—The contents of Father T. Slater's 
latest book, "Back to Morality" (Ben- 
ziger Bros.), are rather miscellaneous. 
To quote only a few chapter headings : 
Purity and Dignity in Morals; Life 
in Communist Russia ; Baptism not 
a Human Invention ; The Reasonable- 
ness of Prayer ; Justice ; Prices Moral- 
ized ; The Taxation of Betting ; Chris- 
tian Patriotism ; Frustrating Nature. 
But there is a unifying idea, namely, 
that the greatest danger which threat- 
ens our modern world is the lack of 
morality and that the only way to 
supply the defect is to learn and prac- 
tice the moral principles taught by 
Christ and His Church. 

— "Sinn und Wert der Eucharistie," 
by the Rev. Hermann Muckermann, 
S. J., is a lucid and sympathetic essay 
on the Holy Eucharist, written with 
the literary charm one is accustomed 
to expect from the author, and with 
the happy background of biological 
knowledge that ahvavs characterizes 



his thought. Christ's preparation of 
the Jewish people for the Eucharist, 
the development of his teaching, and 
the fulfillment at the Last Supper, are 
unfolded in telling simplicity. The 
last part is an appeal for the practical 
life-giving character of the Sacrament 
of Love. (B. Herder Book C*o.) 

— Two recent and most useful pub- 
lications of the Paulist Press are : " A 
Little More Joy,'' some hints for par- 
ents and teachers from Bishop Kep- 
pler's "Mehr Freude" by Fr. McSor- 
lev, and "The Fourteen Stations with 
a "sketch of Their Origin." Both of 
these pamphlets will be helpful to 
teachers, the second especiall}' for pri- 
vate devotion. 

— Volume II of Msgr. A. Meyen- 
berg's "Leben Jesu-Werk" traces the 
history of the treatment of the Life 
of Christ and the problems connected 
with it, from the time of Martin Luth- 
er through Reimarus to Strauss, show- 
ing how in every generation since the 
Protestant revolt the subject was re- 



1926 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



253 



written in consonance with the chang- 
ing ideas of rationalist leaders. The 
story is spun out with much detail and 
in a somewhat rhetorical style that in- 
volves many repetitions. If the work 
were pruned, it would become still 
more valuable than it is. There is 
to be a third volume, bringing the 
subject down to the present, and then 
the author is going to give us a " Leben 
Jesu" of his own, to which we look for- 
Avard with genuine interest. (Lucerne: 
Raeber & Cie.) 

— In a brochure of 96 pages Fr. 
Thomas Villanova, 0. M. Cap., has 
put together, for the use of confessors, 
the teaching of such leading theologians 
as St. Thomas, St. Alphonsus, Noldin, 
Egger, Pohle, Katschthaler, Pesch, etc., 
on the subject of the penitential ex- 
ercises which the confessor is bound to 
impose, and the penitent to accept, by 
way of satisfaction in sacramental con- 
fession. His "Tractatus de Satisfac- 
tione Sacramentali," published by F. 
Ranch, of Innsbruck, deals (1) with 
the notion of satisfaction in general, 
(2) wath satisfaction as a part of the 
Sacrament of Penance, (3) with the 
circumstances of time and place, (4) 
with the quality of satisfaction, (5) 
with its species, (6) with its accepta- 
tion and execution, and (7) with the 
commutation of the exercises enjoined 
by the confessor. The treatise is care- 
fully written and will be of real help, 
especially to young priests and semin- 
arists who are preparing for the cure 
of souls. (Fr. Pustet Co., Inc.) 

— ''The Little Secret," recommended 
as a "key to the spiritual life" by Fr. 
Cassian Karg, 0. M. Cap., is the choos- 
ing of some spiritual thought in ac- 
cordance with one's station in life and 
disposition, and keeping this thought 
constantly before oneself. The prac- 
tice is a sort of spiritual taking of 
breath and paves the way for that 
more intimate communion with God 
that is the foundation of true mysti- 
cism. Fr. Cassian 's little pamphlet was 
well worth translating and we trust 
the English version will be widely cir- 
culated, for its perusal is sure to result 



in rich spiritual benefit for the individ- 
ual soul and to promote the progress 
of a practical and at the same time 
ideal Christianity. (Published by the 
Capuchin Fathers of the Province of 
St. Joseph, 1740 Mt. Elliott Ave., De- 
troit, Mich.) 

— Fr. Fulgence Meyer, 0. F. M., pre- 
sents Avhat seems to us an ideal praj'er 
and meditation book for the de- 
votion of the "Forty Hours." 
The prayers are taken from S. 
Scripture, from the Imitation of 
Christ, from the liturgical books of the 
Church, and from other approved 
sources. The psalms and prayers run- 
ning parallel with the text are a wel- 
come help to those who care to use 
the book during the Holy Sacrifice of 
the Mass, at Communion, and for other 
Eucharistic devotions. The author is 
an experienced master of the spiritual 
life and this new compilation of his 
can be warmly recommended. (St. 
Francis Book Shop, 1615 Republic Str., 
Cincinnati, 0.) 

— We are indebted to the Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., for copies of Volumes II and 
III of "Institutiones Theologiae Dog- 
maticae" by Fr. Louis Lercher, S. J., 
professor of dogma in the L^ni versify 
of Innsbruck. These volumes form a 



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254 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



portion of a new text-book of dog- 
matic theology, which will no doubt ap- 
peal to many because of its soundness, 
its method, and its up-to-dateness. The 
latter may be judged from the fact 
that M. Scheler's intuition theory is 
discussed (II, 19-22) in connection with 
the dogma of the knowability of God. 
Vol. I contains the treatises De Deo 
Uno, De Deo Trino, and De Deo 
Creante et Elevante ; Vol. Ill that De 
Verbo Incarnato (including Mariology 
and the Cult of the Saints) and De 
Gratia Christi. Vol. IV is promised 
for the end of this year. Vol. I will 
be issued in 1927. We shall review the 
work more at length when it is com- 
pleted. 

— Benziger Brothers present the first 
volume of a fine new edition of the 
spiritual writings of Abbot Louis de 
Blois, better known as Ludovicus 
Blosius. It is the "Book of Spiritual 
Instruction," as translated b.y Fr. 
Bertrand A. Wilberforce, 0. P. Blosius 
was a saintly Benedictine, whose life 
was passed amidst the troublous times 
of the great revolt against the Church. 
His "Institutio Spiritualis, " of which 
this is a splendid translation, is short, 
but full of wisdom and unction. 

New Books Received 

St. Vincent de Paul. Model of Men of Ac- 
tion. By the Eev. J. B. Boudignon. Trans- 
lated from the Third French Edition by 
Eev. Patrick A. Finney, C. M. viii & 404 
pp. 8vo. St. Louis, Mo. : The Vincentian 
Press, 1605 Locust Str. $3.50 net. 

Whose Sins ¥ou Forgive. A Series of Talks 
on the Sacrament of Penance by Francis 
X. McCabe, C. M. vi & 109 pp. 434x6 in. 
The Vincentian Press. 75 cts. net; paper, 
35 cts. net. 

Conversations on Vocations. By F. J. Rem- 
ler, C. M. vi & 160 pp. 41/4x6% in. The 
Vincentian Press. 35cts.net. (Wrapper). 

HerrlichTceiten der Seele. Mystik des Aus- 
landes. Von Dr. Alfons Heilmann. vii 
& 390 pp. 16mo. Herder & Co. $2.25. 

Encharistla. Essays on Eucharistic Liturgy 
and Devotion by Joseph Kramp, S. J. 
Translated from the Second and Third 
German Editions ... by Wm. Busch, Prof, 
of Church History in the St. Paul Sem- 
inary. With a Foreword by the Arch- 
bishop of St. Paul. XV & 225 pp. 12mo. 
St. Paul, Minn.: The E. M. Lohmann Co. 
$1.50. 



JUST PUBLISHED 

THE GREAT SECRET OF 
THE SAINTS 

By 
FRANZ RUEMMER 

Translated from the German by 

ISABEL GARAHAN. B. A. 

Cloth. 8vo., XII & 120 Pages. 

Net $1.25 

Many books have been written on the 
subject of what the present author, the 
Kev. Franz Euemmer, calls the "Great 
Secret of the Saints, ' ' but a new and 
interesting form is given here to thoughts 
that have filled all mystical minds from 
' * The Age of the Great Miracles ' ' down 
to our present generation. The spirit 
of Christ lives and acts in His loving 
Disciples, and the more they love the 
Master crowned with thorns and humbled 
with a great desire of His own, on the 
cross of ignominy, the more they long 
to reproduce in themselves, as far as 
human frailty allows, the unattainable, 
despairingly perfect characteristics of 
their Divine Model. 

This little book, translated by Miss 
Isabel Garahan, brings us into closer 
association with our holy brothers and 
sisters. It shows how humility forms 
that delicate conscience which makes 
them aware and ashamed of their small- 
est faults; how true wisdom leads them 
to the way of the cross ; how godliness, 
the sweetness of divine intercourse, is 
a child of their cherished virtue and 
how finally they reach a state of divine 
contentment in trials and sufferings — 
food for serious thought in our age of 
unrest where proud and pleasure-seek- 
ing man is so easily led to be a wolf to 
his fellowman. 

The spirit of Christ is the spirit of the 
Saints and the words of St. Bonaventure 
to an aspirant to the perfect disciple- 
hood remain true for ever: "Thou 
shalt never be more humble than Jesus 
Christ : Humilior Christo non eris. ' ' 



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256 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



A SPRINKLE OF SPICE 



A student who was a candidate for the 
Protestant ministry, having decided to adopt 
the Catholic religion went to tell his tutor 
the sad news. After listening as patiently 
as he could to the young man's reasons for 
his proposed action, the tutor stood over him, 
frowned down upon him, and told him what 
he thought about it. "Of course," he said, 
' * you must follow your conscience ; but I 
feel it incumbent upon me to inform you that 
the step you contemplate taking will be highly 
distasteful to the — er — Deity, and — er — even 
more so to my wife and myself. ' ' 

On being asked why she never married, 
Marie Corelli said: "There is no need, for 
I have three pets at home which answer the 
same purpose as a husband — a dog that growls 
every morning, a parrot which swears all the 
afternoon, and a cat which comes home late 
at night. ' ' 



There was a Catholic country church where 
each year, in August, they had a picnic, and 
where all the politicians and incipient office- 
holders foregathered and were expected to 
make a speech. Upon one of these occasions 
some sons of Belial concealed a number of 
kegs of beer in an adjacent wood, and the 
mayor, who was a candidate for re-election, 
tarried longer at the beer than he did at 
the picnic. He arrived more than half seas 
over and was immediately seized, conducted 
to the platform, and called upon for a 
speech. He was barely able to hold himself 
up and utter these words : ' ' Fellow-citizens, 
Ave meet to-day upon a common level — 
Protestants and Presbyterians — " and then 
he dropped dead drunk upon the platform. 
It was a Catholic picnic, but the humor' of 
the incident amused everybody. 

While in Europe, George Ade was presented 
to a . German professor of literature, who 
asked: "Mr. Ade, have your works been trans- 
lated into German ? ' ' 

"No," replied Ade, "they haven't been 
translated into English yet. ' ' 

Father Tom Burke, the famous Irish Dom- 
inican, had a great fondness for riding on 
the top of an omnibus. Once, when doing 
so after a long service in Dublin, he produced 
his Breviary and was soon deeply absorbed 
in prayer. A non-Catholic sitting nearby 
took occasion to comment upon the act. ' ' The 
Lord tells us, ' ' he said, ' ' that when we pray 
we should not be as the hypocrites who love to 
pray in public so that they may be seen by 
men. When I pray I enter into my room, 
close the door, and pray in secret. ' ' With- 
out looking up, Father Burke replied aloud: 
"Yes, and then you get on top of an omni- 
bus and tell the world about it." 



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Praise from the 

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The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXXIII, No. 12 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 15th, 1926 



More Light on the Activities of the N. C. W. C. 



In presenting to its readers the testi- 
mony which one William F. Montavon, 
of the National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference, gave before Committee on 
Education and Labor of the U. S. 
Senate and the Committee on Educa- 
tion of the House of Representatives 
at their joint hearing on the Curtis- 
Reed Bill to create a Federal Depart- 
ment of Education, the Fortnightly 
Review, in its issue of May 15, 1926, 
justified its own misgivings and the 
fears of others that the National Catho- 
lic Welfare Conference would sometime 
seriously compromise the Catholic 
cause in this country. 

Mr. Montavon, who in the course of 
his testimony described himself as "the 
actual chairman" of the Department 
of Laws and Legislation of the Con- 
ference (a position which is in reality 
held by the Rt. Rev. Edmund F. Gib- 
bous, Bishop of Albany), made state- 
ments which were so stupid that they 
would have been ridiculous if they had 
not been harmful to the Church. But 
Mr. Montavon did not monopolize the 
opportunity, as a spokesman of the N. 
C. W. C, to misrepresent Catholic 
opinion and travesty Catholic intelli- 
gence. Mr. Charles F. Dolle, Execu- 
tive Secretary of the National Council 
of Catholic Men, shared with Mr. Mon- 
tavon the distinction of doing in a 
single hour more damage to American 
Catholic interests than they have suf- 
fered at the hands of the Church's 
enemies in years. 

"Senator Phipps. Give us your 
membership, the number of members. 

"Mr. Dolle. Our membership is 
practically all the Catholic men and 
women of the United States. The Wel- 
fare Conference is the successor of the 
National Catholic War Conference, 
which was one of the agencies that was 



so helpful to the Government during 
the war. The conference was contin- 
ued afterwards for constructive help 
in peace time for the Government. 

' ' Our representative is here in Wash- 
ington at 1314 Massachusetts Avenue 
and consists of the department of laws 
and legislation, the bureau of educa- 
tion, the department of social acts, and 
the department of immigration, and a 
fifth department of lay activities, which 
is divided again into the National Coun- 
cil of Catholic Men and the National 
Council of Catholic Women. 

"There are units of this organiza- 
tion throughout the country in all the 
parishes, and included in its member- 
ship are all of the Catholic lay so- 
cieties. * * * * 

' ' Senator Phipps. I think it will be 
impossible to print the communica- 
tions in full, but the committee will 
probably decide to print the names and 
addresses of the people who have cor- 
responded on the subject. 

"Mr. Dolle. I appreciate that. The 
National Council of Catholic Men is 
the department of lay activities of the 
National Catholic Welfare Conference. 
All National, State, and local Catholic 
lay societies are represented in the 
national organization, and it repre- 
sents, besides, all Catholic laymen of 
the United States who do not belong 
to any of these separate groups. The 
separate Catholic societies embraced in 
the N. C. C. M. are engaged in all kinds 
of charitable, benevolent, and educa- 
tion work. 

"Catholic citizens of this country 
have been familiar with the legislation 
proposed in previous Congresses by 
which it has been sought to create a 
separate department of education and 
have opposed 'all these measures. 

"The bill at present under consider- 



260 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



ation has been examined and explained 
to the members of the N. C. C. M. and 
they desire me to present to you their 
objections to it. 

"Catholic citizens do not oppose 
Federal research in the field of edu- 
cation and Federal supervision of edu- 
cation dy the United States Bureau of 
Education. The present Federal 
Bureau of Education has rendered 
valuable service to education in this 
country and has operated with con- 
spicuous success. If it requires addi- 
tional powers and appropriations, these 
shoidd he granted to it." (Pages 275- 
277 of "Joint Hearings on the Curtis 
Keed Bill to Create a Department of 
Education"). 

Mr. Dolle's assertions have the merit 
of novelty, but they lack the virtue of 
accuracy. He revealed, as did Mr. 
Montavon, more fertility of invention 
than acquaintance with the facts of 
his own organization. He names a 
"Department of Immigration," though 
there is none in the Conference. He 
speaks of a "Department of Social 
Acts", presumably meaning the De- 
partment of Social Action. As he pro- 
ceeds with his testimony, Mr. Dolle be- 
comes more and more unhampered by 
facts. 

"All national, state, and local Cath- 
olic lay societies are represented in the 
National Organization, and it repre- 
sents, besides, all Catholic laymen of the 
United States who do not belong to any 
of these separate groups," says Mr. 
Dolle. 

His statement will be the first in- 
timation to millions of laymen — if 
they ever read it — that they have given 
their adhesion or entrusted their re- 
ligious rights and interests to Mr. 
Dolle's Council of Catholic Men. In 
the first place, there are several nation- 
al Catholic societies which do not now 
and have not heretofore had any sort 
of affiliation with the National Council 
of. Catholic Men. 

' * There are units of this organization 
throughout the country in all the par- 
ishes and included in its membership 
are all the Catholic lay societies," Mr. 



Dolle assured the Committee — and the 
general public. Mr. Dolle ought to 
know that, however impressive that 
statement may have been to the Com- 
mittee, it was not consonant with the 
facts. There is not now, and there 
never has been, a solitary "unit" or 
any other sort of branch, sprout or ofi'- 
.shoot of the National Council of Cath- 
olic Men in the Archdiocese of St. 
Louis, the Archdiocese of New York, 
the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, the 
Archdiocese of New Orleans, the Arch- 
diocese of Boston, the Archdiocese of 
Chicago, the Archdiocese of Dubuque 
or the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. Mr. 
Dolle ought to know also that of the 
nearly 15,000 parishes in this country 
not even 500 have parochial branches 
of the National Council of Catholic 
Men. 

All this may be excused as a kind 
of "delusion of grandeur," but no 
such charitable interpretation can be 
put upon Mr. Dolle's attempt to com- 
mit Catholics to the scheme for enlarg- 
ing the Federal Bureau of Education 
and making it the beginning of the 
Federal Department which the Curtis- 
Reed Bill proposed. 

Mr. Dolle's organization is conduct- 
ing a propaganda for a "Bigger and 
Better Bureau," — as its advocates de- 
scribe it. In the "Information Bulle- 
tin" circulated by the National Coun- 
cil of Catholic Men last April the Cath- 
olic laymen of the United States were 
urged to "report favorable action" on 
the Phipps Bill, which contemplates the 
enlargement of the present Bureau. 
Mr. Dolle's organization declared that 
"when legislation is proposed which 
has the approval of the Catholic body 
of the United States, it is quite as much 
our duty to support it, as it is our duty 
to oppose measures which we are un- 
able to approve." If Mr. Dolle means 
by the phrase, "the Catholic body of 
the United States," the organization 
which he represents, he equals Mr. 
Montavon as an unconscious humorist. 
But if he essays to speak for the hier- 
archy, the clergy, and the laity as a 
whole, and undertakes to pledge thera 



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261 



to the Phipps Bill, his presumptuous- 
ness transcends anything recorded in 
a good many years. 

Miss Agnes Regan, Executive Secre- 
tary of the National Council of Cath- 
olic Women, was another of the ' ' pinch- 
hitters" for bureaucracy. She ap- 
peared at the hearing to urge that the 
present bureau "be strengthened — its 
powers as -well as its appropriation in- 



creased, — that it may in the fullest 
possible sense carry on the wonderful 
work that it can do, and still leave to 
the States the privilege as well as the 
responsibility of developing the schools 
of the nation." {Ihid. page 391). 

Miss Regan has had a previous ex- 
perience in promoting bureaucracy. 
She was one of the "boosters" for the 
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Bill ! 



The Boy Scout Movement 

By Observer 



The policy of many scout officials at 
the present time is to answer all ob- 
jections to certain features of the pres- 
ent plan of organization which militate 
against Catholic participation by ar- 
guments drawn from authority. 

The one used most frequently is that 
"the hierarchy have approved scout- 
ing." The truth is that a majority of 
the bishops are to-day opposed to the 
movement and always have been on ac- 
count of the dangers connected with 
it. It is well to note that the bishops 
of Germany have condemned the move- 
ment as organized there. 

The letter dated Oct. 7, 1919, con- 
taining the approbation of Pope Bene- 
dict XV cannot be appealed to, since 
the conditions set down are not verified 
in Catholic scouting, as now conducted. 
Catholic scouting is not conducted in 
this country under the auspices of the 
ecclesiastical authorities, and there is 
great probability that since the promo- 
tion of Catholic scouting here, there 
are far more Catholic scouts under 
non-Catholic than under Catholic 
auspices. 

Nor can the words of encouragement 
addressed to Catholic scouts at Rome 
last year by Pius XI be interpreted to 
mean that the present organization 
plan in this country is approved. Most 
of the scouts who made the pilgrimage 
came from Catholic countries, where 
our problems do not exist. 

Scouting is not the solution of the 
boy problem, and it is misleading to 
present it as such. Scouting can take 



care of the leisure time recreational 
and educational interests of some of 
the younger boys of the community. 
But it does not appeal to every boy, 
and even if it did, it Avould require 
more scout masters than we have teach- 
ers in the whole United States to give 
it the necessary leadership. 

Furthermore scouting as noAv organ- 
ized, holds the hoy only about eight 
months on an average and it does not 
reach the boys most in need of help. It 
is easily seen that while scouting has a 
place in the Catholic boy programme, 
there is no reason for giving it a prom- 
inent position. It is only one small 
unit, and under the present system, 
it is a unit which does not fit in satis- 
factorily with the rest of the plan. 

Modern propaganda methods have 
kept scouting before the public eye and 
have given many Catholics exaggerated 
ideas about its importance. It would 
be interesting to find out just how our 
Catholic boy work programme ever 
became so intimately tied up with the 
scout movement. Training in Catholic 
boy leadership has come to be consid- 
ered identical with scout leadership 
training, our workers are being trained 
by non-Catholic scout officials and are 
imbibing non-Catholic principles, 
while our leaders in the field have ac- 
cepted places on scout boards and have 
pledged themselves to spread scouting 
in the Catholic Church. The Catholic 
press continuously broadcasts scout 
propaganda. The result is not to be 
wondered at. Scouting is influencing 



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June 15 



Catholic bo}^ workers toward Liberal- 
ism, and at the same time is attempt- 
ing to get a monopoly on Catholic boy 
work. 

The summer camp situation illus- 
trates how many of our Catholic boy 
workers stand in these matters. In 
the face of the law of the Church con- 
cerning the attendance of Catholic chil- 
dren at non-sectarian institutions of 
learning, which applies to summer 
schools and summer camps, Catholic 
scout officials insist that exclusively 
Catholic scout camps are not desirable, 
because they cannot inculcate religious 
tolerance, as the non-sectarian camp 
does. 

Catholic leaders who look the situa- 
tion squarely in the face, see that some 
changes are necessary if the work 
already done is to be salvaged. 
Diocesan control of Catholic scout- 
ing will put scouting in its proper 
place in relation to other boy work, 
and will insure independence in all 
matters pertaining to character build- 
ing and religion. Affiliation with the 
national council would then be along 
the same lines as the affiliation of Cath- 
olic institutions with educational so- 
cieties, and this arrangement w^ould 
remove most of the objectionable phases 
of the present system. 



The Problem cf Religious Education 

To the Editor.— 

Since the editor of the F. R. (Vol. 
XXIII, No. 10) speaks of the benefit 
of exchanging opinions, I am sending 
a few remarks suggested by the article 
on ' ' Religion in the Schools ' ' which ap- 
peared in that issue : 

1. It is a common attitude in edu- 
cation, Avhen any class does not pro- 
duce all the results desired, to want 
to multiply hours in that class. The 
lack of proper results in a class, how- 
ever, may also be attributable to an 
insufficient consciousness of the aims 
to be achieved or to inefficient meth- 
ods; and then more time is a dubious 
remedy. 

2. Mere religious information does 
not make the religious man, however 



important it may be. A minimum of 
religious knowledge knit up with prac- 
tice ma.v be far more effective spirit- 
uall}^ than a maximum of instruction 
separated from practice. Thus form- 
erly pages of exceptions in Latin 
grammar were memorized, but were 
effectively learned only in so far as 
the exceptions entered into the prac- 
tical work of the class. 

3. May we not have failed some- 
what in religious education by treat- 
ing religion merely as one of a num- 
ber of classes, thus limiting our duty to 
the four walls of the class-room? Is 
not our religious education, confined 
to so many hours per w^eek, often as 
far removed from the practical aspects 
of life as are, say, geometry or the 
Latin declensions? And is not the 
practical religious life of our charges 
often inculcated (or imposed) from 
without, with very little or no refer- 
ence to the truths implanted within? 

4. Religious education is as wide 
as education itself. The Catholic 
truths must enter consciously into every 
disciplinary enactment, and into other 
classes, like literature and history, to 
take very obvious examples ; they must 
become a conscious atmosphere that in- 
spires the actions of the life lived at 
school and at home. Religion is a 
moral virtue ; a virtue is a habit ; and 
habits thrive only on repeated acts. 
The problem of religious education is 
not necessarily how to give more in- 
formation, — it may be also that, — but 
how to make the information acquired 
the basis of practical action. If this 
is not kept in mind, the multiplying of 
hours of instruction will be of little 
avail. It will no more readily pro- 
duce better living than the mere knowl- 
edge that religion is a moral habit 
produces better teaching. 

Virgil Michel, 0. S. B. 



The theological faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Strasbourg announces a 
prize of 1,000 francs for the best treat- 
ise on the subject, "Bellarmine, De- 
fender of the Papacy.'' Manuscripts 
must reach the proctor of the univer- 
sity before April 1, 1927. 



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263 



Old-Line Versus Fraternal Life Insurance 



In two previous articles (F. R., Vol. 
XXXII, cfr. Nos. 13 and 23) we have 
shown the obstacles that stand in the 
way of the development of our Cath- 
olic fraternal societies. To-day we wish 
to point out the difference between old- 
line and fraternal insurance, and in 
addition summarize tlie salient i^oints 
of our former articles. 

There are two kinds of old-line in- 
surance institutions, — the stock com- 
pany and the mutual. Most of the 
older old-line companies started out 
as stock companies. Only a compara- 
tively few began as mutuals. During 
the last twenty years, however, the 
laws became more stringent, especially 
insofar as they demanded a strict ac- 
counting of the monies collected from 
policy holders, and it was proved con- 
clusively that it is the policy holder 
who "pays the bill." 

Now what does this bill amount to? 
First, there is the cost of securing new 
business. This amounts to from 75 to 
100% of the first year's premiums. 
There is not an old-line company that 
secures new business for less than 75 % 
of the first year's premiums. In other 
words, the new policy holder pays all 
of the expense of maintenance and up- 
keep, and the salaries of the solicitors. 
This 75 to 100% is divided, first, be- 
tween the general agent, the district 
agency, and the actual solicitor of the 
insurance, who usually receives from 
45 to 55 % of the first year 's premium 
as compensation for his work, and, in 
addition, renewal percentages of from 
three to five per cent per annum for 
from five to nine years after the policy 
is written and kept in force. 

The insurance itself is based upon 
a standard mortality table, in this 
country mostly upon the American ex- 
perience table of mortality, which has 
proved to be amply sufficient to take 
care of the selected medical risks, with 
usualh^ a big margin over and above 
the actual death losses. 

Now the mortality experience table 
can be made to assume a certain rate 
of interest earnings. Some companies 



base their rates on a 3% interest as- 
sumption, others on a 31/0%, and a 
few on 4 % . In other words, a dollar 
collected under the American exper- 
ience table on a 3 % basis, earning 
5^ % , shows a clear profit of 21/2 % . 
The investments made by old-line com- 
panies are varied, -running from indus- 
trial stocks and bonds to high-grade 
municipal bonds, and of late years 
the old-line companies are switching 
to real estate and farm loans, the kind 
of securities most up-to-date fraternal 
life insurance monies have long been 
invested in. Old-line stock companies 
through their investments, through the 
fact that they based their insurance 
on a very low interest assumption, and 
through the careful selection of risks, 
mounted up so high that life insurance 
company stocks were considered the 
best revenue and profit producers in 
the country. As an illustration we will 
mention one company the original 
stockholders of which bought their 
shares at $100 each. These shares fif- 
teen years ago had risen in value to 
$59,000 a piece. Then the law stepped in 
and limited the profit that stock com- 
panies could make on their investment. 
This profit, assuming it to be 10%, 
meant that stockholders could receive 
no more than $10 per share. This at 
once made the investment a poor one, 
since the stock had been traded and 
sold over and over, and many pur- 
chasers had paid big prices for it, 
based upon the earning power of the 
stock. To circumvent this loss in rev- 
enue, most of these stock companies 
sold out to their policy holders, thus 
making them mutuals. The stock was 
not, however, sold at its original par 
value, but at the earning value it then 
had. Thus it can be seen that the mil- 
lions and billions that have been piled 
up were accumulated out of the profits 
secured from the policy holders, show- 
ing clearly how expensive old-line in- 
surance really is. In matter of fact much 
more money had been collected from 
the policy holders than was necessary 
to conduct the business safely, and all 



264 



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June 15 



this while the legal safeguards placed 
around the old-line policy holder made 
him immune to loss, since an adequate 
legal reserve had always to be main- 
tained. 

Since the law has become more 
stringent, the companies are forced to 
return the surplus over and above a 
certain margin. This surplus, which 
reall.v means a return to the policy 
holder of the amount overpaid by him, 
has for convenience and advertising 
purposes been called "dividend." 
Therefore, the higher the "dividend," 
the greater has been the overcharge. 
Naturally, a company on a 3% basis, 
earning 5i/^% on its monies, can and 
does pay greater dividends than a com- 
pany on a 4 % basis, earning S^/o % . 

The entire question is of an extreme- 
ly technical nature, and we are merely 
trying to point out the essential ele- 
ments. 

It has been frequently asserted that 
old-line companies never fail, whereas 
fraternals often do. The truth is that 
over forty old-line companies have gone 
out of existence in the last twenty 
years. It is true that many fraternals 
have also gone under, but the only 
reason they failed was that they had 
insured their members below cost ; in 
other words, they had promised more 
than they were able to give. 

The margin of profit in old-line com- 
panies, as stated above, is regulated 
to a certain extent by law. This, how- 
ever, does not prevent them from es- 
tablishing, in addition to the legal re- 
serve, all sorts of buffer funds under 
all sorts of captions. In addition to 
this the salaries paid to the officers are 
alwaj's princely, and why should they 
not be, if we look at this proposition 
from a cold dollars and cents stand- 
point? An insurance company is a 
business undertaking conducted for 
profit. If there were no profit for some- 
one, the company would go out of 
existence, for no one has ever even in- 
timated that an old-line insurance com- 
pany is a charitable or an eleemosynary 
institution. We do not want to in- 
sinuate that the companies are not 
safe, but why should they not be 



safe with the immense margin they 
have and the immense surplus over 
and above actual needs which they 
collect from their policyholders? JS'cav 
policies are constanth^ created. The 
more attractive they appear, the better 
they sell. The time is coming when 
ever}^ school in the country will have 
to include in its curriculum the teach- 
ing of the science of life insurance, 
at least of its fundamentals. If the 
general public understood this, they 
would soon be convinced that life in- 
surance is one thing and an investment 
is another. You cannot mix the two, 
any more than you can mix oil and 
water. Life insurance may be con- 
strued as an investment for the fam- 
ily, but it can never, by any style of 
reasoning, be an investment for the 
policy holder himself. Remember, we 
are now" talking from a purely old-line 
dollars and cents standpoint. 

There is no sentiment in old-line in- 
surance. Compare this with the fra- 
ternal system. Most of our Catholic 
fraternal societies have placed them- 
selves on an absolutely safe, solid, and 
scientific basis. No individual receives 
any profit from a fraternal life insur- 
ance certificate. It is true the officers 
and solicitors, who devote their entire 
time and energy to this work, must be 
compensated in order to be able to 
live. But outside of this compensa- 
tion and the other expenses necessary 
in the conduct of the business end of a 
fraternal society, ever_y penny collected 
goes to the benefit of the certificate 
holders, and should any surplus accrue 
above a safe margin, it is returned to 
the members or certificate holders dur- 
ing their life time. 

(To be concluded) 



It is no part of Catholic belief that 
the plenitude of the priesthood makes 
its recipients incapable of wrong judg- 
ments, of jealousies and ambitions . . . 
there were disputes sometimes among 
the Apostles themselves. So why should 
we expect perpetual unanimity in those 
who carry on the Apostolic Succession? 
—The TaUet. 



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265 



Geography in Our Catholic High Schools and Colleges 

By an Old College Professor 



Professor Herbert T. Lukens of the 
Francis Parker School of Chicago, in 
an address before the Illinois Academy 
of Science not long ago commented up- 
on the shocking ignorance of geography 
displayed by American youth and, 
among other things, recommended uni- 
form maps for all schools, in order 
that, besides the U. S., the different 
countries of the world might appear 
on them according to their importance 
instead of being treated as absolutely 
secondary. I could not obtain a copy of 
his paper, but have only a concise epi- 
tome of it at my disposal. It seems that 
Prof. Lukens laid special stress upon 
the fact that in the "geographies" 
used in our schools this country is 
represented as the centre of the world, 
thus creating the false